Compulsory income management has been touted as a measure to bring financial stability to welfare recipients’ lives, improving the health and wellbeing of individuals and communities in the process. In reality, however, compulsory income management can have contradictory and even counterproductive effects. This chapter explores the impact of compulsory income management on participants’ wellbeing and sense of self. It shows that – while financial stress and reduced financial control are key concerns for many participants – the infantilisation and stigmatisation that compulsory income management involves are also powerful stressors. Together, these factors can contribute to significant reductions in participant wellbeing, harming cardholders, their families and their communities. The influence of financial deprivation on physical and psychological wellbeing underlines the importance of available funds, personal autonomy and social connectedness for good health. While a minority of individuals experience improved financial and material stability under compulsory income management the social and emotional impacts of the policy have been largely negative.
ABC News (2014) ‘Cashless welfare payments proposal sparks protest outside Adelaide ALP convention’, ABC News, [online] 15 November, Available from: https://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-11-15/cashless-welfare-protest-outside-alp-conference-adelaide/5893936 [Accessed 23 March 2021].
Abeyta, A.A., Routledge, C., Kersten, M. and Cox, C.R. (2017) ‘The existential cost of economic insecurity: threatened financial security undercuts meaning’, The Journal of Social Psychology, 157(6): 692–702.
Ackerman, B. and Alstott, A. (2006) ‘Why stakeholding?’ in B. Ackerman, A. Alstott and P. Van Parijs (eds) Redesigning Distribution: Basic Income and Stakeholder Grants as Cornerstones for an Egalitarian Capitalism, London/New York: Verso, pp 43–65.
ACOSS (2020) ‘I can finally eat fresh fruit and vegetables’ Survey of 955 People Receiving the New Rate of JobSeeker and Other Allowances, Sydney: ACOSS.
Adler, M. (2013) ‘Challenging workfare practices: conditionality, sanctions and the weakness of redress mechanisms in the British New Deal’, in E. Brodkin and G. Marston (eds) Work and the Welfare State: Street Level Organisations and the Welfare State, Washington: Georgetown University Press, pp 234–46.
Adler, M. (2016) ‘A new leviathan: benefit sanctions in the twenty-first century’, Law and Society, 43(2): 195–227.
Albanese, A. (2020) ‘Australia beyond the coronavirus’, Sharon Bird MP, [media release, online] 11 May, Available from: https://www.sharonbird.com.au/australia_beyond_the_coronavirus [Accessed 14 April 2021].
Allam, L. (2020) ‘Power outages leave Aboriginal people on NT islands with no food, fuel or phones for three days’, The Guardian, [online] 4 March, Available from: https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2020/mar/04/power-outages-leave-aboriginal-people-on-nt-islands-with-no-food-fuel-or-phones-for-three-days [Accessed 1 February 2021].
Alston, P. (2019) ‘World stumbling zombie-like into a digital welfare dystopia, warns UN human rights expert’, United Nations Human Rights: Office of the High Commissioner, [online], Available from: https://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=25156 [Accessed 30 December 2020].
Altman, J. (2008) Submission to The Northern Territory Emergency Response Review, Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research Topical Issue No. 10/2008, Canberra: Australian National University.
Altman, J. (2011) ‘A genealogy of ‘demand sharing’: from pure anthropology to public policy’, in Y. Musharbash and M. Barber (eds) Ethnography & the Production of Anthropological Knowledge: Essays in Honour of Nicolas Peterson, Canberra: Australian National University Press, pp 187–200.
Altman, J. (2018) ‘“The main thing is to have enough food”: Kuninjku precarity and neoliberal reason’, in C. Gregory and J. Altman (eds) The Quest for a Good Life in Precarious Times, Canberra: ANU Press, pp 163–96.
Altman, J. and Markham, F. (2016) ‘Basic income and cultural participation for remote-living Indigenous Australians’, in E. Klein, J. Mays and T. Dunlop (eds) Implementing a basic income in Australia, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, pp 87–109.
Amagir, A., Groot, W., Maasen van de Brink, H. and Wilschut, A. (2018) ‘A review of financial-literacy education programs for children and adolescents’, Citizenship, Social and Economics Education, 17(1): 56–80.
Anaya, J. (2010) ‘Observations on the Northern Territory Emergency Response in Australia’, National Council of Churches in Australia, [online] February, Available from: http://www.ncca.org.au/files/Natsiec/NTER_Observations_FINAL_by_SR_Anaya_.pdf [Accessed 19 December 2020].
Anderson, J. and Honneth, A. (2005) ‘Autonomy, vulnerability, recognition, and justice’, in J. Christman and J. Anderson (eds) Autonomy and the Challenges to Liberalism: New Essays, Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, pp 127–49.
Anderson, P. (2011) Research for a better future, keynote address to the Third Aboriginal Health Research Conference, Coalition for Research to improve Aboriginal Health, Sydney, 5–6 May, Available from: https://www.lowitja.org.au/content/Document/PDF/Pat_Anderson-CRIAH-27_04_2011.pdf [Accessed 23 March 2021].
Archer-Lean, C. and Pavitt, H. (2012) ‘Politics and ethics in social media’, Social Alternatives, 31(2): 3–5.
Ardern, J. (2016) ‘ Social Security (Extension of Young Persons Services and Remedial Matters) Amendment Bill – In Committee’, New Zealand Parliament, [online] 5 July, Available from: https://www.parliament.nz/en/pb/hansard-debates/rhr/combined/HansDeb_20160705_20160705_16 [Accessed 21 December 2020].
Arnold, J. and Rhyne, E. (2016) A Change in Behaviour: Innovations in Financial Capability, [online] Available from: https://content.centerforfinancialinclusion.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2018/09/a-change-in-behavior-final-2.pdf [Accessed 15 February 2021].
Arthur, C. (2016) ‘Financial literacy education as a public pedagogy: consumerizing economic insecurity, ethics and democracy’, in C. Aprea, E. Wuttke, K. Breuer, N.K. Koh, P. Davies, B. Greimel-Fuhrmann and J.S. Lopus (eds) International Handbook of Financial Literacy, New York: Springer, pp 113–25.
Arthur, D. (2015) ‘Income management: a quick guide’, Parliament of Australia, [online] 15 July, Available from: https://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/pubs/rp/rp1516/Quick_Guides/IncomeManagement [Accessed 23 January 2021].
Arthur, D. and Ayoub, J. (2020) ‘Social Security (Administration) Amendment (Continuation of Cashless Welfare) Bill’, New Zealand Parliament, [online] 2 December, Available from: https://parlinfo.aph.gov.au/parlInfo/download/legislation/billsdgs/7669864/upload_binary/7669864.pdf;fileType=application%2Fpdf#search=%22WX2%22 [Accessed 30 January 2021].
Australian Bureau of Statistics (2018) ‘Estimates of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians’, Australian Bureau of Statistics, [online] 18 September, Available from: https://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/3238.0.55.001 [Accessed 14 April 2021].
Australian Bureau of Statistics (2019) Census of Population and Housing 2016 and 2011 Customised Report, Canberra: ABS.
Australian Bureau of Statistics (2020) ‘Gender Indicators Australia’, [online] Available from: https://www.abs.gov.au/statistics/people/people-and-communities/gender-indicators-australia/latest-release [Accessed 18 December 2020].
Australian Government (2009a) Report on the Northern Territory Emergency Response Redesign Consultations, Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.
Australian Government (2009b) Future Directions for the Northern Territory Emergency Response, Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.
Australian Government (2011) Stronger Futures in the Northern Territory: Report on Consultations, Canberra: Australian Government.
