There is an absence of systematic evidence internationally on the extent of police violence, including lethal violence, against people with disabilities and mental ill-health. However, we know from individual cases and research data that the problem is extensive. Some of the most well-known police killings in the US which spurred the BLM movement involved Black Americans with disabilities, as has also been the case with deaths of Indigenous, Black, and people of colour in Canada and Australia. There is extensive police intervention into the lives of people with mental ill-health and cognitive impairments, and policing is a key part of the disablist processes of state control. The policing of disability is not a new phenomenon, but it has intensified with the neoliberal contraction of social support and the growth of the carceral state. Further, police decisions affecting people with disabilities compound through the carceral system, often justifying more extreme legal measures. As will be evident in this chapter, it is impossible to conceptualise policing without understanding its dis/abling effects. Centring disability is fundamental to the Defund the Police project and abolitionism more generally.
Aasebø, W., Orskaug, G., and Erikssen, J. (2015) ‘Can deaths in police cells be prevented? Experience from Norway and death rates in other countries’, Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, 37: 61–5.
ABC News (2016) ‘Bowraville murders: NSW police chief says victims’ families were let down’ [online] 11 August, Available from: www.abc.net.au/news/2016-08-11/andrew-scipione-apologises-to-families-of-bowraville-children/7721492
Abolition and Disability Justice Coalition (2021) Guiding Principles Based in Disability Justice, [online], Available from: www.abolitionanddisabilityjustice.com/guiding-principles/
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Justice Commissioner [ATSISJC] (2004) Social Justice Report 2004, Sydney: Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Justice Commission [ATSISJC] (2006) Social Justice Report 2006, Sydney: Australian Human Rights Commission.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Women’s Task Force on Violence (1999) The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Women’s Task Force on Violence Report, Brisbane: State of Queensland.
Aborisade, R.A. and Gbahabo, D.D. (2021) ‘Policing the lockdown: accounts of police officers’ aggression and extortion of frontline health workers in Nigeria’, Policing & Society, DOI: 10.1080/10439463.2021.1903461.
AI Now Institute (2021) ‘A new AI lexicon: surveillance: the ghosts of white supremacy in AI reform’, Medium.com [online] 9 September, Available from: www.medium.com/a-new-ai-lexicon/a-new-ai-lexicon-surveillance-8a4231ef8359
Ajadi, T., Critchley, H., Jones, E., and Rodgers, J. (n.d.) Defunding the Police: Defining the Way Forward for HRM, Halifax (Nova Scotia): Report to the Halifax Board of Police Commissioners.
Alang, S., McAlpine, D., McCreedy, E., and Hardeman, R. (2017) ‘Police brutality and black health: setting the agenda for public health scholars’, American Journal of Public Health, 17(5): 662–5.
Alexander, M. (2010) The New Jim Crow, New York: The New Press.
Allam, L., Wahlquist, C., and Evershed, N. (2020) ‘Aboriginal deaths in custody: 434 have died since 1991, new data shows’, The Guardian, [online] 6 June, Available from: www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2020/jun/06/aboriginal-deaths-in-custody-434-have-died-since-1991-new-data-shows
Allard, T. and Prenzler, T. (2009) ‘A summary analysis of police deaths in Australia: implications for prevention’, International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice, 33(1): 61–82.
American Civil Liberties Union [ACLU] (2014) War Comes Home. The Excessive Militarization of American Policing, New York: ACLU.
American Public Health Association [APHA] (2018) Addressing Law Enforcement Violence as a Public Health Issue, Policy No. 201811, Washington, DC: APHA.
American Public Health Association [APHA] (2021) Advancing Public Health Interventions to Address the Harms of the Carceral System, Policy No. 202117, Washington, DC: APHA.
Amnesty International (1993) A Criminal Justice System Weighted Against Aboriginal People, London: International Secretariat.
Amnesty International (1997) Australia. Deaths in Custody: How Many More? London: International Secretariat.
Amnesty International (2020) ‘Nigeria: killing of #EndSARS protesters by the military must be investigated’, Amnesty.org, [online] 21 October, Available from: www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2020/10/killing-of-endsars-protesters-by-the-military-must-be-investigated/
Amnesty International Canada (2004) ‘Stolen sisters: a human rights response to discrimination and violence against Indigenous women in Canada’, Amnesty.ca, [online] 20 March, Available from: www.amnesty.ca/sites/default/files/amr200032004enstolensisters.pdf
Anders, R. (2021) ‘Facing tear gas, Thailand’s child protesters find safety in protection team’, Southeast Asia Globe, [online] 24 March, Available from: https://southeastasiaglobe.com/thailands-youth-protestors/
Anderson, D.M. and Killingray, D. (eds) (1991) Policing the Empire: Government, Authority and Control 1830–1940, Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Anderson, D.M. and Killingray, D. (eds) (1992) Policing and Decolonisation: Nationalism, Politics and the Police 1917–1965, Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Angiolini, E. (2017) Report of the Independent Review of Deaths and Serious Incidents in Police Custody, London: Home Office.
Anti-Security Collective (2021) ‘Introduction to the special issue: a critical theory of police power in the twenty-first century’, Social Justice, 47(3–4): 1–7.
Appleman, L. (2018) ‘Deviancy, dependency, and disability: the forgotten history of eugenics and mass incarceration’, Duke Law Journal, 68(3): 417–78.
Armstrong, D. (2020) ‘Statement of Dorothy Armstrong’, Royal Commission into Violence, Abuse, Neglect and Exploitation of People with Disability, STAT.0090.0001.0001 [online], Available from: www.disability.royalcommission.gov.au/publications/exhibit-11-02101-stat009000010001-written-statement-dorothy-armstrong
Arnold, D. (1992) ‘Police power and the demise of British rule in India, 1930–47’, in D.M. Anderson and D. Killingray (eds) Policing and Decolonisation: Nationalism, Politics and the Police 1917–1965, Manchester: Manchester University Press, pp 42–61.
Asher, J. and Horwitz, B. (2020) ‘How do police actually spend their time?’ New York Times, [online] 19 June, Available from: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/06/19/upshot/unrest-police-time-violent-crime.html
Attwood, B. (2003) Rights for Aborigines, St Leonards: Allen and Unwin.
Attwood, B. and Markus, A. (1999) The Struggle for Aboriginal Rights, St Leonards: Allen and Unwin.
Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS] (2021) ‘Disability and violence – in focus: crime and justice statistics’ [online], Available from: www.abs.gov.au/statistics/people/crime-and-justice/focus-crime-and-justice-statistics/april-2021
Australian Human Rights Commission [AHRC] (2014) Equal Before the Law: Towards Disability Justice Services, Sydney: AHRC.
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare [AIHW] (2018) The Health of Australia’s Prisoners, Canberra: AIHW.
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare [AIHW] (2020) Sexual Assault in Australia, Canberra: AIHW.
Australian Law Reform Commission [ALRC] (2010) Family Violence – A National Legal Response, Sydney: ALRC.
Baldry, E. and Cunneen, C. (2014) ‘Imprisoned Indigenous women and the shadow of colonial patriarchy’, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 47(2): 276–98.
