One: Lessons from cities in a crowded continent

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This chapter introduces the core idea that Europe is an old and crowded continent of dense, productive cities. They have survived the loss of major industries and adapted. Without these cities, Europe cannot survive. This handbook shows how former industrial cities are uncovering new breakthroughs to a different kind of future. Chapter One sets our framework for understanding Europe’s industrial cities in three phases: growth and decline; recovery and new crises; and an alternative “greener” future.

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