Six: Over-scale and under-scale

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Cities learnt the hard way that over-large industry and over-reliance on the public sector no longer worked, but earlier industrial skills and the over-arching role of government can be marshalled to create a new economy. The proliferation of SMEs becomes the multi-layered back-bone of a new economy when big businesses vanish. Cities slowly recognise the value of SMEs, often spawned by bigger institutions and enterprises (e.g. universities) and often inventing new goods and services. Manufacturing jobs continue to shrink, while new service and Maker enterprises emerge. Advanced manufacture draws on the producer skills of the cities combined with their engineering prowess.

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