The closing chapter of the book summarises the main arguments made. It commences with a critical assessment of statebuilding and neo-liberal police reconstruction in Afghanistan and a short comparison to the parallel study of Iraq. The Bonn political arrangement that resulted in the favouring of Northern Alliance warlords and anti-Taliban warlords and political elites enticed in the drug-industry seriously impedes law enforcement and interferes with anti-corruption investigations. Subsequently, the conditions of the Afghan state from several regimes of fighting, policing styles and pre-existing patronage systems have become embedded in contemporary Afghanistan. These structural conditions of patronage, institutionalised forms of corruption and post-2001 short-term peace bargaining with ruthless warlords make it extremely difficult to combat corruption and patronage. The final section reflects on the main challenges framed within the political, economic and cultural drivers of police corruption in the context of Afghanistan and how these traits can be carried forward to measure and deter instability in other war-torn states.

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