Bari, M. (2021) ‘Pakistan: backlash grows against PM Imran Khan’s “sexist comments”’, Deutsche Welle, [online] 29 June, Available from: www.dw.com/en/pakistan-backlash-grows-against-pm-imran-khans-sexist-comments/a-58094002
Barker, K., Baker, M., and Watkins, A. (2021) ‘In city after city, police mishandled Black Lives Matter protests’, New York Times, [online] 20 March, Available from: https://www.nytimes.com/2021/03/20/us/protests-policing-george-floyd.html
Bassett, M.T. (2019) ‘No justice, no health: The Black Panthers party’s fight for health in Boston and beyond’, Journal of African American Studies, 23: 352–63.
BBC (2014) ‘Police not recording a fifth of crimes, watchdog report suggests’, [online] 1 May, Available from: www.bbc.com/news/uk-27226110
BBC (2021), ‘Columbia protests: rights body criticizes “disproportionate” response’, [online] 8 July, Available from: www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-57733541
Beck, J., Reuland, M., and Pope, L. (2020) ‘Case study: CAHOOTS’, Vera Behavioural Health Crisis Alternatives [online], Available from: www.vera.org/behavioral-health-crisis-alternatives/cahoots
Behrendt, L. (2013) Innocence Betrayed, Lavarch Productions, Sydney.
Ben-Moshe, L. (2020) Decarcerating Disability: Deinstitutionalization and Prison Abolition, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Betts, P.R. (2022) ‘Governing the silence: the institutionalisation of evidence-based policing in modern Britain’, Justice, Power and Resistance, 5(1): 9–27.
Blagg, H. (2008) Crime, Aboriginality and the Decolonisation of Justice, Annandale: Federation Press.
Blagg, H. (2016) Crime, Aboriginality and the Decolonisation of Justice (2nd edn), Annandale: Federation Press.
Blagg, H., Williams, E., Cummings, E., Hovane, V., Torres, M., and Woodley, K.N. (2018) Innovative Models in Addressing Violence Against Indigenous Women: Final Report, Sydney: ANROWS.
Blagg, H., Hovane, V., Tulich, T., Raye, D., May, S., and Worrigal, T. (2021) ‘Law, culture and decolonisation: the perspectives of Aboriginal Elders on family violence in Australia’, Social & Legal Studies, DOI: 10.1177/09646639211046134.
Blanchard E. (2014) ‘French colonial police’, in G. Bruinsma and D. Weisburd (eds) Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice, New York: Springer, pp 1836–46.
Bloembergen, M. and Klinkers, E. (2014) ‘Dutch colonial police’, in G. Bruinsma and D. Weisburd (eds) Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice, New York: Springer, pp 1201–11.
Bobin, F. (forthcoming) ‘Policing and imperialism in France and the French empire’, in C. Cunneen, A. Deckert, A. Porter, J. Tauri, and R. Webb (eds) Routledge Handbook on Decolonizing Justice, Abingdon: Routledge.
Borwankar, M. (2019) ‘A case for diversity in police force’, Hindustan Times, [online] 11 November, Available from: www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/a-case-for-diversity-in-police-force/story-YP0kgeVWBvARdkzaOl2KwO.html
Bowman, R., Scott, J., and Morris, T. (2010) ‘Sexual abuse prevention: a training program for developmental disabilities service providers’, Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 19(2): 119–27.
Bricknell, S. and Doherty, L. (2021) Homicide in Australia 2018–19, Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.
Bridges, L. (2015) The Met Gangs Matrix: Institutional Racism in Action, London: Institute of Race Relations.
Brogden, M. (1981) ‘“All police are conning bastards” – policing and the problem of consent’, in B. Fryer, A. Hunt, D. McBarnett, and B. Moorehouse (eds) Law, State and Society, London: Croom Helm.
Brogden, M. (1982) The Police: Autonomy and Consent, London: Academic Press.
Brown, M., Martinez, K., and Swayne, V. (2021) ‘The 911 call as a horizon of abolition’, Imagining Abolition: Beyond Prisons, Wars and Borders. A Virtual Gathering, 14–17 April [online], Available from: www.sites.google.com/view/imagining-abolition/home
Bucci, N. (2022) ‘Zachary Rolfe was allegedly violent during arrests of four Aboriginal males before Kumanjayi Walker shooting’, The Guardian, [online] 19 March, Available from: www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2022/mar/19/zachary-rolfe-was-allegedly-violent-during-arrests-of-four-aboriginal-males-before-kumanjayi-walker-shooting
Burger, J. (1988) Aborigines Today. Land Justice, Report No 5, Indigenous Peoples and Development Series, London: Anti-Slavery Society.
Burrowes, N. (2018) ‘Building the world we want to see: a herstory of SistaIISista and the struggle against state and interpersonal violence’, Souls, 20(4): 375–98.
Cain, M. (1993) ‘Review: Some go backward, some go forward: police work in comparative perspective’, Contemporary Sociology, 22(3): 319–24.
Canadian Mental Health Association (2020) ‘Statement on police and wellness checks’ [online], Available from: www.cmha.ca/news/statement-on-police-and-wellness-checks
Carvalho, B. (2020) ‘Latin America is ready for its Black Lives Matter reckoning’, New York Times, 29 June.
Castelvecchi, D. (2020) ‘Mathematicians urge colleagues to boycott police work in the wake of killings’, Nature, [online] 19 June, Available from: www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-01874-9
Cavanagh, G. (2010) Inquest into the Death of Gottlieb Rubuntja  NTMC 048, Alice Springs: Coroner’s Court of the Northern Territory [online], Available from: https://justice.nt.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/208772/a00122009-gottlieb-rubuntja.pdf
Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Canada (2020) ‘CAMH statement on police interactions with people in mental health crisis’ [online], Available from: www.camh.ca/en/camh-news-and-stories/camh-statement-on-police-interactions-with-people-in-mental-health-crisis
Centro de Estudios Legales y Sociales (2018) The Internal War: How the Fight Against Drugs is Militarizing Latin America, Buenos Aires: Centro de Estudios Legales y Sociales.
Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas (2019) Monitor del Uso de la Fuerza Letal en América Latina: Un Estudio Comparativo de Brasil, Colombia, El Salvador, México y Venezuela, 2019, Aguascalientes, Mexico: Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas.
Chartrand, V. (2019) ‘Unsettled times: Indigenous incarceration and the links between colonialism and the penitentiary in Canada’, Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 61(3): 67–89.
Chaudhary, V. (2019) ‘Forty years on, Southall demands justice for killing of Blair Peach’, The Guardian, [online] 21 April, Available from: https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2019/apr/21/southall-demands-justice-killing-of-blair-peach-1979
Civilian Complaint Review Board [CCRB] (2019) Taser Use in CCRB Complaints 2014–2017, New York: CCRB.
Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women [CEDAW] (2014) ‘Concluding observations on the combined fourth and fifth periodic reports of India’, CEDAW/C/IND/CO/4-5, Geneva: United Nations.
Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women [CEDAW] (2015), ‘Report of the inquiry concerning Canada of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women’, CEDAW/C/OP.8/CAN/1, Geneva: United Nations.
Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women [CEDAW] (2020), ‘Concluding observations on the fifth periodic report of Pakistan’, CEDAW/C/PAK/CO/5, Geneva: United Nations.
Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination [CERD] (2012) ‘Concluding observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination: Canada, Eightieth Session’, CERD/C/CAN/CO/19-20, Geneva: United Nations.
Committee Against Torture [CAT] (2019) ‘Concluding observations on the Initial Report of Bangladesh’, CAT/C/BGD/CO/1, Geneva: United Nations.
Common Cause and CSDS (2019) Status of Policing in India Report 2019, New Delhi: Common Cause and Lokniti (CSDS).
Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative (2021) Government Compliance with Supreme Court Directives on Police Reforms: An Assessment, New Delhi: Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative.
Connell, R. (2011) ‘Southern bodies and disability: rethinking concepts’, Third World Quarterly, 32(8): 1369–81.
Consortium for Citizens with Disabilities (2020) ‘Statement on reducing police responses to people with disabilities’ [online], Available from: www.c-c-d.org/fichiers/Policing-statement-9-14-20.pdf
Coroners Court of New South Wales (2021) ‘Inquest into the deaths of John, Jack and Jennifer Edwards’ [online] 7 April, Available from: www.coroners.nsw.gov.au/coroners-court/coronial-findings-search.html
Correia, D. and Wall, T. (2018) Police: A Field Guide, London: Verso.
Corruption and Crime Commission, Western Australia (2012) ‘Charges to be considered over tasering of Kevin Spratt: media release’, Perth: Corruption and Crime Commission.
Country Reports on Human Rights Practices (2020) ‘Pakistan’, Washington: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, United States Department of State.
Cowell, D., Jones, T., and Young, J. (eds) (1982) Policing the Riots, London: Junction Books.
Coyle, A. (2022) ‘Towards a better way’, Centre for Crime and Justice Studies [online], Available from: www.crimeandjustice.org.uk/resources/towards-better-way
Crenshaw, K. (2020) ‘Fear of a Black uprising: confronting the white pathologies that shape racist policing’, The New Republic, 13 August, pp 12–15.
Crime and Misconduct Commission, Queensland (2005) Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) Spray Use by Queensland Police, Brisbane: Crime and Misconduct Commission.
Critical Resistance (2020) ‘Our communities, our solutions: an organiser’s toolkit for developing campaigns to abolish policing’ [online], Available from: https://criticalresistance.org/updates/check-out-our-new-organizers-toolkit-to-abolish-policing/
Cunneen, C. (2001) Conflict, Politics and Crime: Aboriginal Communities and the Police, Abingdon: Routledge.
Cunneen, C. (2003) ‘Zero-tolerance policing and the experience of New York City’, in S.H. Decker, L.F. Alarid, and C. Katz (eds) Controversies in Criminal Justice: Contemporary Readings, Los Angeles: Roxbury Publishing Company, pp 144–57.
Cunneen, C. (2007) ‘Riot, resistance and moral panic: demonising the colonial other’, in S. Poynting and G. Morgan (eds) Outrageous! Moral Panics in Australia, Hobart: ACYS Publishing, pp 20–9.
Cunneen, C. (2009) ‘Law, policing and public order: the aftermath of Cronulla’, in G. Noble (ed) Lines in the Sand. The Cronulla Riots, Multiculturalism and National Belonging, Sydney: Institute of Criminology Press, pp 220–31.
Cunneen, C. (2021) ‘Cartographies of place: being, country and Indigenous justice’, in A. Harkness and R. White (eds) Crossroads of Rural Crime, Bingley: Emerald Publishing, pp 31–44.
Cunneen, C. and McDonald, D. (1997) Keeping Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People Out of Custody, Canberra: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission.
Cunneen, C. and Rowe, S. (2015) ‘Decolonising Indigenous victimisation’, in D. Wilson and S. Ross (eds) Crime, Victims and Policy, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp 10–32.
Cunneen, C. and Tauri, J. (2017) Indigenous Criminology, Bristol: Policy Press.
Cunneen, C., White, R., and Richards, K. (2015) Juvenile Justice, 5th edn, Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Cunneen, C., Baldry, E., Brown, D., Brown, M., Schwartz, M., and Steel, A. (2013) Penal Culture and Hyperincarceration, Farnham: Ashgate.
Cunningham, D. (2022) ‘Policing white supremacy: asymmetry and inequality in protest control’, Social Problems, DOI: 10.1093/socpro/spac010.
Dahir, A.L., Maclean, R. and Chutel, L. (2020) ‘George Floyd’s killing prompts Africans to call for police reform at home’, New York Times, [online] 8 July, Available from: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/03/world/africa/george-floyd-protests-police-africa.html
Davis, A.Y. (1982) Women, Race and Class, London: The Women’s Press.
Davis, A.Y. (1998) ‘Racialised punishment and prison abolition’, in J. James (ed) The Angela Y Davis Reader, Oxford: Blackwell, pp 96–107.
Davis, A.Y. (2003) Are Prisons Obsolete, New York: Seven Stories Press.
Davis, A.Y. (2005) Abolition Democracy, New York: Seven Stories Press.
Davis, A.Y. and Martinez, E. (1994) ‘Coalition building among people of color’, Inscriptions, 7, Santa Cruz: Center for Cultural Studies, UC.
Davis, A.Y., Dent, G., Meiners, E., and Richie, B. (2022) Abolition. Feminism. Now., Dublin: Penguin Random House.
Davis, A.Y., Davis, M., Gilmore, R.W., and Taylor, K.-Y. (2021) ‘Abolition, Cultural Freedom and Liberation: Lannan Readings and Conversations and Haymarket Books’ [video], [online] 5 October, Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WLO0UuSnPzU
Davis, M. and Buxton-Namisnyk, E. (2021) ‘Coercive control law could harm the women it’s meant to protect’, Sydney Morning Herald, [online] 2 July, Available from: www.smh.com.au/national/nsw/coercive-control-law-could-harm-the-women-it-s-meant-to-protect-20210701-p5861e.html
de Carvalho Silva, L. and Langeani, B. (2019) ‘Low impact, wrong direction: why São Paulo state drug policy is inefficient and ineffective’, Journal of Illicit Economies and Development, 1(2): 204–19.
Deer, S. (2015) The Beginning and End of Rape: Confronting Sexual Violence in Native America, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Deivanayagam, T., Lasoye, S., Smith, J., and Selvarajah, S. (2021) ‘Policing is a threat to public health and human rights’, BMJ Global Health, DOI:10.1136/bmjgh-2020-004582.
Deloitte (2018) ‘Review of the Implementation of the Recommendations of the Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody’ [online], Available from: www.niaa.gov.au/sites/default/files/publications/rciadic-review-report.pdf
Desai, S. (2020) ‘Defund the police means defund the police’, briarpatch, July/August [online], Available from: www.briarpatchmagazine.com/articles/view/defund-the-police-means-defund-the-police
Deslandes, A., Longbottom, M., McKinnnon, C., and Porter, A. (2022) ‘White feminism and carceral industries: strange bedfellows or partners in crime and criminology?’, Decolonization of Criminology and Justice, 4(2): 5–33.
