FOUR: Ailment in caring encounters and divisions of care labour

Restricted access
Rights and permissions Cite this chapter

This chapter demonstrates how ailment mobilises concrete, embodied and emotional responses in immediate social encounters and care work, along with discussing the gendered, racialised and classed divisions of care labour that extend to a global scale. The relatedness and variance inherent in ailment – and care as a key response to it – mean that there is a large degree of unpredictability in the chain reactions that ailment creates. Moreover, as responses to ailment may include neglect, violence and humiliation, a variety of ethical and political identities and structures can ensue. Societal structures and the organisation of care work specifically affect and ail those who have less power, influence and money: typically, working-class women, racialised minorities and international migrants. The varying responses to ailment in the world may be imagined as an emergent and constantly changing network of relatedness and affects that organise societies. Within these local and global networks, those caring for others are also affected by their care relationships and may suffer various kinds of distress, which are discussed in terms of caregiver ailment. Political and institutional actors who ignore the relationality of care and often disregard the needs of the caregiver play a major role in engendering and perpetuating caregiver ailment.

  • Abel-Smith, B. (1992) ‘The Beveridge Report: Its origins and outcomes’, International Social Security Review, vol 45, no 1–2, pp 516, doi:10.1111/j.1468-246X.1992.tb00900.x.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Act on Social and Health Care Fees (734/1992) www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/1992/19920734 [accessed 28 October 2020].

  • Adhikari, R. and Melia, K. M. (2015) ‘The (mis)management of migrant nurses in the UK: A sociological study’, Journal of Nursing Management, vol 23, no 3, pp 35967, doi:10.1111/jonm.12141.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ahmed, S. (2004a) ‘Affective economies’, Social Text, vol 22, no 2, pp 11739, doi:10.1215/01642472-22-2_79-117.

  • Ahmed, S. (2004b) The Cultural Politics of Emotion, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

  • Allan, S., Gousia, K. and Forder, J. (2021) ‘Exploring differences between private and public prices in the English care homes market’, Health Economics, Policy and Law, vol 16, no 2, pp 13853, doi:10.1017/S1744133120000018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anderson, B. (2015) ‘Migrant domestic workers: Good workers, poor slaves, new connections’, Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State & Society, vol 22, no 4, pp 63652, doi:10.1093/sp/jxv040.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andersson, K. and Kvist, E. (2015) ‘The neoliberal turn and the marketization of care: The transformation of eldercare in Sweden’, European Journal of Women’s Studies, vol 22, no 3, pp 27487, doi:10.1177/1350506814544912.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Annola, J. (2019) ‘Maternalism and workhouse matrons in nineteenth-century Finland’, Women’s History Review, vol 28, no 6, pp 95066, doi:10.1080/09612025.2018.1516243.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anttonen, A. and Sipilä, J. (2000) Suomalaista sosiaalipolitiikkaa [Finnish Social Policy], Tampere: Vastapaino.

  • Anttonen, A. and Häikiö, L. (2011) ‘Care “going market”: Finnish elderly-care policies in transition’, Nordic Journal of Social Research, vol 2, no 2, pp 7090, doi:10.7577/njsr.2050.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anttonen, A. and Zechner, M. (2011) ‘Theorizing care and care work’ in B. Pfau-Effinger and T. Rostgaard (eds) Care Between Work and Welfare in European Societies, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp 1534.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anttonen, A. and Meagher, G. (2013) ‘Mapping marketisation: Concepts and goals’ in G. Meagher and M. Szebehely (eds) Marketisation in Nordic Eldercare: A Research Report on Legislation, Oversight, Extent and Consequences, Stockholm: Stockholm University Press, pp 1322.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anttonen, A. and Karsio, O. (2017) ‘How marketisation is changing the Nordic model of care for older people’ in F. Martinelli, A. Anttonen and M. Mätzke (eds) Social Services Disrupted: Changes, Challenges and Policy Implications for Europe in Times of Austerity, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp 21938.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anttonen, A., Häikiö, L. and Stefábsson, K. (eds) (2012) Welfare State, Universalism and Diversity, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

  • Bailey, D. (2015) ‘The environmental paradox of the welfare state: The dynamics of sustainability’, New Political Economy, vol 20, no 6, pp 793811, doi:10.1080/13563467.2015.1079169.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baldassar, L., Baldock, C. and Wilding, R. (2007) Families Caring Across Borders: Migration, Ageing and Transnational Caregiving, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bambra, C. (2005) ‘Cash versus services: “Worlds of welfare” and the decommodification of cash benefits and health care services’, Journal of Social Policy, vol 34, no 2, pp 195213, doi:10.1017/S0047279404008542.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Banerjee, A., Daly, T., Armstrong, P., Szebehely, M., Armstrong, H. and Lafrance, S. (2012) ‘Structural violence in long-term, residential care for older people: Comparing Canada and Scandinavia’, Social Science & Medicine, vol 74, no 3, pp 3908, doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.10.037.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barad, K. (2007) Meeting the Universe Halfway: Quantum Physics and the Entanglement of Matter and Meaning, Durham: Duke University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bauer, J. M. and Sousa-Poza, A. (2015) ‘Impacts of informal caregiving on caregiver: Employment, health, and family’, Journal of Population Ageing, vol 8, no 3, pp 11345, doi:10.1007/s12062-015-9116-0.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beach, S. R., Schulz, R., Williamson, G. M., Miller, L. S., Weiner, M. F. and Lance, C. E. (2005) ‘Risk factors for potentially harmful informal caregiver behavior’, Journal of American Geriatric Society, vol 53, no 2, pp 25561, doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2005.53111.x.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beck, H. (ed) (1997) The Origins of the Authoritarian Welfare state in Prussia. Conservatives, Bureaucracy and the Social Question 181570, Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Béland, D. and Mahon, R. (2016) Advanced Introduction to Social Policy, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

  • de la Bellacasa, M. P. (2012) ‘“Nothing comes without its world”: Thinking with care’, The Sociological Review, vol 60, no 2, pp 197216, doi:10.1111/j.1467-954X.2012.02070.x.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bettio, F. and Verashchagina, A. (2010) Long-term Care for the Elderly: Provisions and Providers in 33 European Countries, Luxembourg: Publications office of the European Union.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bernhard, S. (2010) ‘From conflict to consensus: European neoliberalism and the debate on the future of EU social policy’, Work Organisation, Labour and Globalisation, vol 4, no 1, pp 17592, doi:10.13169/workorgalaboglob.4.1.0175.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beveridge, W. (1942) Social Insurance and Allied Services, American edition, New York: The Macmillan Company.

  • Blackman, L. (2012) Immaterial Bodies: Affect, Embodiment, Mediation, London: Sage.

  • Blackman, L. (2015) ‘Affective politics, debility and hearing voices: Towards a feminist politics of ordinary suffering’, Feminist Review, vol 111, no 1, pp 2541, doi:10.1057/fr.2015.24.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bonoli, G. (1997) ‘Classifying welfare states: A two-dimension approach’, Journal of Social Policy, vol 26, no 3, pp 35172, doi:10.1017/S0047279497005059.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bottery, S. and Babalola, G. (2020) Social care 360, www.kingsfund.org.uk/sites/default/files/2020-05/Social%20care%20360%202020%20PDF_0.pdf [accessed 28 October 2020].