Australian Government (2019) ‘Cashless debit card – further extension and expansion, 2019 budget fact sheet’, Department of Social Services, [online] Available from: https://www.dss.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/04_2019/pbs-fact-sheet-cashless-debit-cardfzlfexz_0.docx [Accessed 12 February 2021].
Australian Government (2020) ‘Youth and long term payment recipients’, Services Australia, [online] 18 November, Available from: https://www.servicesaustralia.gov.au/individuals/services/centrelink/income-management/who-can-get-it/youth-and-long-term-payment-recipients [Accessed 6 February 2021].
Australian Government (2021a) ‘Australian Government Cashless Debit Card program data’, Data.gov.au, [online] Available from: https://data.gov.au/data/dataset/australian-government-cashless-debit-card-program [Accessed 12 February 2021].
Australian Government (2021b) ‘Australian Government Income Management program data’, Data.gov.au, [online] Available from: https://data.gov.au/data/dataset/australian-government-income-management-program [Accessed 10 February 2021].
Australian Government (2021c) ‘Cashless Debit Card data summary January 2021’, Australian Government Cashless Debit Card Program, [online] 1 January, Available from: https://data.gov.au/dataset/ds-dga-e5a6ca38-b17c-4e65-af70-84e7759a0ffa/details?q= [Accessed 1 February 2021].
Australian Government (2021d) ‘Guides to social policy law: Social security guide, version 1.277, 126.96.36.199 Principal carer exemptions from income management – financial vulnerability test’, Department of Social Services, [online] Available from: https://guides.dss.gov.au/guide-social-security-law/11/1/14/30 [Accessed 12 February 2021].
Australian Government (2021e) ‘Income management data summary January 2021’, Australian Government Income Management Program, [online] 1 January, Available from: https://data.gov.au/dataset/ds-dga-fd464dd1-0031-4e4a-abdd-c08282192d86/details?q= [Accessed 1 February 2021].
Australian Indigenous Doctors’ Association and Centre for Health Equity Training, Research and Evaluation UNSW (2010) Health impact assessment of the Northern Territory Emergency Response, Canberra: Australian Indigenous Doctors’ Association.
Australian Law Reform Commission (2015) Traditional Rights and Freedoms – Encroachments by Commonwealth Laws: Final Report, ALRC Report 129, Sydney: Australian Law Reform Commission.
Australian National Audit Office (2018) ‘The implementation and performance of the cashless debit card trial (Auditor-General Report No.1 2018–19)’, Australian National Audit Office, [online] 17 July, Available from: https://www.anao.gov.au/work/performance-audit/implementation-and-performance-cashless-debit-card-trial [Accessed 22 December 2020].
Baaz, M., Heikkinen, S. and Lilja, M. (2017) ‘Editorial’, Journal of Political Power, 10(2): 127–32.
Bacchi, C. (1999) Women, Policy and Politics: The Construction of Policy Problems, London: SAGE Publications.
Bacchi, C. (2009) Analysing Policy: What’s the Problem Represented to Be?, Melbourne: Pearson Education.
Bacchi, C. and Goodwin, S. (2016) Poststructural Policy Analysis, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Bailey, C., Powell, M. and Brubacher, S. (2017) ‘Reporting rates of child sexual abuse in Indigenous communities in two Australian jurisdictions’, Child Abuse and Neglect, 68: 74–80.
Banks, M. and Tennant, D. (2016) ‘Community worker perceptions of the income management regime in Shepparton’, Australian Journal of Social Issues, 51(4): 419–32.
Baumberg, B., Bell, K., Gaffney, D., Deacon, R., Hood, C. and Sage, D. (2012) Benefits Stigma in Britain, London: Turn2Us.
Béland, D. and Cox, R. (2016) ‘Ideas as coalition magnets: coalition building, policy entrepreneurs, and power relations’, Journal of European Public Policy, 23(3): 428–45.
Benesch, S. (2018) ‘Emotions as agency: feeling rules, emotion labor, and English language teachers’ decision-making’, System, 79: 60–9.
Bennett, P. (2012a) ‘Social Security (Youth Support and Work Focus) Amendment Bill second reading’, New Zealand Parliament, [online] 12 June, Available from: https://www.parliament.nz/en/pb/hansard-debates/rhr/document/50HansD_20120612_00000028/social-security-youth-support-and-work-focus-amendment [Accessed 20 December 2020].
Bennett, P. (2012b). ‘Social Security (Youth Support and Work Focus) Amendment Bill first reading’, New Zealand Parliament, [online] 27 March, Available from: https://www.parliament.nz/resource/en-NZ/50HansD_20120327/2e9750df6a57cf1a86e47b7d172d7ccad0d4821c [Accessed 16 December 2020].
Bentley, R., Baker, E. and Aitken, Z. (2019), ‘The ‘double precarity’ of employment insecurity and unaffordable housing and its impact on mental health’, Social Science & Medicine, 225: 9–16.
Beresford, P. (2013) Towards Inclusive User Involvement: Beyond the Usual Suspects, London: Shaping Our Lives.
Berlant, L. (2004) ‘Introduction: compassion (and withholding)’, in L. Berlant (ed) Compassion: The Culture and Politics of an Emotion, New York: Routledge, pp 1–13.
Biddle, N., Howlett, M., Hunter, B. and Paradies, Y. (2013) ‘Labour market and other discrimination facing Indigenous Australians’, Australian Journal of Labour Economics, 16(1): 91–113.
Bielefeld, S. (2012) ‘Compulsory income management and Indigenous Australians – delivering social justice or furthering colonial domination?’, University of New South Wales Law Journal, 35(2): 522–62.
Bielefeld, S. (2013) ‘Compulsory income management under the Stronger Futures Laws – providing “flexibility” or overturning freedom of contract?’, Indigenous Law Bulletin, 8(5): 18–21.
Bielefeld, S. (2014a) ‘Compulsory income management – exploring counter narratives amidst colonial constructions of vulnerability’, Sydney Law Review, 36(4): 695–726.
Bielefeld, S. (2014b) ‘Income management and Indigenous peoples – nudged into a Stronger Future?’, Griffith Law Review, 23(2): 285–317.
Bielefeld, S. (2015) ‘Compulsory income management, Indigenous peoples and structural violence: implications for citizenship and autonomy’, Australian Indigenous Law Review, 18(1): 99–118.
Bielefeld, S. (2018b) ‘Government mythology on income management, alcohol, addiction and Indigenous communities’, Critical Social Policy, 38 (4): 749–70.
Bielefeld, S. and Beaupert, F. (2019) ‘Income management and intersectionality: analysing compulsory income management through the lenses of critical race theory and critical disability studies (‘DisCrit’)’, Sydney Law Review, 41(3): 327–57.
Bielefeld, S., Marston, G., Peterie, M. and Staines, Z. (2020) ‘Submission No 118 to the Senate Standing Committee on Community Affairs’, Inquiry into the Social Security (Administration) Amendment (Continuation of Cashless Welfare) Bill 2020, 23 October, 1–34.
Billings, P. (2010) ‘Social welfare experiments in Australia: more trials for Aboriginal communities’, Journal of Social Security Law, 17(3): 164–95.
Bissell, K. and Parrott, S. (2013) ‘Prejudice: the role of the media in the development of social bias’, Journalism and Communication Monographs, 15(4): 219–70.
Blakely, T., Collings, S. and Atkinson, J. (2003) ‘Unemployment and suicide: evidence for a causal association?’, Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 57(8): 594–600.