Dickinson, E. (2021) ‘Pandemic gloom and police violence leave Columbia in turmoil’, The Crisis Group, [online] 6 May, Available from: www.crisisgroup.org/latin-america-caribbean/andes/colombia/pandemic-gloom-and-police-violence-leave-colombia-turmoil
Diphoorn, T., Leyh, B.M., and Slooter, L. (2021) ‘Transforming police reform: global experiences through a multidisciplinary lens’, Policing, 15(1): 340–7.
Doherty, L. and Sullivan, T. (2021) Deaths in Custody Australia 2019–20, Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.
Doucette, M., Green, C., Dineen, J., Shapiro, D., and Raissian, K.M. (2021) ‘Impact of ShotSpotter technology on firearm homicides and arrests among large metropolitan counties: a longitudinal analysis, 1999–2016’, Journal of Urban Health, 98(5): 609–21.
Douglas, H. and Fitzgerald, R. (2018) ‘The domestic violence protection order system as entry to the criminal justice system for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People’, International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy, 7(3): 41–57.
Dowse, L., Rowe, S., Baldry, E., and Baker, M. (2021) Police Responses to People with Disability, Sydney: Royal Commission into Violence, Abuse, Neglect and Exploitation of People with Disability.
Dunbar-Ortiz, R. (2014) An Indigenous Peoples’ History of the United States, Boston: Beacon Press.
Eastwood, N., Shiner, M., and Bear, D. (2013) The Numbers in Black and White: Ethnic Disparities in the Policing and Prosecution of Drug Offences in England and Wales, London: Release.
Editorial (2021) ‘Fatal police violence in the USA: a public health issue’, The Lancet, 398: 1195.
Egwu, P. (2020) ‘As the world marches for American victims, police brutality in Africa goes unnoticed’, Foreign Policy, [online] 17 June, Available from: www.foreignpolicy.com/2020/06/17/black-lives-matter-protests-africa-police-brutality/
Elliott-Cooper, A. (2021) Black Resistance to British Policing, Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Emerge (nd) ‘The abolitionist horizon: building a world without police or prisons’ [online], Available from: www.dsaemerge.org/the-abolitionist-horizon-building-a-world-without-police-or-prisons/
Equality and Human Rights Commission UK (2010) Stop and Think. A Critical Review of the Use of Stop and Search Powers in England Wales, London: Equality and Human Rights Commission.
Erevelles, N. (2014) ‘Crippin’ Jim Crow: disability, dis-Location and the school-to-prison pipeline’, in L. Ben-Moshe, C. Chapman, and A. Carey (eds) Disability Incarcerated. Imprisonment and Disability in the United States and Canada, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, pp 81–100.
European Drug Police Network (2015) Alternative Development: Providing Viable Alternatives to Illicit Drug Cultivation, Brussels: European Drug Police Network.
Evans, J. (2021) ‘Penal nationalism in the settler colony: on the construction and maintenance of “National Whiteness” in settler Canada’, Punishment and Society, DOI: 10.1177/14624745211023455.
Fanon, F. (1967) The Wretched of the Earth, Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Farmer, C. and Evans, R. (2020) ‘Primed and ready: does arming police increase safety? Preliminary findings’, Violence and Gender, 7(2): 47–56.
Fassin, D. (2013) Enforcing Order. An Ethnography of Urban Policing, Cambridge: Polity Press.
Federal Bureau of Investigation (2021) ‘FBI releases 2020 statistics on law enforcement officers killed in the line of duty’ [press release], [online] 21 May, Available from: https://www.fbi.gov/news/pressrel/press-releases/fbi-releases-2020-statistics-on-law-enforcement-officers-killed-in-the-line-of-duty
Fernandez, A.C. and Nougier, M. (2021) ‘Punitive drug laws: 10 years undermining the Bangkok Rules, International Drug Policy Consortium Briefing Paper’ [online], Available from: www.penalreform.org/resource/punitive-drug-laws-10-years-undermining-the-bangkok/
Findlay, M. (2004) Introducing Policing, Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Fleetwood, J. and Lea, J. (2020) ‘De-funding the police in the UK’, British Society of Criminology Newsletter, No 85 [online], Available from: https://www.britsoccrim.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/08/BSCN85-Fleetwood-Lea.pdf
Foley, G. (2001) Black Power in Redfern 1968–1972 [online], Available from: http://gooriweb.org/history/233.pdf
Fuller, D., Lamb, R., Biasotti, M., and Snook, J. (2015) Overlooked in the Undercounted: The Role of Mental Illness in Fatal Law Enforcement Encounters, Arlington: Treatment Advocacy Center.
Gallagher, A., Raffle, E., and Maulana, Z. (2020) ‘Failing to fulfil the responsibility to protect: the war on drugs as crimes against humanity in the Philippines’, Pacific Review, 33(2): 247–77.
Gandel, S. (2021) ‘“Fiscal Justice Ratings” fight police brutality with finance’, The New York Times, [online] 16 October, www.nytimes.com/2021/10/16/business/dealbook/fiscal-justice-ratings.html
Garton, S. (1987) ‘Policing the dangerous lunatic: lunacy incarceration in New South Wales 1843–1914’, in M. Finnane (ed), Policing in Australia. Historical Perspectives, Kensington: New South Wales University Press.
GBD 2019 Police Violence US Subnational Collaborators (2021) ‘Fatal police violence by race and state in the USA, 1980–2019: a network meta-regression’, The Lancet, 398: 1239–55.
Geary, R. (1985) Policing Industrial Disputes 1983 to 1985, London: Methuen.
Gilroy, P. (1987 ) ‘The myth of Black criminality’ in P. Scraton (ed) Law, Order and the Authoritarian State, Milton Keynes: Open University Press, pp 107–20.
Global Commission on Drug Policy (2011) War on Drugs. Report of the Global Commission on Drug Policy [online], Available from: www.globalcommissionondrugs.org/wp-content/themes/gcdp_v1/pdf/Global_Commission_Report_English.pdf
Go, J. (2020) ‘The imperial origins of American Policing: militarization and imperial feedback in the early 20th century’, American Journal of Sociology, 125(5): 1193–254
Goldson, B., Cunneen, C., Russell, S., Brown, D., Baldry, E., Schwartz, M., and Briggs, D. (2021) Youth Justice and Penality in Comparative Context, London: Routledge.
Gonzalez, J.M.R., Bishopp, S., Jetelina, K.K., Gabriel, K.P., and Cannell, M.B. (2019) ‘Does military veteran status and deployment history impact officer involved shootings? A case–control study’, Journal of Public Health, 41(3): e245–e52
Goodall, H. (1996) Invasion to Embassy: Land in Aboriginal Politics in New South Wales, 1770–1972, St Leonards: Allen and Unwin.
Goodmark, L. (2015) ‘Hands up at home: militarized masculinity and police officers who commit intimate partner abuse’, Brigham Young University Law Review, 5: 1183–246.
