SIX: Personal experiences of pregnancy and motherhood in prison and the value of the voluntary sector in challenging the system

Restricted access
Rights and permissions Cite this chapter

This chapter is co-authored by Samantha Harkness, Michelle Wright and Kirsty Kitchen; three members of the charity Birth Companions, which has specialised in supporting and advocating for pregnant women and new mothers in contact with the criminal justice system for more than 25 years. Samantha and Michelle are both members of the Birth Companions Lived Experience Team; a group of over 40 women who are committed to using their own experiences of the criminal justice, social services and maternity systems to drive improvements in the care of other pregnant women and mothers. Kirsty is head of policy and communications at the charity, working closely with the Lived Experience Team to influence policy and practice across these systems. The chapter offers a view of the needs and experiences of pregnant women and mothers of infants in prison from two women who have lived it, and the charity that supported them during that time and beyond, namely Birth Companions.

  • Abbott, L. (2015) A pregnant pause: Expecting in the prison estate. In Baldwin, L. (ed) Mothering Justice: Working with Mothers in Criminal and Social Justice Settings. Sherfield on Loddon: Waterside Press, pp 185211.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Abbott, L. (2018) The Incarcerated Pregnancy: An Ethnographic Study of Perinatal Women in English Prisons .Doctoral thesis, University of Hertfordshire.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Abbott, L. (2023) Pregnancy and new motherhood in prison during the COVID-19 pandemic. In Booth, N., Masson, I. and Baldwin, L. (eds) Experiences of Punishment, Abuse and Justice by Women and Families. Bristol: Bristol University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Abbott, L. and Tammam, J. (2019) Pregnant women’s opinions of the food provided in prison. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 32(S1), 15–31. https://doi.org/10.1111/jhn.12627

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Abbott, L. and Lockwood, K. (2020) Negotiating pregnancy, new motherhood and imprisonment. In Mothering from the Inside. Cambridge: Emerald Publishing Limited, pp 4966.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Abbott, L., Scott, T., Thomas, H. and Weston, K. (2020) Pregnancy and childbirth in English prisons: Institutional ignominy and the pains of imprisonment. Sociology of Health and Illness, 42(3), 660675.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Abbott, L., Scott, T. and Thomas, H. (2023a) Compulsory separation of women prisoners from their babies following childbirth: Uncertainty, loss and disenfranchised grief. Sociology of Health & Illness, 45(5), 971988. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.13423

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Abbott, L., Scott, T. and Thomas, H. (2023b) Experiences of midwifery care in English prisons: Findings from ethnographic research. Birth, 50(1), 244251.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Arendell, T. (2000) Conceiving and investigating motherhood: The decade’s scholarship. Journal of Marriage and Family, 62(4), 11921207.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Arshad, F., Haith-Cooper, M. and Palloti, P. (2018) The experiences of pregnant migrant women in detention: A qualitative study. British Journal of Midwifery, 26(9), 591596.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bachman, R., Kerrison, E.M., Paternoster, R., Smith, L. and O’Connell, D. (2016) The complex relationship between motherhood and desistance. Women and Criminal Justice, 26(3), 212231.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baldwin, L. (ed) (2015) Mothering Justice: Working with Mothers in Criminal and Social Justice Setting. Sherfield on Loddon: Waterside Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baldwin, L. (2017) Tainted love: The impact of prison on maternal identity. Prison Service Journal, 223, 2834. https://www.crimeandjustice.org.uk/sites/crimeandjustice.org.uk/files/PSJ%20233%20September%202017.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baldwin, L. (2018) Motherhood disrupted: Reflections of post-prison mothers in maternal geographies. Emotion Space and Society, 26, 4956. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1755458616300500?via%3Dihub

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baldwin, L. (2019) Motherhood judged, social exclusion mothers and prison. In Byvelds, C. and Jackson, H. (eds) Motherhood and Social Exclusion. Toronto: Demeter Press, pp 129144.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baldwin, L. (2020a) ‘A life sentence’: The long-term impact of maternal imprisonment. In Lockwood, K. (ed) Mothering and Imprisonment. Emerald Publishing, pp 85101.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baldwin, L. (2020b) Why has another baby died in prison? Russell Webster, 24 June. https://www.russellwebster.com/prison-baby-death/

  • Baldwin, L. (2021a) Motherhood challenged: Exploring the persisting impact of maternal imprisonment on maternal identity and role. Summary of doctoral thesis, De Montfort University. https://dora.dmu.ac.uk/bitstream/handle/2086/21372/Executive%20Summary%20PhD%20LBaldwin%20PDF.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed=y

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baldwin, L. (2021b) Executive summary, motherhood challenged: Exploring the persisting impact of maternal imprisonment on maternal identity and role. Summary of doctoral thesis, De Montfort University. January 2021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baldwin, L. (2022a) Mothers in and after Prison. Sherfield on Loddon: Waterside Press.