  • Braun, R. A., Kopecky, K. A. and Koreshkova, T. (2019) ‘Old, frail, and uninsured: Accounting for features of the U.S. long-term care insurance market’, Econometrica, vol 87, no 3, pp 9811019, doi:10.3982/ECTA15295.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brennan, D., Cass, B., Himmelweit, S. and Szebehely, M. (2012) ‘The marketisation of care: Rationales and consequences in Nordic and liberal care regimes’, Journal of European Social Policy, vol 22, no 4, pp 37791, doi:10.1177/0958928712449772.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Briggs, A. (2006) ‘The welfare state in historical perspective’ in C. Pierson and F. G. Castles (eds) The Welfare State Reader, 2nd edition, Cambridge: Polity, pp 1629.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brodin, H. and Peterson, E. (2020) ‘Equal opportunities? Gendering and racialising the politics of entrepreneurship in Swedish eldercare’, NORA – Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, vol 28, no 2, pp 99112, doi:10.1080/08038740.2019.1698653.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, K. (2011) ‘“Vulnerability”: Handle with care’, Ethics and Social Welfare, vol 5, no 3, pp 31321, doi:10.1080/17496535.2011.597165.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, R., Carlson, B., Dale, S., Foster, L., Phillips, B. and Schore, J. (2007) Cash and Counselling: Improving the Lives of Medic-aid Beneficiaries Who Need Personal Care or Home and Community-Based Services. Final Report, Princeton: Mathematica Policy Research Inc.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brunila, K. and Siivonen, P. (2016) ‘Preoccupied with the self: Towards self-responsible, enterprising, flexible and self-centred subjectivity in education’, Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, vol 37, no 1, pp 5669, doi:10.1080/01596306.2014.927721.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Burns, D. J., Cowie, L., Earle, J., Folkman, P., Froud, J., Hyde, P., Johal, S., Jones, I. R., Killett, A. and Williams, K. (2016) Where Does the Money Go? Financialised Chains and the Crisis in Residential Care, CRESC Public Interest Report, March, https://hummedia.manchester.ac.uk/institutes/cresc/research/WDTMG%20FINAL%20-01-3-2016.pdf [accessed 28 October 2020].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Campbell, J. C., Ikegami, N. and Gibson, M. J. (2010) ‘Lessons from public long-term care insurance in Germany and Japan’, Health Affairs, vol 29, no 1, pp 8795, doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2009.0548.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, L., Fan, H. and Chu, L. (2019) ‘The hidden cost of informal care: An empirical study on female caregivers’ subjective well-being’, Social Science & Medicine, vol 224, pp 8593, doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2019.01.051.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Christensen, K. and Manthorpe, J. (2016) ‘Personalised risk: New risk encounters facing migrant care workers’, Health, Risk & Society, vol 18, no 3–4, pp 13752, doi:10.1080/13698575.2016.1182628.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clare, E. (2017) Brilliant Imperfection. Grappling with Cure, Durham: Duke University Press.

  • Clarke, J. (2006) ‘Consumers, clients or citizens? Politics, policy and practice in the reform of social care’, European Societies, vol 8, no 3, pp 42342, doi:10.1080/14616690600821966.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clarke, J., Newman, J., Smith, N., Vidler, E. and Westmarland, L. (2007) Creating Citizen-Consumers: Changing Publics & Changing Public Services, London: Sage.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clough, P. T. (2008) ‘The affective turn: Political economy, biomedia and bodies’, Theory, Culture & Society, vol 25, no 1, pp 122, doi:10.1177/0263276407085156.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Coe, C. (2017) ‘Transnational migration and the commodification of eldercare in urban Ghana’, Identities, vol 24, no 5, pp 54256, doi:10.1080/1070289X.2017.1346510.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Coe, N. B. and Van Houtven, C. H. (2009) ‘Caring for mom and neglecting yourself? The health effects of caring for an elderly parent’, Health Economics, vol 18, no 9, pp 9911010, doi:10.1002/hec.1512.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Coronavirus Resource Center (2021) Johns Hopkins University & Medicine, https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/ [accessed 28 October 2021].

  • Crowther, M. A. (1981/2016) The Workhouse System 1834–1929: The History of an English Social Institution, London: Routledge.

  • Cuellar, A. E. and Wiener, J. M. (2000) ‘Can social insurance for long-term care work? The experience of Germany’, Health Affairs, vol 19, no 3, pp 825, doi:10.1377/hlthaff.19.3.8.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cushen, J. and Thompson, P. (2016) ‘Financialization and value: Why labour and the labour process still matter’, Work, Employment & Society, vol 30, no 2, pp 35265, doi:10.1177/0950017015617676.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dahl, H. M. (2017) Struggles in (Elderly) Care. A Feminist View, London: Palgrave Macmillan.

  • Dahle, R. and Seeberg, M. L. (2013) ‘“Does she speak Norwegian?”: Ethnic dimensions of hierarchy in Norwegian health care workplaces’, Nordic Journal of Migration Research, vol 3, no 2, pp 8290, doi:10.2478/v10202-012-0018-4.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Daly, M. and Rake, K. (2003) Gender and the Welfare State: Care, Work and Welfare in Europe and the USA, Cambridge: Polity.

  • Dasen, V. (2015) ‘Infirmitas or not? Short-statured persons in Ancient Greece’ in C. Krötzl, K. Mustakallio and J. Kuuliala (eds) Infirmity in Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Social and Cultural Approaches to Health, Weakness and Care, New York: Routledge, pp 2950.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dodds, S. (2005) ‘Gender, ageing and injustice: Social and political contexts of bioethics’, Journal of Medical Ethics, vol 31, no 5, pp 29598, doi:10.1136/jme.2003.006726.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dodds, S. (2007) ‘Depending on care: Recognition of vulnerability and the social contribution of care provision’, Bioethics, vol 21, no 9, 50010, doi:10.1111/j.1467-8519.2007.00595.x.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Doyle, M. and Timonen, V. (2010) ‘Obligations, ambitions, calculations: Migrant care workers’ negotiation of work, career, and family responsibilities’, Social Politics, vol 17, no 1, pp 2952, doi:10.1093/sp/jxp026.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Downs, J. (2012) Sick from Freedom: African-American Illness and Suffering during the Civil War and Reconstruction, New York: Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Duffy, M. (2007) ‘Doing the dirty work. Gender, race, and reproductive labor in historical perspective’, Gender & Society, vol 21, no 3, pp 31336, doi:10.1177/0891243207300764.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Einiö, E., Wass, H. and Heinonen, M. (2018) ‘Political exclusions attributable to poor relief in early twentieth-century Finland’, Population, vol 73, no 1, pp 13147, doi:10.3917/popu.1801.0137.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Eklund, M. and Markström, U. (2015) ‘Outcomes of a freedom of choice reform in community mental health day center services’, Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, vol 42, no 6, pp 66471, doi:10.1007/s10488-014-0601-1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ellis, H. (2016) Global Care Chains: Addressing Unpaid Reproductive Labour in the Philippines, Waterloo: International Migration Research Centre. Policy Points, Issue X.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • England, P., Budig, M. and Folbre, N. (2002) ‘Wages of virtue: The relative pay of care work’, Social Problems, vol 49, no 4, pp 45573, doi:10.1525/sp.2002.49.4.455.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Engster, D. (2019) ‘Care ethics, dependency, and vulnerability’, Ethics and Social Welfare, vol 13, no 2, pp 10014, doi:10.1080/17496535.2018.1533029.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Erlandsson, S., Storm, P., Stranz, A., Szebehely, M. and Trydegård, G.-B. (2013) ‘Marketising trends in Swedish eldercare: Competition, choice and calls for stricter regulation’ in G. Meagher and M. Szebehely (eds) Marketisation in Nordic Eldercare: A Research Report on legislation, Oversight, Extent and Consequences, Stockholm: Stockholm University, pp 2383.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Esping-Andersen, G. (1985) Politics Against Markets, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