Booth, A. and Carroll, N. (2008) ‘Economic status and the Indigenous/non-Indigenous health gap’, Economics Letters, 99(3): 604–6.
Bossert, W. and D’Ambrosio, C. (2013) ‘Measuring economic insecurity’, International Economic Review, 54(3): 1017–30.
Boyle, D., Coote, A., Sherwood, C. and Slay, J. (2010) Right Here, Right Now: Taking Co-production into the Mainstream, London: New Economics Foundation.
Bray, J.R. (2015) ‘Presentation to Community Affairs Legislation Committee’, Hansard, 11 September: 6–11.
Bray, J.R., Gray, M., Hand, K. and Katz, I. (2014) Evaluating New Income Management in the Northern Territory: Final Evaluation Report. Social Policy Research Centre Report 25/2014, Sydney: Social Policy Research Centre.
Bray, J.R., Gray, M., Hand, K. and Katz, I. (2016) ‘Compulsory income management in the Northern Territory – evaluating its impact’, Australian Journal of Social Issues, 50(4): 373–96.
Bregman, R. (2016) Utopia for Realists: The Case for Universal Basic Income, Open Borders and a 15-hour workweek, Amsterdam: De Correspondent.
Briggs, C. and Buchanan, J. (2000) ‘Australian labour market deregulation: a critical assessment’, Parliament of Australia, [online] Available from: https://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/pubs/rp/rp9900/2000RP21#current [Accessed 18 December 2020].
Brimble, M. and Blue, L. (2013) ‘Tailored financial literacy education: an Indigenous perspective’, Journal of Financial Services Marketing, 18(3): 207–19.
Brough, M. (2006a) ‘Speech: social innovations dialogue’, Parliament of Australia, [online] 29 April, Available from: https://parlinfo.aph.gov.au/parlInfo/download/media/pressrel/OIIK6/upload_binary/oiik66.pdf;fileType=application%2Fpdf#search=%22media/pressrel/OIIK6%22 [Accessed 18 December 2020].
Brough, M. (2006b) ‘ACOSS National Congress’, Department of Social Services, [online] 23 November, Available from: https://formerministers.dss.gov.au/2912/acoss-national-congress/ [Accessed 17 December 2020].
Brough, M. (2007) ‘National emergency response to protect Aboriginal children in the NT’, Department of Social Services, [press release] 21 June, Available from: https://formerministers.dss.gov.au/3581/emergency_21june07/ [Accessed 14 December 2020].
Bryson, L. (1992) Welfare and the State: Who Benefits?, New York: Macmillan Education.
Bryson, L. and Verity, F. (2009) ‘Australia: from wage-earners to neo-liberal welfare state’, in P. Alcock and G. Craig (eds) International Social Policy, Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, pp 66–87.
Buckmaster, L. and Ey, C. (2012) ‘Is income management working?’, Parliament of Australia, [online] 5 June, Available from: https://parlinfo.aph.gov.au/parlInfo/download/library/prspub/1603602/upload_binary/1603602.pdf;fileType=application%2Fpdf#search=%22library/prspub/1603602%22 [Accessed 12 December 2020].
Buckmaster, L., Ey, C. and Klapdor, M. (2012) ‘Income management: an overview’, Parliament of Australia, [online] 21 June, Available from: https://parlinfo.aph.gov.au/parlInfo/download/library/prspub/1727168/upload_binary/1727168.pdf;fileType=application/pdf [Accessed 10 December 2020].
Bush, G.W. (2002) Fact Sheet: Compassionate Conservatism, Washington: White House.
Calavita, K. (2016) Invitation to Law & Society: An Introduction to the Real Study of Law (2nd edn), Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press.
Caliendo, M., Cobb-Clark, D. and Uhlendorff, A. (2015) ‘Locus of control and job search strategies’, The Review of Economics and Statistics, 97(1): 88–103.
Canavan, M. (2019) Speech to the Senate, 2 December: 94–5.
Cantwell, K. (2015) ‘PBIM engagement’. Paper presented to Examining Income Management programs in Australia Conference, Melbourne: Monash University, 16 July.
Cape York Institute for Policy & Leadership (2007) From Handout to Hand Up: Welfare Reform Report: Design Recommendations , Cairns: Cape York Institute for Policy & Leadership.
Carcasson, M. (2006) ‘Ending welfare as we know it: President Clinton and the rhetorical transformation of the anti-welfare culture’, Rhetoric and Public Affairs, 9(4): 655–92.
Carney, T. and Stanford, J. (2018) The Dimensions of Insecure Work: A Factbook, Canberra: The Australia Institute.
Carter, J.W. (2012) Cases and Materials on Contract Law in Australia (6th edn), Sydney: LexisNexis Butterworths.
Castles, F. (1985), The Working Class and Welfare: Reflections on the Political Development of theWelfare State in Australia and New Zealand, 1890–1980, Sydney: Allen & Unwin.
Castles, F. and Mitchell, D. (1992) ‘Identifying welfare states regimes: the links between politics, instruments and outcomes’, Governance, 5: 1–26.
Castles, F., Curtin, J. and Vowles, J. (2006) ‘Public policy in Australia and New Zealand: the new global context’, Australian Journal of Political Science, 41(2): 131–43.
Catalano, R. (1991) ‘The health effects of economic insecurity’, American Journal of Public Health, 81(9): 1148–52.
Cernison, M. (2019) Social Media Activism, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
Child Poverty Action Group (2021) CPAG Budget Analysis 2021, [online] Available from: https://www.cpag.org.nz/assets/Budget/CPAG-Budget-2021-AnalysisSummary.pdf [Accessed 22 March 2021].
Christensen, C. (2009) ‘Iran: networked dissent?’, Le Monde Dipliomatique, [online] Available from: http://www.mondediplo.com/blogs/iran-networked-dissent [Accessed 23 March 2021].
Clague, M. (1997) ‘Thirty turbulent years: community development and the organisation of health and social services in British Columbia’, in B. Wharf and M. Clague (eds) Community Organizing: Canadian Experiences, Toronto: Oxford University Press, pp 91–112.
Clasen, J and Siegel, D. (2007) ‘Levels and levers of conditionality: measuring change within welfare states’, in J. Clasen and D. Siegel (eds) Investigating Welfare State Change, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, pp 166–97.
Closing the Gap Refresh (2018) Special Gathering Statement: Closing the Gap Refresh: Building Pathways for Future Prosperity, February 2018, Canberra: National Indigenous Australians Agency, [online] Available from https://closingthegap.niaa.gov.au/sites/default/files/special-gathering-statementcoag.pdf [Accessed 10 February 2021].
Cobb-Clark, D., Kassenboehmer, S. and Schurer, S. (2014) ‘Healthy habits: the connection between diet, exercise and locus of control’, Journal of Economic Behaviour & Organisation, 98: 1–28.
Collier, R.B. and Collier, D. (1991) Shaping the Political Arena: Critical Junctures, the Labor Movement, and Regime Dynamics in Latin America, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Commonwealth of Australia (2007) ‘Parliamentary debates’, House of Representatives, 7 August.
Commonwealth of Australia (2020) Indigenous Voice Co-design Process: Interim Report to the Australian Government October 2020, Canberra: National Indigenous Australians Agency.
Commonwealth Ombudsman (2012) Review of Centrelink Income Management Decisions in the Northern Territory: Financial Vulnerability Exemption and Vulnerable Welfare Payment Recipient Decisions (Report No 4/2012), Canberra: Commonwealth Ombudsman.
Commonwealth Ombudsman (2013) Commonwealth Ombudsman 2012–2013 Annual Report, Canberra: Commonwealth Ombudsman.
