Nine: Finding new ways out of the woods

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This chapter debates the prospects for European cities. Struggling cities, with a heavy legacy of problems, are doing better than forecast and surviving draconian cuts in external public support. Resource-use is shifting in favour of recycling, reinventing, renewing, remaking the economy in a new and almost unforeseen mould. New breakthroughs in advanced manufacture, which these cities are highly suited to develop, spawn thousands of subsidiary services and products even though they offer few jobs directly within their high-precision industries. A new economy, growing from smaller scale, more flexible, more innovative and bespoke production methods, using 3D printing, advanced engineering and computer technologies, is growing in European and American cities. A lighter, leaner, more creative, more “broken up”, more experimental economy is beginning to grow in Phoenix Cities. Chapter nine illustrates how the three phases of our framework fit together and point to a greener future.

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