  • Esping-Andersen, G. (1990) The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

  • ETLA (2020) Complementing Tax-financed Long-term Care with Private Insurance, Etla Reports 98, https://www.etla.fi/julkaisut/yksityinen-varautuminen-hoivan-rahoitusta-taydentamassa/ [accessed 26 February 2021].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • European Commission (2018) Peer Review on ‘Germany’s latest reforms of the long-term care system’, https://ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?catId=89&furtherNews=yes&newsId=9008&langId=en [accessed 7 September 2020].

  • Evandrou, M., Glaser, K. and Henz, U. (2002) ‘Multiple role occupancy in midlife: Balancing work and family life in Britain’, The Gerontologist, vol 42, no 6, pp 78189, doi:10.1093/geront/42.6.781.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Evertsson, L. (2000) ‘The Swedish welfare state and the emergence of female welfare state occupations’, Gender, Work and Organization, vol 7, no 4, pp 23041, doi:10.1111/1468-0432.00111.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fay, S. B. (1950) ‘Bismarck’s welfare state’, Current History, vol 18, no 101, pp 17.

  • Fernández-Reino, M. and Rienzo, C. (2019) Migrants in the UK labour market: An overview, https://migrationobservatory.ox.ac.uk/resources/briefings/migrants-in-the-uk-labour-market-an-overview/ [accessed 14 April 2020].

  • Fine, M. and Davidson, B. (2018) ‘The marketization of care: Global challenges and national responses in Australia’, Current Sociology, vol 66, no 4, pp 50316, doi:10.1177/0011392118765281.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fine, M. and Tronto, J. (2020) ‘Care goes viral: Care theory and research confront the global COVID-19 pandemic’, International Journal of Care and Caring, vol 4, no 3, pp 3019, doi:10.1332/239788220X15924188322978.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fineman, M. A. (2008) ‘The vulnerable subject: Anchoring equality in the human condition’, Yale Journal of Law and Feminism, vol 20, no 1, pp 124.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fineman, M. A. (2010) ‘The vulnerable subject and the responsive state’, Emory Law Journal, vol 60, no 2, pp 25175.

  • Fineman, M. A. and Grear, A. (2013) ‘Introduction: Vulnerability as heuristic: An invitation to future exploration’ in M. A. Fineman and A. Grear (eds) Vulnerability: Reflections on a New Ethical Foundation for Law and Politics, London: Routledge, pp 127.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fisher, B. and Tronto, J. (1990) ‘Toward a feminist theory of caring’ in E. K. Abel and M. K. Nelson (eds) Circles of Care, Albany: State University of New York Press, pp 3562.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Folbre, N. (2017) ‘The care penalty and gender inequality’ in S. L. Averett, L. M. Argys and S. D. Hoffman (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Women and the Economy, New York: Oxford University Press, pp 120.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Forder, J., Jones, K., Glendinning, C., Caiels, J., Welch, E., Baxter, K., Davidson, J., Windle, K., Irvine, A., King, D. and Dolan, P. (2012) Evaluation of the Personal Health Budget Pilot Programme. Final Report, London: Department of Health.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fuchs, S. and Offe, C. (2009) ‘Welfare state formation in the enlarged European Union. Patterns of reform in postcommunist states’ in C. Rumford (ed) The Sage Handbook of European Studies, Los Angeles: Sage, pp 42041.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gairdner, W. (2002) ‘“The Ailment”–45 years later’, Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, vol 7, no 2, pp 28894, doi:10.1177/1359104502007002014.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gergis, J. (2020) ‘The great unravelling: “I never thought I’d live to see the horror of planetary collapse”’, The Guardian, www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2020/oct/15/the-great-unravelling-i-never-thought-id-live-to-see-the-horror-of-planetary-collapse [accessed 30 October 2020].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gilbert, N. (2002) Transformation of the Welfare State. The Silent Surrender of Public Responsibility, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Gingrich, J. (2011) Making Markets in the Welfare State, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Glasby, J., Zhang, Y., Bennett, M. R. and Hall, P. (2020) ‘A lost decade? A renewed case for adult social care reform in England’, Journal of Social Policy, vol 50, no 2, pp 132. doi:10.1017/S0047279420000288.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Glendinning, C., Challis, D., Fernandez, J-L., Jacobs, S., Jones, K., Knapp, M., Manthorpe, J., Moran, N., Netten, A., Stevens, M. and Wilberforce, M. (2008) Evaluation of the Individual Budgets Pilot Programme. Summary Report, York: University of York.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Glenn, N. E. (1992) ‘From servitude to service work: Historical continuities in the racial division of paid reproductive labor’, Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, vol 18, no 1, pp 143. doi:10.1086/494777.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gori, C. and Morciano, M. (2019) ‘Cash-for-care payments in Europe: Changes in resource allocation’, Social Policy & Administration, vol 53, no 4, 53750, doi:10.1111/spol.12498.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gough, I. (2008) ‘European welfare states: Explanations and lessons for developing countries’ in A. A. Dani and H. de Haan (eds) Inclusive States: Social Policy and Structural Inequalities, Washington: World Bank Publications, pp 3972.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gough, I. (2010) ‘Economic crisis, climate change and the future of welfare states’, Twenty-First Century Society, vol 5, no 1, 5164, doi:10.1080/17450140903484049.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gough, I. (2016) ‘Welfare states and environmental states: A comparative analysis’, Environmental Politics, vol 25, no 1, 2447, doi:10.1080/09644016.2015.1074382.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Green, M. and Lawson, V. (2011) ‘Recentring care: Interrogating the commodification of care’, Social & Cultural Geography, vol 12, no 6, pp 63954, doi:10.1080/14649365.2011.601262.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Greener, I. (2018) Social Policy after the Financial Crisis. A Progressive Response, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.

  • Greve, B. (2014) Historical Dictionary of the Welfare state, 3rd edition, Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.