Commonwealth Ombudsman (2014) Commonwealth Ombudsman 2013–2014 Annual Report, Canberra: Commonwealth Ombudsman.
Commonwealth Ombudsman (2015) Commonwealth Ombudsman Annual Report 2014–2015, Canberra: Commonwealth Ombudsman.
Commonwealth Ombudsman (2017) Commonwealth Ombudsman Annual Report 2016–2017, Canberra: Commonwealth Ombudsman.
Community Affairs Legislation Committee (CALC) (2012) Stronger Futures in the Northern Territory Bill 2011 (Provisions), Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.
CALC (2015) Social Security Legislation Amendment (Debit Card Trial) Bill 2015 (Provisions ), Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.
CALC (2017) Social Services Legislation Amendment (Cashless Debit Card) Bill 2017 Provisions ), Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.
CALC (2019a) Social Security (Administration) Amendment (Income Management and Cashless Welfare) Bill 2019, Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.
CALC (2019b) Social Security (Administration) Amendment (Income Management to Cashless Debit Card Transition) Bill 2019 (Provisions), Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.
CALC (2020) Social Security (Administration) Amendment (Continuation of Cashless Welfare) Bill 2020 (Provisions ), Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.
Contini, D. and Richiardi, M.G. (2010) ‘Reconsidering the effect of welfare stigma on unemployment’, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 84: 229–44.
Cooley, C. (1902) Human Nature and the Social Order, New York: Scribner.
Coote, A. (2015) People, Planet, Power: Towards a New Social Settlement, London: New Economics Foundation.
Coote, A. (2019) ‘Universal Basic Services and Sustainable Consumption’, Sustainability, Science, Practice and Policy, 17(1): 32–46.
Crossan, D., Feslier, D. and Hurnard, R. (2011) ‘Financial literacy and retirement planning in New Zealand’, Netspar Discussion Paper, no. 1/2011–015, [online] Available from: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1809680 [Accessed 10 February 2021].
Cunneen, C., Allison, F. and Schwartz, M. (2014) ‘Access to justice for Aboriginal people in the Northern Territory’, Australian Journal of Social Issues, 49(2): 219–40.
Cvetanovski, J. and Jex, S. (1994) ‘Locus of control of unemployed people and its relationship to psychological and physical wellbeing’, Work & Stress: An International Journal of Work, Health & Organisations, 8(1): 60–7.
Dalley, B. and Tennant, M. (eds). (2004) Past Judgement: Social Policy in New Zealand History, Dunedin: University of Otago Press.
Dean, M. (2009) Governmentality: Power and Rule in Modern Society (2nd edn), London: Sage Publications.
Deloitte Access Economics (2014) Place Based Income Management – Process and Short Term Outcomes Evaluation, Canberra: Deloitte Access Economics and Department of Social Services.
Deloitte Access Economics (2015) Consolidated Place Based Income Management Evaluation Report 2012–2015, [online] Available from: https://www.dss.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/11_2015/deloitte_access_economics_consolidated_evaluation_report_201115.pdf [Accessed 20 December 2020].
Deloitte Access Economics (2020) Estimating the Impacts of Lowering Current Levels of Income Support Payments, Sydney: ACOSS.
Demirdis, S. (2019) ‘The role of Facebook and Twitter in social movements: a study on the July 15 coup attempt in Turkey’, Türkiye İletişim Araştırmaları Dergisi: 32–49, DOI: 10.17829/turcom.477180.
Department of Social Services (2016) Cashless Debit Card Trial Progress Report, Canberra: Australian Government.
Department of Social Services (2017) Cashless Debit Card Trial Evaluation: Final Report, [online] Available from: https://www.dss.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/10_2018/cashless-debit-card-trial-final-evaluation-report_2.pdf [Accessed 20 December 2020].
Department of Social Services (2018) ‘Cashless Debit Card (CDC) and Income Management (IM) summary’, Department of Social Services, [online] 30 March, Available from: https://data.gov.au/dataset/ds-dga-3b1f1fb7-adb5-48ea-8305-9205df0a298c/distribution/dist-dga-986ef7fe-1ba8-460e-b1c4-2cf00145a948/details?q= [Accessed 30 March 2018].
DePaula, N., Fietkiewicz, K.J., Froehlich, T.J., Million, A.J., Dorsch, I. and Ilhan, A. (2018) ‘Challenges for social media: misinformation, civic engagement, and data regulations’, Computer Science, 55(1): 665–8.
Dillon, M.C. (2021) Codesign in the Indigenous Policy Domain: Risks and Opportunities, Canberra: Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research, Australian National University.
Dobson, R. (2015) ‘Power, agency, relationality and welfare practices’, Journal of Social Policy, 44(4): 687–705.
Dolowitz, D. and D. Marsh. (2000) ‘Learning from abroad: the role of policy transfer in contemporary policy-making.’ Governance, 13(1): 5–24.
Donaghy, B. (2020) A Basic Income for Australia: A Fair Go For All, How it Works, How to Pay For It, Adelaide: Griffin Press.
Doocey, M. (2016) ‘Social Security (Youth Support and Work Focus) Amendment Bill – Second Reading’, New Zealand Parliament, [online] 12 June, Available from: https://www.parliament.nz/en/pb/hansard-debates/rhr/document/50HansD_20120612_00000028/social-security-youth-support-and-work-focus-amendment [Accessed 9 December 2020].
Dougherty, D.S., Rick, J.M. and Moore, P. (2017) ‘Unemployment and social class stigmas’, Journal of Applied Communication Research, 45(5): 495–516.
Dudgeon, P., Bray, A., D’Costa, B. and Walker, R. (2017) ‘Decolonising psychology: validating social and emotional wellbeing’, Australian Psychologist, 52(4): 316–25.
Dwyer, P. (ed) (2019) Dealing with Welfare Conditionality: Implementation and Effects, Bristol: Policy Press.
Edelman, M. (1988) Constructing the Political Spectacle, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Edelman, P. (2013) So Rich, So Poor: Why It’s So Hard to End Poverty in America, New York: The New Press.
Esping-Andersen, G. (1990) The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Esping-Andersen, G. (2002) ‘Towards the good society, once again?’, in G. Esping-Andersen (ed), Why We Need a New Welfare State, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp 5–34.
Eubanks, V. (2018) Automating Inequality: How High Tech Tools Profile, Police and Punish the Poor, New York: St Martin’s Press.
Ferguson, J. (2015) Give a Man a Fish: Reflections on the New Politics of Distribution, Durham: Duke University Press.
Fernandes, D., Lynch, J. and Netemeyer, R. (2014) ‘Financial literacy, financial education and downstream financial behaviors’, Management Science, 60(8): 1861–83.
Fletcher, M., Hanna, K. and Anderson, D. (2013) ‘The introduction of compulsory income management into New Zealand’s social security system: the case of the Youth Service Package’, paper presented at the Labour, Employment and Work in New Zealand Conference, 27–8 November, Wellington: Victoria University of Wellington.
Fletcher, P. (2019) ‘Morrison Government extends successful Cashless Debit Card’, Parliament of Australia, [media release, online] 25 March, Available from: https://parlinfo.aph.gov.au/parlInfo/download/media/pressrel/6579549/upload_binary/6579549.pdf;fileType=application%2Fpdf#search=%22media/pressrel/6579549%22 [Accessed 12 February 2021].
Forgione, P. (2014) ‘Income management: Centrelink forgot to pay my rent’, Green Left Weekly, [online] 4 July, Available from: https://www.greenleft.org.au/content/income-management-centrelink-forgot-pay-my-rent [Accessed 23 March 2021].