Goodmark, L. (2018) Decriminalizing Domestic Violence: A Balanced Approach to Intimate Partner Violence, Oakland: University of California Press.
Gordon, P. (1985) ‘“If they come in the morning …”: the police, the miners and Black people’, in B. Fine and R. Millar (eds) Policing The Miners’ Strike, London: Lawrence and Wisehart.
Gorrie, R. (2021) Black and Blue: A Memoir of Racism and Resilience, Melbourne: Scribe.
Gramlich, J. (2017) ‘Most violent and property crimes in the U.S. go unsolved’, Pew Research Centre, [online] 1 March, Available from: https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/03/01/most-violent-and-property-crimes-in-the-u-s-go-unsolved/
Gramlich, J. (2020) ‘What the crime data says (and doesn’t say) about crime in the United States’, Pew Research Centre, [online] 20 November, Available from: https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2020/11/20/facts-about-crime-in-the-u-s/
Green, E. and Mora, D. (2021) ‘US-trained cops in Mexico killed migrants, set them on fire, say prosecutors’, Vice World News, [online] 5 August, Available from: https://www.vice.com/en/article/93y847/us-trained-cops-in-mexico-killed-migrants-set-them-on-fire-say-prosecutors
Gruber, A. (2020a) The Feminist War on Crime, Oakland: University of California Press.
Gruber, A. (2020b) ‘How police became the go-to response to domestic violence’, Slate, [online] 7 July, Available from: www.slate.com/news-and-politics/2020/07/policing-domestic-violence-history.html
Gruber, A. (forthcoming) ‘Colonial carceral feminism’, in C. Cunneen, A. Deckert, A. Porter, J. Tauri, and R. Webb (eds) Routledge Handbook on Decolonizing Justice, Abingdon: Routledge.
Hall, S. (1980) ‘Drifting into a law and order society’, in J. Muncie, E. McLaughlin, and M. Langan (eds) Criminological Perspectives: A Reader, London: Sage, pp 257–70.
Hall, S. (1999) ‘From Scarman to Stephen Lawrence’, History Workshop Journal, 48: 187–97.
Hall, S., Critcher, C., Jefferson, T., Clarke, J., and Roberts, B. (1978) Policing the Crisis, London: Macmillan Publishers.
Harcourt, B (2018) The Counterrevolution: How Our Government Went to War Against Its Own Citizens, New York: Basic Books.
Harm Reduction International (2021) ‘The harms of incarceration’ [online], Available from: www.hri.global/files/2021/06/14/HRI_Briefing_Prisons_June2021_Final1.pdf
Harriet Tubman Collective (2017) ‘Disability solidarity: completing the “vision for black lives”’, Harvard Kennedy School Journal of African American Public Policy, 69–72.
Harring, S. (1983) Policing a Class Society, New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.
Harris, D. (2020) ‘Racial profiling: past, present and future?’ American Bar Association [online], Available from: www.americanbar.org/groups/criminal_justice/publications/criminal-justice-magazine/2020/winter/racial-profiling-past-present-and-future/
Harris, S., Joseph-Salisbury, R., Williams, P., and White, L. (2022) ‘Notes on policing, racism and the Covid-19 pandemic in the UK’, Race and Class, 63(2): 92–102.
Hayes, C. (2018) A Colony in a Nation, New York: W.W. Norton.
Heatherton, C. (2016) ‘#BlackLivesMatter and global visions of abolition: an interview with Patrisse Cullors’, in J.T. Camp and C. Heatherton (eds) Policing the Planet, London: Verso, pp 35–40.
Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services, UK (2018a) Understanding the Difference: The Initial Police Response to Hate Crime, London: HMICFRS.
Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services, UK (2018b) Policing and Mental Health: Picking up the Pieces, London: HMICFRS.
Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services, UK (2021) Disproportionate Use of Police Powers. A Spotlight on Stop and Search and the Use of Force, London: HMICFRS.
Hine, K. (2020) ‘Road crashes, assaults and being spat on: the dangers facing Australian police in the line of duty’, The Conversation, 1 May, Available from: https://theconversation.com/road-crashes-assaults-and-being-spat-on-the-dangers-facing-australian-police-in-the-line-of-duty-137594
House of Representatives Standing Committee on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Affairs, Australia (1994) Justice Under Scrutiny, Canberra: AGPS.
Holmes, J. and Fitzgerald, J. (2017) Trends in NSW Police Clear-Up Rates, Sydney: NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research.
Hönke, J. and Müller, M.M. (eds) (2016) The Global Making of Policing, Abingdon: Routledge.
Hope, R. (2021) ‘Myanmar: girl, 7, reported shot dead in brutal crackdown on anti-coup protesters in Myanmar’, Sky News, [online] 23 March, Available from: https://news.sky.com/story/myanmar-girl-7-reported-shot-dead-in-brutal-crackdown-on-anti-coup-protesters-in-myanmar-12254593
Hopkins, T. (2010) An Effective System for Investigating Complaints Against Police, Victoria Law Foundation, Available from: https://www.parliament.vic.gov.au/images/Submission_4-1_Hopkins_Tamar.pdf
Horton, T. (2020) ‘When Black children go missing why isn’t this breaking news?’ Chicago Defender, [online] 10 September, Available from: www.chicagodefender.com/when-black-children-go-missing-why-isnt-this-breaking-news/
Howell, E. (2014) ‘Black Power – by any means possible’, in G. Foley, A. Schapp, and E. Howell (eds) The Aboriginal Tent Embassy, Abingdon: Routledge, pp 67–83.
Huey, L., Ferguson, L., and Vaughan, A. (2021) The Limits of Our Knowledge: Tracking the Size and Scope of Police Involvement with Persons with Mental Illness, Ottawa: Royal Society of Canada.
Hughes, C. and Stevens, A. (2010) ‘What can we learn from the Portuguese decriminalization of illicit drugs?’, British Journal of Criminology, 50(6): 999–1022.
Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission [HREOC], Australia (1991) Racist Violence: Report of the National Inquiry into Racist Violence, Canberra: AGPS.
Human Rights Commission of Pakistan (2019) State of Human Rights in 2018, Lahore: Human Rights Commission of Pakistan.
Human Rights Council (2019) Human Rights in the Administration of Justice. Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Human Rights Council, Forty-Second Session, A/HRC/42/20.
Human Rights Watch (2013) ‘“Those who take us away”. Abusive policing and failures in protection of Indigenous women and girls in Northern British Columbia, Canada’ [online], Available from: www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/canada0213webwcover_0.pdf
Human Rights Watch (2014a) ‘Treated Worse than Animals’: Abuses Against Women and Girls with Psychosocial and Intellectual Disabilities in Institutions in India, New York: Human Rights Watch.
Human Rights Watch (2014b) One Billion Forgotten: Protecting the Human Rights of Persons with Disabilities, New York: Human Rights Watch.
Human Rights Watch (2014c) ‘No Answers, No Apology’: Police Abuses and Accountability in Malaysia, New York: Human Rights Watch.
Human Rights Watch (2016a) ‘Bound by Brotherhood’: India’s Failure to End Killings in Police Custody, New York: Human Rights Watch.