  • Grosen, S. L. and Hansen, A. M. (2021) ‘Sensor-floors: Changing work and values in care for frail older persons’, Science, Technology, & Human Values, vol 46, no 2, pp 25474, doi:10.1177/0162243920911959.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ha, S. C., Kim, H. J. and Palmer, A. (2017) ‘The relationship between public long-term care insurance awareness and preparation for later life in South Korea’, Journal of Social Service Research, vol 43, no 4, pp 51026, doi:10.1080/01488376.2017.1324829.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Halmekoski, J. (2011) Orjamarkkinat: Huutolaislasten kohtaloita Suomessa [Child Auctions: Stories of Auction Children in Finland], Helsinki: Gummerus.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hansen, L., Dahl, H. M. and Horn, L. (eds) (2021) A Care Crisis in the Nordic Welfare States – Care Work, Gender Equality and Welfare State Sustainability, Bristol: Policy Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harrington, C., Jacobsen, F. F., Panos, J., Pollock, A., Sutaria, S. and Szebehely, M. (2017) ‘Marketization in long-term care: A cross-country comparison of large for-profit nursing home chains’, Health Services Insights, vol 10, no 1, pp 123, doi:10.1177/1178632917710533.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harry, M. L., Mahoney, K. J., Mahoney, E. K. and Shen, C. (2017) ‘The Cash and Counseling model of self-directed long-term care: Effectiveness with young adults with disabilities’, Disability and Health Journal, vol 10, no 4, pp 492501, doi:10.1016/j.dhjo.2017.03.001.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harvey, D. (2005) A Brief History of Neoliberalism, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Hatton, C. and Waters, J. (2011) The National Personal Budget Survey, Lancaster: Lancaster University.

  • Hay, C. (2004) ‘The normalizing role of rationalist assumptions in the institutional embedding of neoliberalism’, Economy and Society, vol 33, no 4, pp 50027, doi:10.1080/0308514042000285260.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hedin, U.-C. and Månsson, S.-A. (2012) ‘Whistleblowing processes in Swedish public organisations – complaints and consequences’, European Journal of Social Work, vol 15, no 2, pp 15167, doi:10.1080/13691457.2010.543890.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hemerjick, A. C. (2012) ‘Two or three waves of welfare state transformation?’ in N. Morel, B. Palier and J. Palme (eds) Towards a Social Investment Welfare State? Ideas, Policies and Challenges, Bristol: Policy Press, pp 3360.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • De Henau, J. and Himmelweit, S. (2021) ‘A care-led recovery from Covid-19: Investing in high-quality care to stimulate and rebalance the economy’, Feminist Economics, vol 27, no 1–2, pp 45369, doi:10.1080/13545701.2020.1845390.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Henz, U. (2006) ‘Informal caregiving at working age: Effects of job characteristics and family configuration’, Journal of Marriage and Family, vol 68, no 2, pp 41129. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2006.00261.x.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hermann, C. (2014) ‘Structural adjustment and neoliberal convergence in labour markets and welfare: The impact of the crisis and austerity measures on European economic and social models’, Competition & Change, vol 18, no 2, pp 11130, doi:10.1179/1024529414Z.00000000051.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Himmelweit, S. (2007) ‘The prospects for caring: Economic theory and policy analysis’, Cambridge Journal of Economics, vol 31, no 4, pp 58199. doi:10.1093/cje/bem011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hitchcock, T. (1985) The English Workhouse: A Study in Institutional Poor Relief in Selected Counties 1696–1750, Oxford: University of Oxford.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hitziger, M., Esposito, R., Canali, M., Aragrande, M., Häsler, B. and Rüegg, S. (2018) ‘Knowledge integration in One Health policy formulation, implementation and evaluation’, Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol 96, no 3, pp 21118, doi:10.2471/BLT.17.202705.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hjelt, Y. (2019) ‘Näin vanhusten hoivayhtiöt pyörittivät haamuhoitajajärjestelmää – Luottamusmies: “Kun työntekijä ei tule töihin, siinä säästetään sen palkka”’ [This is how care companies operate, union steward says: when the care worker does not show up to work, the companies save money], The Finnish Broadcasting Company, 5 March, https://yle.fi/uutiset/3-10671284 [accessed 15 April 2020].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hochschild, A. R. (2000) The Nanny Chain, American Prospect, https://www.prospect.org/features/nanny-chain [accessed 31 October 2020].

  • Hoffmann, F. and Rodrigues, R. (2010) Informal Carers: Who Takes Care of Them? Policy brief, April, Vienna: European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research, https://www.euro.centre.org/publications/detail/387 [accessed 31 October 2021].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoppania, H.-K. (2015) Care as a Site of Political Struggle, Publications of the Department of Political and Economic Studies 25/2015, University of Helsinki, Helsinki: Unigrafia.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoppania, H.-K. (2018) ‘Politicisation, engagement, depoliticisation – The neoliberal politics of care’, Critical Social Policy, vol 39, no 2, pp 22947, doi:10.1177/0261018318772032.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoppania, H.-K. and Vaittinen, T. (2015) ‘A Household Full of Bodies: Neoliberalism, Care and “the Political”’, Global Society, vol 29, no 1, pp 7088, doi:10.1080/13600826.2014.974515.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoppania, H.-K., Karsio, O., Näre, L., Olakivi, A., Sointu, L., Vaittinen, T. and Zechner, M. (2016) Hoivan arvoiset – Vaiva yhteiskunnan ytimessä [Worthy of Care: Ailment in the Heart of the Society], Helsinki: Gaudeamus.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoppania, H.-K., Olakivi, A., Zechner, M. and Näre, L. (2021) ‘Managerialism as a failing response to the care crisis’ in L. L. Hansen, H. M. Dahl and L. Horn (eds) A Care Crisis in the Women-friendly Nordic Welfare States, Bristol: Policy Press, pp 10930.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoppania, H.-K., Näre, L., Vaittinen, T., Zechner, M. and Karsio, O. (2022) ‘Financialization of eldercare in a Nordic welfare state’, Journal of Social Policy, vol 1, no 19, doi:10.1017/S0047279422000137.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Horton, A. (2022) ‘Financialization and non-disposable women: Real estate, debt and labour in UK care homes’, Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space, vol 54, no 1, pp 14459, doi:10.1177/0308518X19862580.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huang, S. S., Banaszak-Holl, J., Yuan, S. and Hirth, R. A. (2021) ‘The determinants and variation of nursing home private-pay prices: Organizational and market structure’, Medical Care Research and Review, vol 78, no 2, pp 17380, doi:10.1177/1077558719857335.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hudson, B. (2014) ‘Dealing with market failure: A new dilemma in UK health and social care policy? Commentary’, Critical Social Policy, vol 35, no 2, 28192, doi:10.1177/0261018314563037.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hussein, S. (2017) ‘“We don’t do it for the money”. The scale and reasons of poverty-pay among frontline long-term care workers in England’, Health & Social Care in the Community, vol 25, no 6, pp 181726, doi:10.1111/hsc.12455.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hussein, S., Manthorpe, J. and Ismail, M. (2014) ‘Ethnicity at work: The case of British minority workers in the long-term care sector’, Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol 33, no 2, pp 17792, doi:10.1108/EDI-02-2013-0009.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ICN (2020) COVID-19 and the International Supply of Nurses, Report for the International Council of Nurses, www.icn.ch/system/files/documents/2020-07/COVID19_internationalsupplyofnurses_Report_FINAL.pdf [accessed 20 August 2020].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ikegami, N. (2019) ‘Financing long-term care: Lessons from Japan’, International Journal of Health Policy and Management, vol 8, no 8, pp 46266, doi:10.15171/ijhpm.2019.35.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Isaksen, L. W. (2002) ‘Masculine dignity and the dirty body’, Nora: Nordic Journal of Women’s Studies, vol 10, no 3, pp 13746, doi:10.1080/080387402321012162.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Isaksen, L. W. (ed) (2010) Global Care Work: Gender and Migration in Nordic Societies, Oslo: Nordic Academic Press.

