This chapter defines Islamophobia both historically and in a contemporary context. It argues that contemporary Islamophobia is a reflection of a historical anti-Muslim phenomenon which was constructed in colonial times but which has increased significantly in recent times, creating a deeper resentment, hostility and fear of Islam and of Muslims than existed before. The chapter offers an outline of empirical research with respect to online and offline Islamophobia. Additionally, this chapter situates the topic within wider debates surrounding hate crime more generally.
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