Forgione, P. (2015) ‘Life on compulsory income management’, Green Left Weekly, [online] 3 July, Available from: https://www.greenleft.org.au/content/life-compulsory-income-management [Accessed 23 March 2021].
Forrest, A. (2014) ‘The Forrest review: creating parity’, National Indigenous Australians Agency, [online] Available from: https://www.niaa.gov.au/sites/default/files/publications/Forrest-Review.pdf [Accessed 8 December 2020].
Foucault, M. (1978) The History of Sexuality, New York: Pantheon Books.
Fox, M. (2016) Social Security (Extension of Young Persons Services and Remedial Matters) Amendment Bill – In Committee, Parliament of New Zealand, [online] 14 June, Available from: https://www.parliament.nz/en/pb/hansard-debates/rhr/combined/HansDeb_20160614_20160614_28 [Accessed 7 December 2020].
Fraser, N. (2013) Fortunes of Feminism: From State-managed Capitalism to Neoliberal Crisis, New York: Verso.
Fraser, N. and Gordon, L. (1994) ‘A genealogy of “dependency”: tracing a keyword of the US welfare state’, Signs: A Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 19(2): 309–36.
Frijns, B., Gilbert, A. and Tourani-Rad, A. (2014) ‘Learning by doing: the role of financial experience in financial literacy’, Journal of Public Policy, 34(1): 123–54.
Future Social Service Institute (2018) What is Co-design?, Melbourne: FSSI.
Galicki, C. (2020) Financial Capability Barometer, 2018–19, Wellington: Commission for Financial Capability.
Garimella, K., De Francisci Morales, G., Gionis, A. and Mathioudakis, M. (2018) ‘Political discourses on social media: echo chambers, gatekeepers, and the price of bipartisanship’, World Wide Web Conference 2018, [online] Available at: https://arxiv.org/abs/1801.01665 [Accessed 23 March 2021].
Garland, D. (2001) The Culture of Control: Crime and Social Order in Contemporary Society, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gausman, J. (2020) ‘Sex and gender disparities in the COVID-19 pandemic’, Journal of Women’s Health, 29(4): 465–6.
Gibson, P. (2009) Return to the Ration Days – The NT Intervention: Grass-roots Experience and Resistance, Sydney: Jumbunna Indigenous House of Learning, University of Technology Sydney.
Goffman, E. (1963) Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity, London: Penguin.
Goldfinch, S. and V. Roberts. (2013) ‘New public management and public sector reform in Victoria and New Zealand: policy transfer, elite networks and legislative copying’, Australian Journal of Politics & History, 59(1): 80–96.
Grahame, T. and Marston, G. (2010) ‘Welfare-to-work policies and the experience of employed single mothers on income support in Australia: where are the benefits?’, Australian Social Work 65(1): 73–86.
Gregoire, P. (2019) ‘The best form of welfare is a job: PM refuses to raise welfare payments’, Sydney Criminal Lawyers, [blog] Available from: https://www.sydneycriminallawyers.com.au/blog/the-best-form-of-welfare-is-a-job-pm-refuses-to-raise-welfare-payments/ [Accessed 15 December 2020].
Gustafson, K. (2011) Cheating Welfare: Public Assistance and the Criminalization of Poverty, New York: New York University Press.
Hacker, J. (2006) The Great Risk Shift: Assault on American Jobs, Families, Health Care and Retirement and How You Can Fight Back, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Haidt, J. (2012) The Righteous Mind: Why Good People Are Divided by Politics and Religion, New York: Pantheon Books.
Haidt, J. (2013) ‘Moral psychology for the twenty-first century’, Journal of Moral Education 42(3): 281–97.
Hatcher, D. (2015) The Poverty Industry: The Exploitation of America’s Most Vulnerable Citizens, New York: NYU Press.
Henman, P. (2004) ‘Targeted! Population Segmentation, electronic surveillance and governing the unemployed in Australia’, International Sociology, 19(2): 173–91.
Herman, E.S. and Chomsky, N. (1988) Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media, New York: Pantheon Books.
Heshmat, S. (2015) ‘What is confirmation bias’, Psychology Today, [online] 23 April, Available from: https://www.psychologytoday.com/au/blog/science-choice/201504/what-is-confirmation-bias [Accessed 23 March 2021].
Higashi, R., Lee, S., Pezzia, C., Quirk, L., Leonard, T. and Pruitt, S. (2017) ‘Family and social context contributes to the interplay of economic insecurity, food insecurity and health’, Annals of Anthropological Practice, 41(2): 67–77.
Hiswals, A., Marttila, A., Malstam, E. and Macassa, G. (2017) ‘Experiences of unemployment and well-being after job loss during economic recession: results of a qualitative study in east central Sweden’, Journal of Public Health Research, 6(995): 135–41.
Hochschild, A.R. (1979) ‘Emotion work, feeling rules, and social structure’, American Journal of Social Structure, 85(3): 551–75.
Hockey, J. (2012) ‘The end of the age of entitlement’, The Sydney Morning Herald, [online] 19 April, Available from: https://www.smh.com.au/national/the-end-of-the-age-of-entitlement-20120419-1x8vj.html [Accessed 14 January 2021].
Hollander, J.A. and Einwohner, R.L. (2004) ‘Conceptualizing resistance’, Sociological Forum, 19(4): 533–54.
Hossain, B. and Lamb, L. (2019) ‘Economic insecurity and psychological distress among Indigenous Canadians’, The Journal of Developing Areas, 53(1): 109–25.
Houkamau, C.A., Stronge, S. and Sibley, C.G. (2017) ‘The prevalence and impact of racism towards Indigenous Maori in New Zealand’, International Perspectives in Psychology: Research, Practice, Consultation, 6(2): 61–80.
Houkamau, C., Sibley, C. and Henare, M. (2019) ‘The Māori Identity and Financial Attitudes Study (MIFAS)’, New Zealand Journal of Indigenous Scholarship, 8(2): 142–58.
Houkamau, C., Stevens, A., Oakes, D. and Blank, M. (nd) ‘Taking control: Maori responses to money management wealth and saving’, University of Auckland Business School, [online] Available from: http://www.maramatanga.co.nz/sites/default/files/project-reports/Taking%20Control_M%C4%81ori%20Responses%20to%20Money%2C%20Wealth%20and%20Savings.pdf [Accessed 10 February 2021].
Howard, J. (2007) ‘Address to the Sydney Institute’, Pandora: Australia’s Web Archive, [online] 25 June, Available from: http://pandora.nla.gov.au/pan/10052/20080118-1528/pm.gov.au/media/Speech/2007/Speech24394.html%3E [Accessed 2 March 2020].
Howard, J. and Brough, M. (2007) ‘Transcript of Prime Minister Hon John Howard MP joint press conference with Hon Mal Brough, Minister for Families, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs’, PM Transcripts: Transcripts from the Prime Ministers of Australia, [online] 10 July, Available from: https://pmtranscripts.pmc.gov.au/release/transcript-15599 [Accessed 12 December 2020].
Howe, L. (1998) ‘Scrounger, worker, beggarman, cheat: the dynamics of unemployment and the politics of resistance in Belfast’, The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 4(3): 531–50.
Huang, J., Kim, Y. and Birkenmaier, J. (2016) ‘Unemployment and household food hardship in the economic recession’, Public Health Nutrition, 19(3): 511–9.
Humpage, L. (2015) Policy Change, Public Attitudes and Social Citizenship: Does Neoliberalism Matter?, Bristol: The Policy Press.