  • Isaksen, L. W. and Näre, L. (2019) ‘Local loops and micro-mobilities of care: Rethinking care in egalitarian contexts’, Journal of European Social Policy, vol 29, no 5, pp 59399, doi:10.1177/0958928719879669.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Isham, L., Bradbury-Jones, C. and Hewison, A. (2020) ‘Female family carers’ experiences of violent, abusive or harmful behaviour by the older person for whom they care: A case of epistemic injustice?’, Sociology of Health and Illness, vol 42, no 1, pp 8094, doi:10.1111/1467-9566.12986.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jarret, T. (2019a) ‘Adult social care: The Government’s ongoing policy review and anticipated Green Paper (England)’, House of Commons Library, commonslibrary.parliament.uk/research-briefings/cbp-8002 [accessed 31 October 2020].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jarret, T. (2019b) ‘Social care: Paying for care home places and domiciliary care (England)’, House of Commons Library Briefing Paper Number 1911, commonslibrary.parliament.uk/research-briefings/sn01911 [accessed 31 October 2020].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jessop, B. (1998) ‘The rise of governance and the risks of failure: The case of economic development’, International Social Science Journal, vol 50, no 155, pp 2945, doi:10.1111/1468-2451.00107.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Johansson, H. and Hvinden, B. (2007) ‘What do we mean by active citizenship?’ in B. Hvinden and H. Johansson (eds) Citizenship in Nordic Welfare States: Dynamics of Choice, Duties and Participation in a Changing Europe, London: Routledge, pp 3251.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jönson, H. (2016) ‘Framing scandalous nursing home care: What is the problem?’, Ageing & Society, vol 46, no 2, 40019, doi:10.1017/S0144686X14001287.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Julkunen, R. (2017) Muuttuvat hyvinvointivaltiot. Eurooppalaiset hyvinvointivaltio reformoitavina [Changing Welfare States: European Welfare States Reformed], Jyväskylä: SoPhi.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Karsio, O. and Anttonen, A. (2013) ‘Marketisation of eldercare in Finland: Legal frames, outsourcing practices and the rapid growth of for-profit services’ in G. Meagher and M. Szebehely (eds) Marketisation in Nordic Eldercare: A Research Report on Legislation, Oversight, Extent and Consequences, Stockholm: Stockholm University, pp 85125.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Karsio, O., Näre, L., Olakivi, A., Sointu, L. and Zechner, M. (2020) ‘Vanhuus, vaiva ja tasa-arvo’ [Old age, ailment and equality] in J. Kantola, P. Koskinen Sandberg and H. Ylöstalo (eds) Tasa-arvopolitiikan suunnanmuutoksia: Talouskriisistä tasa-arvon kriiseihin [Changes in the Equality Politics: From Economic Crisis to the Crisis of Equality], Helsinki: Gaudeamus, pp 22742.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Karisto, A., Takala, P. and Haapola, I. (1988) Elintaso, elämäntapa ja sosiaalipoltiikka – Suomalaisen yhteiskunnan muutoksesta [Standards of living, ways of life and social policy: about the changes in the Finnish Society], Helsinki: WSOY.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kauhanen, A. and Riukula, K. (2019) ‘Työmarkkinoiden eriytyminen ja tasa-arvo Suomessa’ [Labour market segregation and equality in Finland] in M. Teräsaho and J. Närvi (eds) Näkökulmia sukupuolten tasa-arvoon – Analyyseja Tasa-Arvobarometrista 2017 [Perspectives on gender equality – analyses of the Gender Equality Barometer 2017], Helsinki: Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, pp 80100, https://www.julkari.fi/handle/10024/137765 [accessed 23 October 2021].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kaye, S. H., Harrington, C. and LaPlante, M. P. (2009) ‘Long-term care: Who gets it, who provides it, who pays, and how much?’, Health Affairs, vol 29, no 1, pp 1121, doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2009.0535.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kelly, C. (2017) ‘Care and violence through the lens of personal support workers’, International Journal of Care and Caring, vol 1, no 1, pp 97113, doi:10.1332/239788217X14866305589260.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kemper, P., Komisar, H. L. and Alecxih, L. (2005) ‘Long-term care over an uncertain future: What can current retirees expect?’, Inquiry, vol 42, no 4, pp 33550, doi:10.5034/inquiryjrnl_42.4.335.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kestilä, L., Knape, N. and Hetemaa, T. (2019) ‘Suomalaisten sosiaali- ja terveyspalvelujen käyttö tilastojen valossa’ [Finish social and health care service use in light of statistics] in L. Kestilä and S. Karvonen (eds) Suomalaisten hyvinvointi 2018 [Finish Welfare 2018], Helsinki: Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, pp 188206.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kittay, E. F. (1999) Love’s Labor: Essays on Women, Equality and Dependency, New York: Routledge.

  • Kittay, E. F. (2005) ‘Dependency, difference and the global ethic of longterm care’, The Journal of Political Philosophy, vol 13, no 4, pp 44369, doi:10.1111/j.1467-9760.2005.00232.x.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Knickman, J. R. and Snell, E. K. (2002) ‘The 2030 problem: Caring for aging baby boomers’, Health Service Research, vol 7, no 4, pp 84984.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kolehmainen, M. and Juvonen, T. (2018) ‘Introduction: Thinking with and through affective intimacies’ in T. Juvonen and M. Kolehmainen (eds) Affective Inequalities in Intimate Relationships, London: Routledge, pp 115.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Korpi, W. (1989) ‘Power, politics, and state autonomy in the development of social citizenship: Social rights during sickness in eighteen OECD countries since 1930’, American Sociological Review, vol 54, no 3, pp 30928.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krippner, G. R. (2005) ‘The financialization of the American economy’, Socio-economic Review, vol 3, no 2, pp 173208.

  • Kröger, T. (2019) ‘Looking for the easy way out: Demographic panic and the twists and turns of long-term care policy in Finland’ in T. Jing, S. Kuhnle, Y. Pan and S. Chen (eds) Aging Welfare and Social Policy: China and the Nordic Countries in Comparative Perspective, Cham: Springer, pp 91104.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kröger, T., Anttonen, A. and Sipilä, J. (2003) ‘Social care in Finland: Stronger and weaker forms of universalism’ in A. Anttonen, J. Baldock and J. Sipilä (eds) The Young, the Old and the State. Social Care in Five Industrial Nations, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp 2554.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kröger, T., Van Aerschot, L. and Mathew Puthenparambil, J. (2018) Hoivatyö muutoksessa: Suomalainen vanhustyö pohjoismaisessa vertailussa [Care Work Is Changing: Finnish Old Age Care in the Nordic context], Jyväskylä: University of Jyväskylä.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kröger, T., Mathew Puthenparambil, J. and Van Aerschot, L. (2019) ‘Care poverty: Unmet care needs in a Nordic welfare state’, International Journal of Care and Caring, vol 3, no 4, pp 485500, doi:10.1332/239788219X15641291564296.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kuntatyönantajat (2019) Arvio muilla kuin koulutusalansa töissä työskentelevistä terveys- ja hyvinvointialan (sote) koulutuksen saaneista [An estimate of personnel with health and welfare sector education working in other fields], https://www.kt.fi/sites/default/files/media/document/muilla-aloilla-tyoskenteleva-sote-henkilosto-2016-ja-2017.pdf [accessed 2 May 2022].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kuuliala, J. (2015) ‘Nobility, community and physical impairment in later medieval canonization processes’ in C. Krötzl, K. Mustakallio and J. Kuuliala (eds) Infirmity in Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Social and Cultural Approaches to Health, Weakness and Care, New York: Routledge, pp 6782.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kuusi, P. (1964) Social Policy for the Sixties: A Plan for Finland, Helsinki: Finnish Social Policy Association.