Human Rights Watch (2016b) ‘This Crooked System’: Police Abuse and Reform in Pakistan, New York: Human Rights Watch.
Human Rights Watch (2018) Invisible Victims of Sexual Violence: Access to Justice for Women and Girls with Disabilities in India, New York: Human Rights Watch.
Human Rights Watch (2020a) ‘Kenya: police brutality during curfew’, [online] 22 April, Available from: www.hrw.org/news/2020/04/22/kenya-police-brutality-during-curfew
Human Rights Watch (2020b) World Report 2020: Events of 2019, New York: Human Rights Watch.
Human Rights Watch (2020c) ‘Kettling’ Protesters in the Bronx: Systemic Police Brutality and Its Costs in the United States, New York: Human Rights Watch.
Human Rights Watch (2020d) Living in Chains: Shackling of Peoples with Psychosocial Disabilities, New York: Human Rights Watch.
Human Rights Watch (2021) World Report 2021: Events of 2020, New York: Human Rights Watch.
Ifill, S.A. (2007) On The Courthouse Lawn: Confronting the Legacy of Lynching in the Twenty First Century, Boston: Beacon Press.
INCITE! (n.d. a) ‘Policing sex work’ [online], Available from: www.incite-national.org/policing-sex-work/
INCITE! (n.d. b) ‘Law enforcement violence against women of color and trans people of color. An organizer’s resource and toolkit’ [online], Available from: www.incite-national.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/TOOLKIT-FINAL.pdf
INCITE! (2001) ‘Statement on gender violence and the prison industrial complex’ [online], Available from: www.incite-national.org/incite-critical-resistance-statement/
Independent Commission on the Los Angeles Police Department (1991) Report of the Independent Commission on the Los Angeles Police Department [online], Available from: www.michellawyers.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/06/Report-of-the-Independent-Commission-on-the-LAPD-re-Rodney-King_Reduced.pdf
Independent Police Complaints Commission, UK (2010) Deaths In or Following Police Custody: An Examination of the Cases 1998/99 – 2008/09, London: IPCC.
Independent Police Conduct Authority (2012) Thematic Report: Deaths in Custody – A Ten Year Review, Wellington: Independent Police Conduct Authority.
Independent Police Investigative Directorate (2021) Annual Report 2020/2021 Financial Year, Pretoria: IPID.
International Criminal Court [ICC] (2021) Decision on the Prosecutor’s request for Authorisation of an Investigation Pursuant to Article 15(3) of the Statute, Situation in the Republic of the Philippines, Pre-Trial Chamber 1, 15 September 2021, No. ICC-01/21.
Irwin, A. and Pearl, B. (2020) The Community Responder Model: How Cities Can Send the Right Responder to Every 911 Call, Washington, DC: Center for American Progress.
Iyengar, R. (2007) ‘Does the certainty of arrest reduce domestic violence? Evidence from mandatory and recommended arrest laws’, National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper Series No. 13186, Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Jablonski, N. (2021) ‘Racism has a physical impact in the body – here’s how’, The Conversation, 31 January.
Jack, S.P., Petrosky, E., Lyons, B.H., Blair, J.M., Ertl, A.M., Sheats, K.J., and Betz, C.J. (2018) ‘Surveillance for violent deaths: National Violent Death Reporting System, 27 States, 2015’, Surveillance Summaries, 67(11): 1–32.
Jacobs, L.A., Kim, M.E., Whitfield, D.L., Gartner, R.E., Panichelli, M., Kattari, S.K., Downey, M.M., McQueen, S.S., and Mountz, S.E. (2021) ‘Defund the police: moving towards an anti-carceral social work’, Journal of Progressive Human Services, 32(1): 37–62.
James, S.E., Herman, J.L., Rankin, S., Keisling, M., Mottet, L., and Anafi, M. (2016) The Report of the 2015 U.S. Transgender Survey, Washington, DC: National Centre for Transgender Equality.
Jannetta, J. (2020) ‘It wasn’t enough: The limits of police-community trust-building reform in Minneapolis’, Urban Wire [The blog of the Urban Institute], 4 June.
Jassal, N. (2020) ‘Gender, law enforcement, and access to justice: evidence from all-women police stations in India’, American Political Science Review, 114(4): 1035–54.
Jelsma, M. (2018) ‘Human rights, illicit cultivation and alternative development: connecting the dots’ [Discussion paper], Transnational Institute [online], Available from: www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/HRCouncil/DrugProblem/HRC39/TransnationalInstitute.pdf
Johnston, E. (1991) National Report, Canberra: Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody.
Johnson, H., Ollus, N., and Nevalla, S. (2008) Violence Against Women: An International Perspective, New York: Springer.
Johnson, V. (2021) ‘Capital siege raises questions over extent of white supremacist infiltration of US police’, The Conversation, [online] 15 January, Available from: www.theconversation.com/capitol-siege-raises-questions-over-extent-of-white-supremacist-infiltration-of-us-police-153145
Jones, D. (1982) Crime, Protest, Community and Police in Nineteenth Century Britain, London: Routledge.
Jordan, J. (2004) ‘Beyond belief? Police, rape and women’s credibility’, Criminal Justice, 4(1): 29–59.
Jumbunna Research (2022) ‘Walker Family & Yuendumu Elders condemn Rolfe not guilty verdict’, Jumbunna Institute, [online] 11 March, Available from: www.jumbunna.institute/2022/03/11/walker-family-yuendumu-elders-condemn-rolfe-not-guilty-verdict/
Kaba, M. (2021) We Do this Till We Free Us, Chicago: Haymarket Books.
Kalhan, A., Singh, S., and Moghe, K. (2020) ‘Locked down, trapped and abandoned migrant workers in Pune City’, Economic and Political Weekly, 27 June.
Karakulak, H. and Kurmelovs, R. (2021) ‘“Excited delirium” used by police’, The Saturday Paper, No. 363, [online] 21 August, Available from: www.thesaturdaypaper.com.au/news/politics/2021/08/21/excited-delirium-used-police/162946800012314
Keilty, J. and Connelly, G. (2001) ‘Making a statement: an exploratory study of barriers facing women with an intellectual disability when making a statement about sexual assault to police’, Disability & Society, 16(2): 273–91.
Kelley, R.D.G. (2020) ‘What abolition looks like, from the Panthers to the people’, Level, [online] 26 October, Available from: https://level.medium.com/what-abolition-looks-like-from-the-panthers-to-the-people-6c2e537eac71
Killingray, D. (1991) ‘Guarding the extended frontier: policing the Gold Coast, 1865–1913’, in D.M. Anderson and D. Killingray (eds) Policing the Empire: Government, Authority and Control 1830–1940, Manchester: Manchester University Press, pp 106–25.