Humpage, L. (2016) ‘Income management in New Zealand and Australia: differently framed but similarly problematic for Indigenous peoples’, Critical Social Policy, 36(4): 551–71.
Humpage, L. (2018) Youth Service and Money Management in New Zealand: Preliminary Research Findings, Auckland: University of Auckland, [online] Available from: http://cdn.auckland.ac.nz/assets/arts/documents/youth-service-and-money-management-in-new-zealand-preliminary-research-findings.pdf [Accessed 18 December 2020].
Humpage, L. and Neuwelt-Kearns, C. (2020) ‘Income support in the wake of Covid-19: Survey’, [online] Available from: https://www.cpag.org.nz/assets/Covid%2019%20survey%20report%2012%20October%20final.pdf [Accessed 3 February 2021].
Humpage, L. and Moore, C. (2021) Income Support in the Wake of COVID-19: Interviews, [online] Available from: https://www.cpag.org.nz/assets/Covid-19%2520INTERVIEW%2520report%2520FINAL%252012%2520April%25202021.docx%2520%25281%2529.pdf [Accessed 20 March 2021].
Humpage, L., Peterie, M., Marston, G., Mendes, P., Bielefeld, S. and Staines, Z. (2020a) Helping or Harming? Compulsory Income Management in Australia and New Zealand – Summary Report, Brisbane: School of Social Science, The University of Queensland.
Humpage, L., Staines, Z., Marston, G., Peterie, M., Bielefeld, S. and Mendes, P. (2020b) ‘The complexity of convergence: a multi-dimensional analysis of compulsory income management and social investment in New Zealand and Australia’, Policy Studies [online first], https://doi.org/10.1080/01442872.2020.1783439
Hunter, S. (2015) Power, Politics and the Emotions: Impossible Governance?, London: Routledge.
Hynes, M. (2013) ‘Reconceptualizing resistance: sociology and the affective dimension of resistance’, The British Journal of Sociology, 64(4): 559–77.
Hynes, N. (2020) ‘Basics Card outage leaves Northern Territory welfare recipients unable to buy food’, ABC News, [online] 29 December, Available from: https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-12-29/system-outage-affects-nt-basics-card/13018000 [Accessed 1 February 2021].
Ife, J. (2016) Community Development in an Uncertain World, Melbourne: Cambridge University Press.
Immervoll, H. and Scarpetta, S. (2012) ‘Activation and employment support policies in OECD countries: an overview of current approaches’, IZA Journal of Labor Policy, 1(9): 1–20.
Ingles, D., Philips, B. and Stewart, M. (2019) ‘A Basic Income for Australia? Exploring Rationale, Design, Distribution and Benefits’, Hawthorn: Analysis and Policy Observatory, [online] Available from: https://apo.org.au/node/270176?utm_source=APO-view&utm_medium=more-like-this&utm_campaign=resource-mlt [Accessed 12 March 2021].
Jahoda, M., Lazarsfeld, P.F. and Zeisel, H. (1972) Marienthal: The Sociolography of an Unemployed Community, London: Tavistock.
Jahoda, M. (1981) ‘Work, employment, and unemployment: values, theories, and approaches in social research’, American Psychologist, 36(2): 184–91.
Jahoda, M. (1982) Employment and Unemployment: A Social-Psychological Analysis, London: Cambridge University Press.
Jensen, T. (2014) ‘Welfare commonsense, poverty porn and doxosophy’, Sociological Research Online, 19(3), https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.5153/sro.3441
Johansson, A. and Vinthagen, S. (2016) ‘Dimensions of everyday resistance: an analytical framework’, Critical Sociology, 42(3): 417–35.
John, P. (2003) ‘Is there life after policy streams, advocacy coalitions, and punctuations: using evolutionary theory to explain policy change?’, Policy Studies Journal, 31(4): 481–98.
Johnston, M. (2015) Ceduna – How Was It Selected, Who Is in Scope, What Was the Nature of Consultation, Canberra: Department of Social Services.
Kaiser, T. and Menkhoff, L. (2017), ‘Does financial education impact financial literacy and financial behaviour, and if so, when? Policy Research Working Paper, no. 8161’, World Bank Group, [online] Available from: https://elibrary.worldbank.org/doi/pdf/10.1596/1813-9450-8161 [Accessed 28 October 2020].
Kehoe, J. (2020) ‘JobSeeker ‘disincentives’ for jobless to seek work face review’, Australian Financial Review, 21 May: 5.
Kempson, E. Finney, A. and Poppe, E. (2017) ‘Financial wellbeing: a conceptual model and preliminary analysis’, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, [online] Available from: https://www.bristol.ac.uk/media-library/sites/geography/pfrc/pfrc1705-financial-well-being-conceptual-model.pdf [Accessed 23 March 2021].
Kidd, D. and McIntosh, K. (2016) ‘Social media and social movements’, Sociology Compass, 10(9): 785–94.
Klapdor, M. and Giuliano, C. (2020) The Impact of COVID-19 on JobSeeker Payment Recipient Numbers by Electorate, Research paper series, 2020–21, Canberra: Parliamentary Library.
Klein, E. (2014) ‘Submission by Dr Elise Klein, CAEPR’, in E. Klein (ed), Academic Perspectives on the Forrest Review: Creating Parity, CAEPR Topic Issue No. 2/2014, Canberra: Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research, [online] Available from: https://openresearch-repository.anu.edu.au/bitstream/1885/114088/1/Topical%20Issue-2_2014.pdf [Accessed 12 December 20].
Klein, E. (2020) ‘Settler colonialism in Australia and the Cashless Debit Card’, Social Policy and Administration, 29 January 2020 [online first], https://doi-org.ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/10.1111/spol.12576
Klein, E., Cook, K., Maury, M. and Bowey, K. (2021) Social Security and Time Use During COVID-19, Melbourne: Swinburne University of Technology & Centre for Excellence in Child and Family Welfare.
Klocker, N. (2004) ‘Community antagonism towards asylum seekers in Port Augusta, South Australia’, Australian Geographical Studies, 42(1): 1–17.
Koefoed, M. (2017) ‘Martyrdom and emotional resistance in the case of Northern Kurdistan: hidden and public emotional resistance’, Journal of Political Power, 10(2): 184–99.
Kokko, K., Pulkkinen, L. and Puustinen, M. (2000) ‘Selection into long-term unemployment and its psychological consequences’, International Journal of Behavioral Development, 24(3): 310–20.
Kopasker, D., Montagna, C. and Bender, K. (2018) ‘Economic insecurity: a socioeconomic determinant of mental health’, SSM-Population Health, 6: 184–94.
Lakoff, G. (2004) Don’t Think of an Elephant; Progressive Values and the Framing Wars: The Progressive Guide to Action, Vermont: Chelsea Publishing.
Langton, M. (2015) ‘Presentation to Community Affairs Legislation Committee’, Hansard, 11 September: 1–5.
Lattas, A. and Morris, B. (2010) ‘The politics of suffering and the politics of anthropology’, in J. Altman and M. Hinkson (eds) Culture Crisis: Anthropology and Politics in Aboriginal Australia, Sydney: University of New South Wales Press, pp 61–87.
Lea, T. (2008) Bureaucrats and Bleeding Hearts: Indigenous Health in Northern Australia, Sydney: UNSW Press.
Lefcourt, H., Martin, R. and Saleh, W. (1984) ‘Locus of control and social support: interactive moderators of stress’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47(2): 378–89.
Li, T. (2007) The Will to Improve: Governmentality, Development, and the Practice of Politics, Durham: Duke University Press.