  • Baldwin, L. (2022b) Missed and lost opportunities: Recognising maternal trauma in probation supervision. Probation Quarterly, 23, 1620. https://doi.org/10.54006/TDRY6231

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baldwin, L. (2022c) ‘Mothering from the inside’; Evaluation of first 12 month project for Sodexo (HMP Peterborough). Unpublished.

  • Baldwin, L. (ed) (2023) Gendered Justice: Trauma Informed Working with Criminalised Women. Sherfield on Loddon: Waterside Press.

  • Baldwin, L. and Epstein, R. (2017) Short but not Sweet: A Study Exploring the Impact of Short Custodial Sentences on Mothers and their Children. Coventry: De Montfort University and Oakdale Trust. https://www.nicco.org.uk/userfiles/downloads/5bc45012612b4-short-but-not-sweet.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baldwin, L. and Abbott, L. (2020) Why do we still imprison pregnant women? Russell Webster, 1 July. https://www.russellwebster.com/pregnant-prisoners/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baldwin, L. and Abbott, L. (2021) Incarcerated motherhood: Reflecting on 100 years of imprisoning mothers. Prison Service Journal, 257, 2938.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baldwin, A., Sobolewska, A. and Capper, T. (2020) Pregnant in prison: An integrative literature review. Women and Birth, 33(1), 4150.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baldwin L., Elwood, M. and Brown, C. (2022a) Criminal mothers: The persisting pains of maternal imprisonment. In Grace, S., O’Neill, M., Walker, T., King, H., Baldwin, L., Jobe, O., Lynch, F., Measham, K., O’Brien, K. and Seaman, V (eds) Criminal Women: Gender Matters. Bristol: Policy Press, pp 107131.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baldwin, L., Parent, K., Wray, B. and Mulcahy. J (2022b) ‘Out of sight out of mind’: Arguing the case for social workers in women’s prisons. Prison Service Journal, 263, 4854.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baradon, T., Fonagy, P., Bland, K., Lénárd, K. and Sleed, M. (2008) New beginnings: An experience-based programme addressing the attachment relationship between mothers and their babies in prisons. Journal of Child Psychotherapy, 34(2), 240258.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnes, C. (2015) Damned if you do, damned if you don’t: Frontline social worker perspective. In Baldwin, L. (ed) Mothering Justice: Working with Mothers in Criminal and Social Justice Settings. Sherfield on Loddon: Waterside Press, pp 6589.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barton, A. (2000) ‘Wayward girls and wicked women’: Two centuries of ‘semi-penal’ control. Liverpool Law Review, 22(2–3), 157171.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bennett, R. (2017) Identifying & Advocating for Women’s Health: The Duchess of Bedford’s 1919 Committee of Enquiry into Medical Care in Holloway Prison. https://warwick.ac.uk/fac/arts/history/chm/research/current/prisoners/outputs/duchess_of_bedford.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Birth Companions (2019) Birth Charter Toolkit. https://www.birthcompanions.org.uk/resources/135-the-birth-charter-toolkit

  • Birth Companions (2020) Your Inside Guide to Pregnancy, Birth and Motherhood in Prison . https://hubble-live-assets.s3.amazonaws.com/birth-companions/attachment/file/228/Your_inside_guide_to_pregnancy__birth_and_motherhood_in_prison.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Birth Companions (2021) A Window of Opportunity: Understanding the Needs and Experiences of Pregnant Women and New Mothers in Contact with the Criminal Justice System in the Community in England. https://hubble-live-assets.s3.amazonaws.com/birth-companions/redactor2_assets/files/315/A_window_of_opportunity_Clinks_and_Birth_Companions_FINAL_2021.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Booth, N. (2020) Maternal Imprisonment and Family Life: From the Caregiver’s Perspective. Bristol: Policy Press.

  • Bosworth, M. (2000) Conforming femininity: A history of gender, power and imprisonment. Theoretical Criminology, 4(3), 265284.