Kim, M., Chung, M., Hassan, S., and Ritchie, A. (2021) Defund the Police – Invest in Community Care: A Guide to Alternative Mental Health Responses, Interrupting Criminalization [online], Available from: www.interruptingcriminalization.com/s/Crisis-Response-Guide.pdf
Knoetze, D. (2020) ‘Police are not being held accountable for child killings, watchdog records reveal’, Daily Maverick, [online] 8 September, Available from: www.dailymaverick.co.za/article/2020-09-08-police-are-not-being-held-accountable-for-child-killings-watchdog-records-reveal/
Knutsson, J. and Noree, A. (2010) ‘Police use of firearms in the Nordic countries: a comparison’, in J.B. Kuhns and J. Knutsson (eds) Police Use of Force: A Global Perspective, Oxford: Praeger, pp 115–23.
Kolsky, E. (2010) Colonial Justice in British India: White Violence and the Rule of Law, New Delhi: Cambridge University Press.
Koziarski, J. and Huey, L. (2021) ‘#Defund or #Re-Fund? Re-examining Bayley’s blueprint for police reform’, International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice, 45(3): 269–84.
Kraska, P. (2007) ‘Militarization and policing: its relevance to 21st century police’, Policing, 1(4): 501–13.
Kraska, P. and Williams, S. (2019) ‘The material reality of state violence: the case of police militarization’, in W.S. DeKeseredy, C.M. Rennison, and A.K. Hall-Sanchez (eds) The Routledge International Handbook of Violence Studies, Abingdon: Routledge, pp 145–59.
Kushner, R. (2019) ‘Is prison necessary? Ruth Wilson Gilmore might change your mind’, New York Times Magazine, [online] 17 April, Available from: www.nytimes.com/2019/04/17/magazine/prison-abolition-ruth-wilson-gilmore.html
La Vigne, N., Fontaine, J., and Dwivedi, A. (2017) How Do People in High-Crime, Low-Income Communities View the Police? Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
Lammy, D. (2017) The Lammy Review: An Independent Review Into the Treatment of, and Outcomes for, Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic Individuals in the Criminal Justice System, London: UK Government Publishing Service.
Law Council of Australia (2018) People with Disability: Final Report [online], Available from: www.lawcouncil.asn.au/justice-project/final-report
Levine, P. (1994) ‘Walking the streets the way no decent woman should: women police in World War 1’, The Journal of Modern History, 66(1): 34–78.
Levinson, J., Wilson, C., Doubek, J., and Nuyen, S. (2020) ‘Federal officers use unmarked vehicles to grab people in Portland, DHS confirms’, All Things Considered, National Public Radio, [online] 17 July, Available from: https://www.npr.org/2020/07/17/892277592/federal-officers-use-unmarked-vehicles-to-grab-protesters-in-portland
Liem, M.,Suonpää, K., Lehti, M., Kivivuori, J., Granath, S., Walser, S., and Killias, M. (2019) ‘Homicide clearance in Western Europe’, European Journal of Criminology, 16(1): 81–101.
Lindon, G. and Roe, R. (2017) Deaths in Police Custody: A Review of the International Literature, London: Home Office.
Lothian, K. (2005) ‘Seizing the time: Australian Aborigines and the influence of the Black Panther Party, 1969–1972’, Journal of Black Studies, 35(4): 179–200.
Lum, C., Koper, C.S., Wilson, D.B., Stoltz, M., Goodier, M., Eggins, E., Higginson, A., and Mazerolle, L. (2020) ‘Body worn cameras’ effects on police officers and citizen behaviour: a systematic review’, Campbell Systematic Review, 16(3): 1–40.
Macpherson, W. (1999) The Stephen Lawrence Inquiry, CM 4262–1. London: The Stationery Office.
Maher, G. (2021) A World Without Police: How Strong Communities Make Cops Obsolete, London: Verso.
Mahtani, S. (2020) ‘While U.S. tackles police brutality, Hong Kong is in denial’, The Washington Post, [online] 19 June, Available from: www.washingtonpost.com/world/asia_pacific/hong-kong-police-brutality-black-lives-matter-george-floyd-protests/2020/06/18/911454a4-aeee-11ea-98b5-279a6479a1e4_story.html
Maynard, R. (2017) Policing Black Lives: State Violence in Canada from Slavery to the Present, Halifax: Fernwood Publishing.
McCulloch, J. (2017) ‘Police, crime and human rights’, in L. Weber, E. Fishwick, and M. Mamo (eds) The Routledge International Handbook of Criminology and Human Rights, Abingdon: Routledge, pp 323–32.
McCulloch, J., Maher, J., Walklate, S., and McGowan, J. (2021) ‘Justice perspectives of women with disability: an Australian story’, International Review of Criminology, 27(2): 196–210.
McLeod, A. (2019) ‘Envisioning abolition democracy’, Harvard Law Review, 132: 1613–49.
McManus, H., Shafer, J., and Graham, A. (2019) ‘Race and the procedural justice model of policing’, in J. Unnever, S. Gabbidon, and C. Chouhy (eds) Building A Black Criminology, New York: Routledge, pp 317–43.
McMichael, C. (2016) ‘Police wars and state repression in South Africa’, Journal of Asian and African Studies, 51(1): 3016.
McNamara, D. (2021) ‘Policing in the age of the asylum: early legislative interventions in the lives of persons with disabilities’, Disability Studies Quarterly, 41(2): 1–18.
Mental Health Act (2014), [online] s351(1), Available from: https://content.legislation.vic.gov.au/sites/default/files/2022-08/14-26aa024%20authorised.pdf
Metaal, P. and Youngers, C. (2011) Systems Overload: Drug Laws and Prisons in Latin America, Amsterdam/Washington: Transnational Institute and Washington Office on Latin America.
Mignolo, W. (2017) ‘Interview with Walter Mignolo’, in M. Woons and S. Weier (eds) Critical Epistemologies of Global Politics, Bristol: E-International Relations Publishing, pp 11–25.
Miki, Y. (2021) ‘Black and Indigenous histories of Brazil’s race mixture’, NACLA – Report on the Americas, 53(3): 304–9.
Miles-Johnson, T. (2013) ‘LGBTI variations in crime reporting: how sexual identity influences decisions to call the cops’, Sage Open, 3(2), DOI: 10.1177/2158244013490707.
Millie, A. (2014) ‘What are the police for? Re-thinking policing post-austerity’, in J.M. Brown (ed), The Future of Policing, Abingdon: Routledge, pp 52–63.
Morgan, J. (2021) ‘Policing under disability law’, Stanley Law Review, 73: 1–64.
Morin, R. and Mercer, A. (2017) ‘A closer look at police officers who have fired their weapon on duty’, Pew Research Center, [online] 8 February, Available from: www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/02/08/a-closer-look-at-police-officers-who-have-fired-their-weapon-on-duty/
Moses, D. (2000) ‘An antipodean genocide? The origins of the genocidal moment in the colonisation of Australia’, Journal of Genocide Research, 2(1): 89–106.
Movement for Black Lives [M4BL] (2020) ‘#DEFUNDPOLICE, #FUNDTHEPEOPLE, #DEFENDBLACKLIVES: concrete steps toward divestment from policing and investment in community safety’ [#DefundPolice Public Downloads/Defund Toolkit.pdf], [online], Available from: www.drive.google.com/drive/folders/1gZz_k20UY0JQADf2UKblS5ivMqo-53Rx
Murray, S. and Heenan, M. (2012) ‘Reported rapes in Victoria: police responses to victims with a psychiatric disability or mental health issue’, Current Issues in Criminal Justice, 23(3): 353–68.
