Lived experiences of online and offline victimisation
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4: Nature and Extent of Online and Offline Islamophobia

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This chapter reveals the nature of Islamophobia targeted towards ‘visible’ Muslims both online and offline. The chapter highlights that this victimisation is likely to be experienced as a continuing process, rather than as a single incident occurring online or offline, and reflects upon the tendency of victims not to report such incidents to the police. Participants highlighted that the visibility of their Muslim identity was key to being identified as Muslims, and thus triggering online and/or offline Islamophobic attacks. Both male and female victims remained ‘invisible’ in the criminal justice system, especially in relation to experiences of online hate.

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