The final chapter takes a global perspective on economic and social security and considers new and emerging risks that income support systems must respond to in the twenty-first century, which include shifting demographics in terms of age and household formation, increased geographical mobility, new forms of precarious labour associated with changes in technology and environmental risks resulting from climate change. There is a need to revisit first principles when determining the primary policy goals of a social security system. Addressing the inadequacy of income support payments, ensuring decent employment and training opportunities, and providing accessible social services is a better starting point for creating healthy, economically secure and socially inclusive communities, compared with blunt and punitive policies that are pushing ordinary citizens further towards the margins of their communities.
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