  • Lam, T. and Yeoh, B. S. A. (2018) ‘Migrant mothers, left-behind fathers: The negotiation of gender subjectivities in Indonesia and the Philippines’, Gender, Place & Culture, vol 25, no 1, pp 10417, doi:10.1080/0966369X.2016.1249349.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lamb, S. E. (ed) (2009) Aging and the Indian Diaspora: Cosmopolitan Families in India and Abroad, Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee, Y. and Tang, F. (2013) ‘More caregiving, less working: Caregiving roles and gender difference’, Journal of Applied Gerontology, vol 34, no 4, pp 46583, doi:10.1177/0733464813508649.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leinaweaver, J. B. (2010) ‘Outsourcing care: How Peruvian migrants meet transnational family obligations’, Latin American Perspectives, vol 37, no 5, pp 6787, doi:10.1177/0094582X10380222.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leinonen, A. (2009) ‘Hoivatyöntekijöiden muutostoiveiden topografia. Kannanottoja vanhuksen kohteluun, henkilöstöresursseihin ja ikääntymispolitiikkaan’ [Topography of care workers desires for change. Statements to treatment of the elderly, resourcing of personnel and ageing policy], Yhteiskuntapolitiikka, vol 74, no 2, pp 13248.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leira, A. (1993) ‘Concepts of care: Loving, thinking and doing’ in J. Twigg (ed) Informal Care in Europe. Proceedings of a Conference Held in York, York: University of York, pp 2339.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leira, A. and Saraceno, C. (2006) ‘Care: Actors, relationships, contexts’, Sosiologi I dag, vol 36, no 3, pp 734.

  • Lilly, M., Laporte, A. and Coyte, P. C. (2007) ‘Labor market work and home care’s unpaid caregivers: A systematic review of labor force participation rates, predictors of labor market withdrawal, and hours of work’, The Milbank Quarterly, vol 85, no 4, pp 64190, doi:10.1111/j.1468-0009.2007.00504.x.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lloyd, L., Banerjee, A., Harrington, C. and Szebehely, M. (2014) ‘It is a scandal! Comparing the cause and consequences of nursing home media scandals in five countries’, International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol 34, no 1/2, pp 218, doi:10.1108/IJSSP-03-2013-0034.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lundsgaard, J. (2005) Consumer Direction and Choice in Long-Term Care for Older Persons, Including Payments for Informal Care: How Can it Help Improve Care Outcomes, Employment and Fiscal Sustainability? OECD Health Working Papers, No. 20, Paris: OECD Publishing.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Luttinen, J. (2019) ‘Miltä mielestä tuntui, ei arvaa kukkaan’. Sodan kuormittavuus ja kriisinkestävyys Iisalmen pitäjän kotitalouksissa 1800-luvun ensimmäisinä vuosikymmeninä [‘Nobody Knows How It Felt’. The Burden of War and Crisis Resilience in Iisalmi Parish Households in the First Decades of the 19th Century], Jyväskylä: University of Jyväskylä.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lutz, H. (ed) (2008) Migration and Domestic Work. A European Perspective to a Global theme, London: Routledge.

  • Lutz, H. (2018) ‘Care migration: the connectivity between care chains, care circulation and transnational social inequality’, Current Sociology, vol 66, no 4, pp 57789, doi:10.1177/0011392118765213.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mackenzie, C., Rogers, W. and Dodds, S. (eds) (2014) Vulnerability: New Essays in Ethics and Feminist Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Madra, Y. M. and Adaman, F. (2013) ‘Neoliberal reason and its forms: De-politicisation through economisation’, Antipode, vol 46, no 3, pp 691716, doi:10.1111/anti.12065.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Main, T. F. (1957) ‘The ailment’, British Journal of Medical Psychology, vol 30, pp 12945, doi:10.1111/j.2044-8341.1957.tb01193.x.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Manderbacka, K., Arffman, M., Aalto, A.-M., Muuri, A., Kestilä, L. and Häkkinen, U. (2018) ‘Eriarvoisuus somaattisten terveyspalvelujen saatavuudessa’ [Inequality in the availability somatic health care services] in L. Kestilä and S. Karvonen (eds) Suomalaisten Hyvinvointi 2018 [Wellbeing in Finland 2018], Helsinki: Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, pp 20715.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marchetti, S. and Venturini, A. (2013) ‘Mothers and grandmothers on the move: Labour mobility and the household strategies of Moldovan and Ukrainian migrant women in Italy’, International Migration, vol 52, no 5, pp 11126, doi:10.1111/imig.12131.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marshall, T. H. (1950) Citizenship and Social Class and Other Essays, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Mason, J. (1996) ‘Gender, care and sensibility in family and kin relationships’ in J. Holland and L. Adkins (eds) Sex, Sensibility, and the Gendered Body, Houndmills: Macmillan, pp 1536.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Massumi, B. (1995) ‘The autonomy of affect’, Cultural Critique, vol 31, Autumn, pp 83109, doi:10.2307/1354446.

  • Meagher, G. and Szebehely, M. (2010) Private Financing of Elder Care in Sweden: Arguments For and Against, Stockholm: Institute for Futures Studies, https://www.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2%3A484054&dswid=9918 [accessed 15 October 2021].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meagher, G. and Szebehely, M. (eds) (2013) Marketisation in Nordic Eldercare: A Research Report on legislation, Oversight, extent and Consequences, Stockholm: Stockholm University.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Merriam-Webster (2021) Ail, verb, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/ail [accessed 15 October 2021].

  • Mielikäinen, L. and Kuronen, R. (2018) Kotihoito ja sosiaalihuollon laitos- ja asumispalvelut [Homecare and Institutional and Residential Care Services in Social Care], Helsinki: Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Miettinen, R. (2018) ‘Vaivaiset ja työkyvyttömät uuden ajan alun maaseudulla’ [Paupers and disabled in the countryside at the beginning of the new era] in R. Miettinen and E. Viitaniemi (eds) Reunamailla. Tilattomat Länsi-Suomen maaseudulla 1600–1800 [On the Fringes. The Landless in the Countryside of Western Finland 1600–1800], Helsinki: SKS.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Misra, J., Woodring, J. and Merz, S. N. (2006) ‘The globalization of care work: Neoliberal economic restructuring and migration policy’, Globalizations, vol 3, no 3, pp 31732, doi:10.1080/14747730600870035.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moench, S. and Stender, S. (2020) ‘Medi(long-term)care for All: A Look Into the Future of Long-Term Care Insurance—Part One’, Society of Actuaries, www.soa.org/globalassets/assets/library/newsletters/in-public-interest/2020/march/itpi-2020-iss21-moench-stender.pdf [accessed 31 October 2020].