Lipsky, M. (1980) Street-level Bureaucracy: Dilemmas of the Individual in Public Services, New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Lipsky, M. (2010) Street-level Bureaucracy, 30th Anniversary Edition: Dilemmas of the Individual in Public Service, New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Lister, R. (2004) Poverty, Cambridge: Polity Press.
Logie, J. (2012) ‘Social Security (Youth Support and Work Focus) Amendment Bill second reading’, New Zealand Parliament, [online] 13 June, Available from: https://www.parliament.nz/en/pb/hansard-debates/rhr/document/50HansD_20120612_00000028/social-security-youth-support-and-work-focus-amendment [Accessed 2 December 2020].
Logie, J. (2015) ‘Social Security (Extension of Young Persons Services and Remedial Matters) Amendment Bill – Second Reading’, Parliament of New Zealand, [online] Available from: https://www.parliament.nz/en/pb/hansard-debates/rhr/document/51HansD_20160601_00000012/social-security-extension-of-young-persons-services-and [Accessed 10 December 2020].
Logie, J. (2016) Social Security (Extension of Young Persons Services and Remedial Matters) Amendment Bill – In Committee, New Zealand Parliament, [online] 14 June, Available from: https://www.parliament.nz/en/pb/hansard-debates/rhr/combined/HansDeb_20160614_20160614_28 [Accessed 14 December 2020].
Lovell, T. (ed) (2007) (Mis)recognition, Social Inequality and Social Justice: Nancy Fraser and Pierre Bourdieu, Oxon: Routledge.
Macklin, J. (2009a) ‘Social Security and Other Legislation Amendment (Welfare Reform and Reinstatement of Racial Discrimination Act) Bill 2009 second reading’, Parliament of Australia, [online] 25 November, Available from: http://parlinfo.aph.gov.au/parlInfo/genpdf/chamber/hansardr/2009-11-25/0046/hansard_frag.pdf;fileType=application%2Fpdf [Accessed 14 December 2020].
Macklin, J. (2009b) ‘Speech to House of Representatives’, Hansard, 25 November: 12783–8.
Malenfant, R., LaRue, A. and Vezina, M. (2007) ‘Intermittent work and well-being: one foot in the door, one foot out’, Current Sociology, 55(6): 814–35.
Mandell, L. and Klein, L. (2009) ‘The impact of financial literacy education on subsequent financial behaviour’, Journal of Financial Counseling and Planning, 20(1): 15–24.
Markham, F. and Kerins, S. (2020) Policy responses to food insecurity in remote Indigenous communities: social security, store pricing and Indigenous food sovereignty, Canberra: The Australian National University.
Marston, G. and Watts, R. (2003) ‘Evidence based policy’, Just Policy: A Journal of Australian Social Policy, 29: 32–48.
Marston, G. and McDonald, C. (2007) ‘Assessing the policy trajectory of welfare reform in Australia’, Benefits, 15(3): 233–45.
Marston, G. and Zhang, J. (2019) ‘Limitations of the Australian social security system’, in P. Saunders (ed), Revisiting Henderson: Poverty, Social Security and Basic Income, Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, pp 141–162.
Marston, G., McDonald, C. and Bryson, L. (2014) The Australian Welfare State: Who Benefits Now?, Melbourne: Palgrave Macmillan Australia.
Marston, G., Zhang, J., Peterie, M., Ramia, G., Patulny, R. and Cooke, E. (2019) ‘To move or not to move: mobility decision-making in the context of welfare conditionality and paid employment’, Mobilities, 14(5): 596–611.
Marston, G., Mendes, P., Bielefeld, S., Peterie, M., Staines, Z. and Roche, S. (2020) Hidden Costs: An Independent Study into Income Management in Australia, Brisbane: School of Social Science, The University of Queensland.
Mavromaras, K. Moskos, M. Isherwood, L.M. and Mahuteau, S. (2019a), Cashless Debit Card Baseline Data Collection in the Goldfields Region: Qualitative Findings, Canberra: Australian Government Department of Social Services, [online] Available from: https://www.dss.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/02_2019/cdc_baseline_qualitative_data_collection_-_goldfields_region.pdf [Accessed 3 May 2021].
Mavromaras, K. Moskos, M., Isherwood, L. and Mahuteau, S. (2019b) Cashless Debit Card Baseline Data Collection in the Bundaberg and Hervey Bay Region: Qualitative Findings, Adelaide: University of Adelaide.
Mavromaras, K., Moskos, M., Mahuteau, S. and Isherwood, L. (2021) Evaluation of the Cashless Debit Card in Ceduna, East Kimberley and the Goldfields Region: Consolidated Report, Adelaide: University of Adelaide.
Maynard-Moody, S. and Musheno, M. (2003) Cops, Teachers and Counsellors: Stories from the Front Line of Public Service, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Mayors Taskforce for Jobs (2021) ‘Youth to Work’, Mayors Taskforce for Jobs, [online] Available from: https://www.mtfj.co.nz/resources-and-useful-links/youth-to-work/ [Accessed 8 February 2021].
Mays, J., Marston, G. and Tomlinson, J. (eds) (2016) Prospect for a Basic Income: Perspectives from the Neo-liberal Frontier, Melbourne: Palgrave MacMillan.
McDonald, C. and Marston, G. (2005) ‘Workfare as welfare: governing unemployment in the advanced liberal state’, Critical Social Policy, 25(3): 374–401.
Mead, L. (ed) (1997) The New Paternalism: Supervisory Approaches to Poverty, Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Mendes, P. (2013) ‘Compulsory income management: a critical examination of the emergence of conditional welfare in Australia’, Australian Social Work, 66(4): 495–510.
Mendes, P. (2018) ‘Community as a spray-on solution: a case study of community engagement within the income management programme in Australia’, Community Development Journal, 53(2): 210–27.
Mendes, P. (2019) ‘Top-down paternalism versus bottom-up community development: a case study of compulsory income management programs in Australia’, The International Journal of Community and Social Development, 1(1): 42–57.
Mendes, P. (2020a) ‘Conditionalising the unemployed: why have consecutive Australian governments refused to increase the inadequate Newstart Allowance?’, Australian Journal of Social Issues, 56(1), DOI: 10.1002/ajs4.140.
Mendes, P. (2020b) ‘The Australian Labor Party and compulsory income management: how and why did they reverse their position?’, Social Alternatives, 39(1): 47–53.
Mendes, P., Waugh, J. and Flynn, C. (2014) ‘Income management in Australia: a critical examination of the evidence’, International Journal of Social Welfare, 23(4): 362–72.
Mendes, P., Roche, S., Marston, G., Peterie, M., Staines, Z. and Humpage, L. (2020) ‘The social harms outweigh the benefits: a study of compulsory income management in Greater Shepparton and Playford’, Australian Social Work, DOI: 10.1080/0312407X.2020.1820536.
Millan, T., Barham, T., Macours, K., Maluccio, J. and Stampani, M. (2019), ‘Long-term impacts of conditional cash transfers: review of the evidence’, The World Bank Research Observer, 34(1): 119–59.
Miller, M., Reichelstein, J., Salas, C. and Zia, B. (2015) ‘Can you help someone become financially capable? A meta-analysis of the literature’, World Bank Research Observer, 30(2): 220–46.
Miller, S.C. (2012) The Ethics of Need: Agency, Dignity and Obligation, New York: Routledge.
Ministry of Health (2018) ‘Healthy homes initiative – Auckland co-design: testing ideas to make homes warmer and drier: Report on stage two’, New Zealand Ministry of Health, [online] Available from: https://www.health.govt.nz/publication/healthy-homes-initiative-auckland-codesign-stage2 [Accessed 12 February 2021].