Mutongwizo, T. and Mutongwizo, N. (forthcoming) ‘Inherited structures and indigenised policing in Africa: Insights from South Africa and Zimbabwe’, in C. Cunneen, A. Deckert, A. Porter, J. Tauri, and R. Webb (eds) Routledge Handbook on Decolonizing Justice, Abingdon: Routledge.
Myanmar Federation of Persons with Disabilities (2021) ‘Press statement, 18 February, 2021’ [online] 23 February, Available from: www.arsvi.com/2021/20210218e.htm
Nancarrow, H. (2021) ‘Domestic violence law: when good intentions go awry in practice’, in R. Vijeyarasa (ed) International Women’s Rights Law and Gender Equality: Making the Law Work for Women, London: Routledge.
Nancarrow, H., Thomas, K., Riongland, V., and Modini, T. (2020) Accurately Identifying the ‘Person Most in Need of Protection’ in Domestic and Family Violence Law, Sydney: ANROWS.
Nathan, R. and Thorat, V. (2020) ‘Atrocities against Dalit girls and women in UP’, Economic and Political Weekly, 3 October.
National Campaign Against Torture [NCAT] (2020) India: National Report on Torture 2019, New Delhi: National Campaign Against Torture.
National Campaign Against Torture [NCAT] (2021) India: National Report on Torture 2020, New Delhi: National Campaign Against Torture.
National Commission on Human Rights [NCHR], Pakistan (2019) Report on Enforced Disappearances, Islamabad: NCHR.
National Crime Records Bureau (2019) Report on Missing Women and Children in India, New Delhi: Indian Government.
National Crime Records Bureau (2020) Crime in India: Statistics. Volume 1, New Delhi: Indian Government.
National Disability Network and National Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disability (2017) Parallel Report of India on the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) [online] 31 March, Available from: www.ncpedp.org/sites/all/themes/marinelli/documents/DRAFT%20CRPD%20India%20Parallel%20Report%20(31st%20March%202017).pdf
National Human Rights Commission, India (2018) Annual Report 2017–2018 [online], Available from: www.nhrc.nic.in/annualreports/2017-2018
National Human Rights Commission, Nigeria (2020) ‘Press release’, [online] 15 April, Available from: www.nigeriarights.gov.ng/nhrc-media/press-release/100-national-human-rights-commission-press-release-on-covid-19-enforcement-so-far-report-on-incidents-of-violation-of-human-rights.html
National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls [NIMMIWG] (Canada) (2019a) Reclaiming Power and Place: The Final Report of the National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls. Executive Summary [online], Available from: www.mmiwg-ffada.ca/final-report/
National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls [NIMMIWG] (Canada) (2019b) Reclaiming Power and Place: The Final Report of the National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls, Volume 1(a) [online], Available from: www.mmiwg-ffada.ca/final-report/
National Institute of Justice (2009) Practical Implications Around Domestic Violence Research: For Law Enforcement, Prosecutors and Judges, Washington DC: U.S. Department of Justice.
National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial Fund (2020) Law Enforcement Officers Fatalities Report, Washington DC: National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial Fund.
Naudé, C.M.B., Prinsloo, J.H., and Ladikos A. (2006) Experiences of Crime in Thirteen African Countries: Results from the International Crime Victim Survey, Turin: UNICRI-UNODC.
Nembhard, S. and Robin, L. (2021) Racial and Ethnic Disparities Throughout the Criminal Justice System, Washington DC: Urban Institute.
Neocleous, M. (2021a) ‘“Original, absolute, indefeasible”: or, what we talk about when we talk about police power’, Social Justice, 47(3–4): 9–32.
Neocleous, M. (2021b) ‘Kettle logic’, Critical Criminology, 29: 183–97.
Newton, H.P. (1973) Revolutionary Suicide, London: Penguin.
Niolon, P.H., Kearns, M., Dills, J., Rambo, K., Irving, S., Armstead, T.L., and Gilbert, L. (2017) Preventing Intimate Partner Violence Across the Lifespan: A Technical Package of Programs, Policies, and Practices, Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Noor, P. (2018) ‘Met police use tasers and restraints more often against black people’, The Guardian, [online] 5 December, Available from: www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2018/dec/05/met-police-use-tasers-and-restraints-more-often-against-black-people
NSW Law Reform Commission (2012) People With Cognitive and Mental Health Impairments in the Criminal Justice System: Diversion, Sydney: NSW Law Reform Commmission, Report 135.
NSW Legislative Council Standing Committee on Social Issues (2021) Gay and Transgender Hate Crimes between 1970 and 2010, Sydney: NSW Parliament, Report No 58.
NSW Ombudsman (2012) How are Taser weapons used by the NSW Police Force? Sydney: New South Wales Ombudsman.
Office for National Statistics (2021) Homicide in England and Wales: Year Ending March 2020, London: Office for National Statistics.
Office of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Justice Commissioner (1996) Indigenous Deaths in Custody 1989–1996, Sydney: HREOC.
Oklahoma Commission to Study the Tulsa Race Riot of 1921 (2001) Tulsa Race Riot: A Report by the Oklahoma Commission to Study the Tulsa Race Riot of 1921, Oklahoma, [online] 28 February, Available from: www.okhistory.org/research/forms/freport.pdf
Onuoha, F.C., Ezirim, G.E., and Onuh, P.A. (2021) ‘Extortionate policing and the futility of COVID-19 pandemic nationwide lockdown in Nigeria: insights from the South East Zone’, African Security Review, DOI: 10.1080/10246029.2021.1969961.
Oppenheim, M. (2021) ‘Women being arrested and criminalised after reporting violence and abuse, says MPs’, The Independent, [online] 18 May, Available from: www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/women-pointless-arrests-criminal-justice-system-b1848981.html
Owen, C. (2016) ‘Every Mother’s Son is Guilty’: Policing the Kimberley Frontier of Western Australia 1882–1905, Crawley: University of Western Australia Publishing.
Pearl, B. (2020) Beyond Policing: Investing in Offices of Neighborhood Safety, Washington, DC: Centre for American Progress.
Perry, D. and Carter-Long, L. (2016) The Ruderman White Paper on Media Coverage of Law Enforcement Use of Force and Disability, Boston: Ruderman Family Foundation.
Petre, A. (2021) ‘Racism, police brutality and online hate: why Romania’s Roma are no nearer their Black Lives Matter moment’, BIRN, [online] 31 March, Available from: www.balkaninsight.com/2021/03/31/racism-police-brutality-and-online-hate-why-romanias-roma-are-no-nearer-their-black-lives-matter-moment/
Piza, E. and Welsh, B. (eds) (2022) The Globalization of Evidence Based Policing, London: Routledge.
Police Accountability Project (2019) First Submission to the Royal Commission into Victoria’s Mental Health System, Victoria: Flemington Kensington Community Legal Centre.