  • Mol, A. (2008) The Logic of Care. Health and the Problem of Patient Choice, London and New York: Routledge.

  • Morgan, F. and Zechner, M. (2022) ‘Uncovering Familialism: Cash-for-Care Schemes in England and Finland’. International Journal of Care and Caring, doi.org/10.1332/239788221X16323394887310.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moysés, S. J. and Soares, R. C. (2019) ‘Planetary health in the Anthropocene’, Health Promotion International, vol 34, Supplement_1, pp i28i36, doi:10.1093/heapro/daz012.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nadash, P., Doty, P. and von Schwanenflügel, M. (2018) ‘The German long-term care insurance program: Evolution and recent developments’, The Gerontologist, vol 58, no 3, pp 58897, doi:10.1093/geront/gnx018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Näre, L. (2012) ‘Hoivatyön glokaaleilla markkinoilla: Filippiiniläisten sairaanhoitajien rekrytointi Suomeen jälkikolonialistisena käytäntönä’ [In the glocal markets of care work: The recruitment of Filipino nurses to Finland as a post-colonial practice], Sosiologia [Journal of the Westermarck Society of Finnish Sociology], vol 49, no 3, pp 20621.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Näre, L. (2013a) ‘Ideal workers and suspects: Employers’ politics of difference in the migrant division of care labour in Finland’, Nordic Journal of Migration Research, vol 3, no 2, pp 7281, doi:10.2478/v10202-012-0017-5.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Näre, L. (2013b) ‘Migrancy, gender and social class in domestic and social care labour in Italy – An intersectional analysis of demand’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, vol 39, no 4, pp 60123, doi:10.1080/1369183X.2013.745238.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Näre, L. and Cleland Silva, T. (2021) ‘The global bases of inequality regimes: The case of international nurse recruitment’, Equality, Diversity and Inclusion, vol 40, no 5, pp 51024, doi:10.1108/EDI-02-2020-0039.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Näre, L. and Diatlova, A. (2020) ‘Ageing/body/sex/work – Migrant women negotiating intimacy and ageing in commercial sex and elder care work’, Sexualities, online first, doi:10.1177/1363460720944590.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Näre, L. and Nordberg, C. (2016) ‘Neoliberal postcolonialism in the media: Constructing Filipino nurse subjectivities in Finland’, European Journal of Cultural Studies, vol 19, no 1, pp 1632, doi:10.1177/1367549415585557.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Needham, C. (2014) ‘Personalization: From day centres to community hubs?’, Critical Social Policy, vol 34, no 1, pp 90108, doi:10.1177/0261018313483492.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Netten, A., Jones, K., Knapp, M., Fernandez, J., Challis, D., Glendinning, C., Jacobs, S., Manthorpe, J., Moran, N., Stevens, M. and Wilberforce, M. (2012) ‘Personalisation through individual budgets: Does it work and for whom?’, British Journal of Social Work, vol 42, no 8, pp 155675, doi:10.1093/bjsw/bcr159.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Newman, J. and Clarke, J. (2009) Publics, Politics and Power: Remaking the Public in Public Services, London: Sage.

  • Newman, J. and Tonkens, E. (2011a) ‘Active citizenship. Responsibility, choice and participation’ in J. Newman and E. Tonkens (eds) Participation, Responsibility and Choice. Summoning the Active Citizen in Western European Welfare States, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, pp 179200.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Newman, J. and Tonkens, E. (2011b) ‘Introduction’ in J. Newman and E. Tonkens (eds) Participation, Responsibility and Choice. Summoning the Active Citizen in Western European Welfare States, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, pp 928.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Newman, T. (2002) ‘“Young carers” and disabled parents: Time for a change of direction?’, Disability & Society, vol 17, no 6, pp 61325, doi:10.1080/0968759022000010407.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Noddings, N. (1984) Caring. A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education, Berkeley: University of California Press.

  • OECD (2022) Long-term care. Web pages covering the topic of elder care, www.oecd.org/els/health-systems/long-term-care.htm [accessed 14 April 2022].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Offe, C. (1983) ‘Competitive party democracy and the Keynesian welfare state: Factors of stability and disorganization’, Policy Sciences, vol 15, no 3, pp 22546, doi:10.1007/BF00136826.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Olakivi, A. (2017) ‘Unmasking the enterprising nurse: Migrant care workers and the discursive mobilisation of productive professionals’, Sociology of Health & Illness, vol 39, no 3, pp 42842, doi:10.1111/1467-9566.12493.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Olakivi, A. and Wrede, S. (2021) ‘Pragmatic inattention and win-win narratives: How Finnish eldercare managers make sense of foreign-born care workers’ structural disadvantage?’ in V. Horn, C. Schweppe, A. Böcker and M. Bruquetas-Callejo (eds), The Global Old Age Care Industry: Tapping into Care Labour Across Borders, Singapore: Palgrave Macmillan, pp 16991.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Olakivi, A., Van Aerschot, L., Mathew Puthenparambil, J. and Kröger, T. (2021) ‘Ylikuormitusta, lähijohtajan tuen puutetta vai vääränlaisia tehtäviä: Miksi yhä useammat vanhustyöntekijät harkitsevat työnsä lopettamista?’ [Psychophysical overload, inadequate supervisor support or inappropriate tasks: Why are more and more care workers considering leaving their jobs?], Yhteiskuntapolitiikka, vol 86, no 2, pp 14154.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Olesen, V., Schatzman, L., Droes, N., Hatton, D. and Chico, N. (1990) ‘The mundane ailment and the physical self: Analysis of the social psychology of health and illness’, Social Science & Medicine, vol 30, no 4, pp 44955, doi:10.1016/0277-9536(90)90347-u.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Orloff, A. S. (1993) ‘Gender and the social rights of citizenship: The comparative analysis of gender relations and welfare states’, American Sociological Review, vol 58, no 3, pp 30328, doi:10.2307/2095903.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ORSI (2019) Web page of ORCHESTRATING TOGETHER towards Eco-Welfare State: Orchestrating for Systemic Impact (ORSI) project, https://www.ecowelfare.fi/en [accessed 31 October 2020].

  • Ortiz-Ospina, E. and Roser, M. (2016) Government Spending, https://ourworldindata.org/government-spending [accessed 11 April 2022].

  • Óskarsdóttir, S. (2007) ‘From active states to active citizenship? The impact of economic openness and transnational governance’ in B. Hvinden and H. Johansson (eds) Citizenship in Nordic Welfare States: Dynamics of Choice, Duties and Participation in a Changing Europe, London: Routledge, pp 1831.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Paju, E., Näre, L., Haikkola, L. and Krivonos, D. (2020) ‘Human capitalisation in activation: Young people outside of employment and education in Finland’, European Journal of Cultural and Political Sociology, vol 7, no 1, pp 728, doi:10.1080/23254823.2019.1689834.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Palier, B. (2010) A Long Goodbye to Bismarck? The Politics of Welfare Reform in Continental Europe, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Parreñas, R. S. (2001) Servants of Globalization: Migration and Domestic Work, Stanford: Stanford University Press.

  • Peterson, E. (2011) Beyond the ‘Women-friendly’ Welfare State: Framing Gender Inequality as a Policy Problem in Spanish and Swedish Politics of Care, Madrid: University Complutense de Madrid, https://eprints.ucm.es/id/eprint/18170/1/T33524.pdf [accessed 13 October 2021].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Phillips, J. (2007) Care, Cambridge: Polity.