Ministry of Social Development (MSD) (2005) Youth Transition Services: Lessons for Service Development, Wellington: Ministry of Social Development.
MSD (2008) Youth Transition Services: Process and Outcomes Evaluation Final Report, Wellington: Ministry of Social Development.
MSD (2012a) Departmental Report: Social Security (Youth Support and Work Focus) Amendment Bill, 1 May.
MSD (2012b) Social Security (Youth Support and Work Focus) Amendment Bill – Initial Briefing to Social Services Committee, 28 March.
MSD (2012c) Regulatory Impact Statement: Youth Package: Policy Decisions on the Youth Package, Mackwell, S., nd.
MSD (2015) Departmental Report to Social Services Committee – Social Security (Extension of Young Persons Services and Remedial Matters) Amendment Bill, November.
MSD (2017) Provider – Operational Guidelines Youth Service. Wellington: Ministry of Social Development, November.
MSD (2019a) Update on the Review of the Youth Service, 26 June.
MSD (2019b) Youth Service Review: Auckland North Workshop, 28 September.
MSD (2020) ‘National benefits’, Parliament of New Zealand, [online] December, Available from: https://www.msd.govt.nz/about-msd-and-our-work/publications-resources/statistics/benefit/index.html [Accessed 8 December 2020].
MSD (2021a) Experiences of Money Management in the Youth Service, Wellington: New Zealand.
MSD (2021b) Response to Inquiry under the Official Information Act 1982, unpublished email correspondence with Dr Bielefeld, 12 March.
Moffatt, K. (2018) General Manager, Service and Contracts Management, Ministry of Social Development, unpublished email correspondence, 11 October.
Momsen, K. (2021) Experiences of Money Management in the Youth Service, Wellington: Ministry of Social Development.
Moodie, N., Roost, F. and Dommers, E. (2014) My Moola: Report from the Evaluation of an Indigenous Financial Literacy Program, Melbourne: First Nations Foundation.
Moreton-Robinson, A. (2000) Talking Up to the White Woman: Indigenous Women and Feminism, Brisbane: University of Queensland Press.
Moreton-Robinson, A. (2015) The White Possessive: Property, Power, and Indigenous Sovereignty, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press.
Morris, A. and Wilson, S. (2014) ‘Struggling on the Newstart unemployment benefit in Australia: the experience of a neoliberal form of employment assistance’, The Economic and Labour Relations Review, 25(2): 202–21.
Morrison, S. (2020) Address, National Press Club, [online] Available from: https://www.pm.gov.au/media/address-national-press-club-260520 [Accessed 10 March 2021].
Mules, R., Pekepo, C. and Beaton, S. (2017) ‘Co-design and community development: kōrero and insights from Māori co-designers’, Community Research, [online] 19 October, http://www.communityresearch.org.nz/webinar-codesign-community-development-korero-insightsmaori-co-designers/ [Accessed 2 February 2021].
National Congress of Australia’s First Peoples (2011) ‘Statement to the Australian Government on the Northern Territory Intervention’, National Congress of Australia’s First Peoples, [online] Available from: http://www.nationalcongress.com.au/wpcontent/uploads/2011/10/CongressStatementNTER.pdf [Accessed 12 December 2020].
National Party and ACT Party (2011) ‘Confidence and Supply Agreement’, Scoop: Independent News, [online] Available from: https://img.scoop.co.nz/media/pdfs/1112/NationalACT_Confidence_and_Supply_Agreement.pdf [Accessed 9 December 2020].
National Rural Health Alliance (2017) Poverty in Rural and Remote Australia, Deakin: National Rural Health Alliance.
Neuwelt-Kearns, C. and Asher, I. (2020) What Happened to ‘Welfare Overhaul’? A Stocktake of Implementation of the Welfare Expert Advisory Group’s 2019 Recommendations, Auckland: Child Poverty Action Group.
New Economics Foundation (2008) Co-production: A Manifesto for Growing the Core Economy, London: NEF.
New Zealand Council of Trade Unions (NZCTU) (2013) Under Pressure: A Detailed Report into Insecure Work in New Zealand, Wellington: NZCTU.
Ngā Puhi Iwi Social Services (2019) ‘Maharu: Ngā Puhi Iwi Social Services’, YouTube, [video] Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B4Ziond_zQ0 [Accessed 23 April 2021].
Ngāi Tūhoe Service Management Plan (2012) Ngāi Tūhoe Service Management Plan, Wellington: Ministry of Social Development, Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment and Ministry of Education, [online] Available from: https://issuu.com/teurutaumatua/docs/tuhoe_-_smp_publication?e=18309847/31075420 [Accessed 19 May 2021].
Northern Territory Board of Inquiry into the Protection of Aboriginal Children from Sexual Abuse (2007) Ampe akelyernemane meke mekarle: ‘Little Children are Sacred ’, Darwin: Northern Territory Government.
O’Connell, A. (2009) ‘Evaluating the effectiveness of financial education programmes’, OECD Journal, 2008(3): 9–51.
OECD (2012) ‘Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA): results from PISA 2012 Financial Literacy’, OECD, [online] Available from: https://www.oecd.org/newzealand/PISA%202012%20country%20note%20FINLIT_NZ.pdf [Accessed 15 October 2020].
OECD (2017) ‘G20/OECD INFE report on adult financial literacy in G20 countries’, OECD, [online] Available from: http://www.oecd.org/daf/fin/financial-education/G20-OECD-INFE-report-adult-financial-literacy-in-G20-countries.pdf [Accessed 14 April 2021].
OECD (2020) ‘OECD/INFE 2020 international survey of adult financial literacy’, OECD, [online] Available from: https://www.oecd.org/financial/education/oecd-infe-2020-international-survey-of-adult-financial-literacy.pdf [Accessed 10 April 2021].
Office of the Minister of Social Development (2011) ‘Policy decisions on the youth package’, Cabinet paper, 15 December.
Office of the Prime Minister (OPM) (2020) Ministerial Statement, 8 April, Canberra: Attorney General.
Olin Wright, E. (2010) Envisioning Real Utopias, London: Verso.
Orima Research (2017) Cashless Debit Card Trial Evaluation Final Report, Canberra: Australian Government Department of Social Services.
Page, L. and Pande, R. (2018) ‘Ending global poverty: why money isn’t enough’, The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 32(4): 173–200.
Paradies, Y. and Cunningham, J. (2009) ‘Experiences of racism among urban Indigenous Australians: findings from the DRUID study’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 32(3): 548–73.
Parliament of Australia (2016) Senate Standing Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs, Inquiry into Stolen Wages, Canberra: Parliament of Australia.
Parliament of Australia (2019) Explanatory Memorandum for the Social Security (Administration) Amendment (Income Management to Cashless Debit Card Transition) Bill 2019, Canberra: Parliament of Australia.
Parliament of Queensland (2008) Family Responsibilities Commission Act 2008 [Qld], Parliament of Queensland: Brisbane, [online] Available from: https://www.legislation.qld.gov.au/view/pdf/inforce/2014-07-01/act-2008-009 [Accessed 12 December 2021]
Parliamentary Joint Committee on Human Rights (2013) ‘Examination of Legislation in Accordance with the Human Rights (Parliamentary Scrutiny) Act 2011: Stronger Futures in the Northern Territory Act 2012 and Related Legislation’, Canberra: Parliament of Australia.
Parliamentary Joint Committee on Human Rights (2016) 2016 Review of Stronger Futures measures, Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.