Five: Threats and opportunities

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This chapter shows how the financial crisis of 2008 called an abrupt halt to the large-scale public re-investment that was moving “Phoenix Cities” forward. However, earlier rescue attempts had laid the foundations for a different, “resource-limited”, energy-constrained, “green” model of recovery, based on recycling existing infrastructure, buildings and skills. Troubled and struggling “weak market” cities are practiced at pulling through and now, while public and private resources shrink, cities learn to “do more with less”, coping on smaller budgets and operating at smaller scales. Chapter Five sets out Phase Three of industrial cities – resource constrained economy.

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