  • Pierson, P. (1994) Dismantling the Welfare State, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Pierson, P. (2001) New Politics of the Welfare State, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Pongsiri, M. J., Bickersteth, S., Colón, C., DeFries, R., Dhaliwal, M., Georgeson, L., Haines, A., Linou, N., Murray, V., Naeem, S., Small, R. and Ungvari, J. (2019) ‘Planetary health: From concept to decisive action’, The Lancet Planetary Health, vol 3, no 10, pp 4024, doi:10.1016/S2542-5196(19)30190-1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Powell, M. and Hewitt, M. (2002) Welfare State and Welfare Change, Buckingham: Open University Press.

  • Price, D. and Livsey, L. (2013) ‘Financing Later Life: Pensions, Care, Housing Equity and the New Politics of Old Age’ in G. Ramia, K. Farnsworth and Z. Irving (eds) Analysis and Debate in Social Policy, Bristol: Policy Press, pp 6788.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Puar, J. (2017) The Right to Maim. Debility, Capacity, Disability, Durham: Duke University Press.

  • Ranci, C. and Pavolini, E. (eds) (2013) Reforms in Long-Term Care Policies in Europe. Investigating Institutional Change and Social Impacts, New York: Springer.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Raqs Media Collective (2013) ‘Three and a half conversations with an eccentric planet’, Third Text, vol 27, no 1, pp 10814, doi:10.1080/09528822.2013.752233.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reckendrees, A. (2020) ‘Why did German early industrial capitalists suggest workers’ pensions, arbitration boards and minimum wages?’, Jahrbuch für Wirtschaftsgeschichte / Economic History Yearbook, vol 61, no 2, pp 35176, doi:10.1515/jbwg-2020-0015.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reckwitz, A. (2012) ‘Affective spaces: A praxeological outlook’, Rethinking History, vol 16, no 2, pp 24158, doi:10.1080/13642529.2012.681193.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reich, W. T. (1995) ‘History of the notion of care’ in W. T. Reich (ed) Encyclopedia of Bioethics. Revised edition, New York: Simon & Schuster Macmillan, pp 31931.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Roberts, D. (1997) ‘Spiritual and menial housework’, Yale Journal of Law and Feminism, vol 9, no 51, pp 5180.

  • Rollins, J. (1985) Between Women: Domestics and their Employers, Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

  • Rostgaard, T. (2006) ‘Constructing the care consumer: Free choice of home care for the elderly in Denmark’, European Societies, vol 8, no 3, pp 44363, doi:10.1080/14616690600822048.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rudge, T. (2009) ‘Beyond caring? Discounting the differently known body’, Sociological Review, vol 56, no 2, pp 23348, doi:10.1111/j.1467-954X.2009.00825.x.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ryvkina, R. V. (2010) ‘The social ailments of Russian society as an object of sociological study’, Russian Social Science Review, vol 51, no 3, pp 8997, doi:10.1080/10611428.2010.11065394.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sacco, L. B., Leineweber, C. and Platts, L. G. (2018) ‘Informal care and sleep disturbance among caregivers in paid work: Longitudinal analyses from a large community-based Swedish cohort study’, Sleep, vol 41, no 2, doi:10.1093/sleep/zsx198.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schultz Lee, K. (2010) ‘Gender, care work, and the complexity of family membership in Japan’, Gender & Society, vol 24, no 5, pp 64771, doi:10.1177/0891243210382903.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schulz, R. and Beach, S. R. (1999) ‘Caregiving as a risk factor for mortality’, JAMA, vol 282, no 23, pp 221519, doi:10.1001/jama.282.23.2215.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Seeleib-Kaiser, M. (ed) (2008) Welfare State Transformations. Comparative Perspectives, Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.

  • Shutes, I. and Chiatti, C. (2012) ‘Migrant labour and the marketisation of care for older people: The employment of migrant care workers by families and service providers’, Journal of European Social Policy, vol 22, no 4, pp 392405, doi:10.1177/0958928712449773.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Siivonen, P. and Brunila, K. (2014) ‘The making of entrepreneurial subjectivity in adult education’, Studies in Continuing Education, vol 36, no 2, pp 16072, doi:10.1080/0158037X.2014.904776.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Simplican, S. C. (2015) ‘Care, disability, and violence: Theorizing complex dependency in Eva Kittay and Judith Butler’, Hypatia, vol 30, no 1, pp 21733, doi:10.1111/hypa.12130.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Skills for Care (2019) Being a Personal Assistant. A brochure, www.skillsforcare.org.uk/Employing-your-own-care-and-support/Resources/Working-as-a-PA/1.-What-is-a-PA/Being-a-personal-assistant/Being-a-personal-assistant.pdf [accessed 31 October 2020].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sointu, E. (2016) ‘Discourse, affect and afflication’, The Sociological Review, vol 64, no 2, pp 312–28, doi:10.1111/ 1467-954X.12334.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sointu, L. (2011) ‘Läsnäolo hoivan arjessa’ [The Presence of Informal Care], Janus, vol 19, no 2, pp 158–73.

  • Sointu, L. (2018) ‘Slipping into “that nurse’s dress”: Caring as affective practice in mixed-sex couples’ relationships’ in T. Juvonen and M. Kolehmainen (eds) Affective Inequalities in Intimate Relationships, London: Routledge, pp 95108.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sointu, L., Lehtonen, T.-K. and Häikiö, L. (2021) ‘The public, the private and the changing expectations for everyday welfare services: The case of Finnish parents seeking private health care for their children’, Social Policy and Society, vol 20, no 6, pp 23246, doi:10.1017/S1474746420000287.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Son, J., Erno, A., Shea, D. G., Femia, E. E., Zarit, S. H. and Parris Stephens, M. A. (2007) ‘The caregiver stress process and health outcomes’, Journal of Aging and Health, vol 19, no 6, pp 87187, doi:10.1177/0898264307308568.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sotkanet (2020) Statistical Information on Welfare and Health in Finland, https://sotkanet.fi/sotkanet/en/index [accessed 31 October 2020].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Spielman, R. (1997) ‘The 40th anniversary of the publication of The Ailment by TF Main’, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, vol 31, no 6, pp 81216, doi:10.3109/00048679709065505.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Spinoza, B. (1677/1982) The Ethics and Selected Letters, Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company.

  • Springer, S. (2020) ‘Caring geographies: The COVID-19 interregnum and a return to mutual aid’, Dialogues in Human Geography, vol 10, no 2, pp 11215, doi:10.1177/2043820620931277.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stacey, C. L. (2005) ‘Finding dignity in dirty work: The constraints and rewards of low-wage home care labour’, Sociology of Health & Illness, vol 27, no 6, pp 83154.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Statistics Finland (2020) ‘Labour statistics on foreign-born employees’, available on request from https://www.stat.fi [accessed 31 October 2020].

  • Szebehely, M. (ed) (2003) Hemhjälp i Norden: Illustrationer och reflektioner [Home care in the Nordic Countries: Illustrations and reflections], Lund: Studentlitteratur.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tamiya, N., Noguchi, H., Nishi, A., Reich, M. R., Ikegami,