  • Bozkurt, S. (2022) Behind Bars: Exploring the Prison and Post Release Experiences of Minoritised Mothers. Doctoral thesis, University of Westminster. https://westminsterresearch.westminster.ac.uk/item/vz803/behind-bars-exploring-the-prison-and-post-release-experiences-of-minoritised-mothers

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bozkurt, S. and Thomas, M. (2023Racism is very much there’: Validating racial trauma in the context of criminal justice. In Baldwin, L. (ed) Gendered Justice: Trauma Informed Working with Criminalised Women. Sherfield on Loddon: Waterside Press, pp 99117.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bradley, A. (2021) Viewing Her Majesty’s Prison Service through a trauma-informed lens. Prison Service Journal, 255, 411.

  • Broadhurst, K. and Mason, C. (2020) Child removal as the gateway to further adversity: Birth mother accounts of the immediate and enduring collateral consequences of child removal. Qualitative Social Work, 19(1), 1537. https://doi.org/10.1177/1473325019893412

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, M. and Bloom, B. (2009) Re-entry and renegotiating motherhood: Maternal identity and success on parole. Crime and Delinquency, 55(2), 313336.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bryman, A. and Burgess R.G (2002) Analysing Qualitative Data. London: Routledge, pp 1–17.

  • Cahalin, K., Callender, M., Lugli, V. and Weston, C. (2021) Perinatal women’s experiences of access to expertise, information and appropriate medical attention in prison. Prison Service Journal, 257, 1221.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carlen, P. (1985) Law, psychiatry and women’s imprisonment: A sociological view. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 146(6), 618621.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carlen, P. and Worrall, A. (2004) Analysing Women’s Imprisonment. Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

  • Chigwada-Bailey, R. (2003) Black Women’s Experiences of Criminal Justice: Race, Gender and Class: A Discourse on Disadvantage. Sherfield on Loddon: Waterside Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clarke, B. and Chadwick, K. (2018) From troubled women to failing institutions: The necessary narrative shift for the decarceration of women post Corston. In Moore, L., Scraton, P. and Wahidin, A. (eds) Women’s Imprisonment and the Case for Abolition: Critical Reflections of Corston Ten Years On. London: Routledge, pp 5171.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Codd, H. (2008) In the Shadow of Prison: Families, Imprisonment and Criminal Justice. Devon and Portland: Willan Publishing.

  • Corston, J. (2007) The Corston Report: A Report by Baroness Jean Corston of a Review of Women with Particular Vulnerabilities in the Criminal Justice System. London: Home Office.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Coverdale, H.B. (2021) Caring and the prison in philosophy, policy and practice: Under lock and key. Journal of Applied Philosophy, 38(3), 415430. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdfdirect/10.1111/japp.12415

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Crawley, E. (2005) Institutional thoughtlessness in prisons and its impacts on the day-to-day prison lives of elderly men. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 21(4), 350363.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Crewe, B., Hulley, S. and Wright, S. (2017) The gendered pains of life imprisonment. British Journal of Criminology, 57(6), 13591378.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Davies, M., Keeble, E. and Hutchings, R. (2021) Injustice? Towards a better understanding of health care access challenges for prisoners. Nuffield Trust. https://www.nuffieldtrust.org.uk/files/2021-10/1634637809_nuffield-trust-prisoner-health-2021-final.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Davies, M., Keeble, E., Hutchings, R. and the Nuffield Trust (2001). Injustice: Towards a Better Understanding of Health Care Challenges for Prisoners. www.nuffieldtrust.org.uk/sites/default/files/2021-10/1634637809_nuffield-trust-prisoner-health-2021-final.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dolan, R. (2018) Pregnant Women in Prison: Mental Health, Admission to Prison Mother and Baby Units and Initial Outcomes for Mother and Child. Doctoral thesis, University of Manchester. https://www.research.manchester.ac.uk/portal/files/184636089/FULL_TEXT.PDF

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dolan, R., Shaw, J. and Hann, M. (2019) Pregnancy in prison, mother and baby unit admission and impacts on perinatal depression and ‘quality of life’. The Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 30(4), 551569.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Eaton, M. (1993) Women After Prison. Buckingham: Open University Press.

  • Egeland, B. and Farber, E.A. (1984) Infant-mother attachment: Factors related to its development and changes over time. Child Development, 55(3), 753771.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Epstein, R. (2011) Mothers in prison: The rights of the child: Rona Epstein looks at whether the courts take into account the rights of children when imprisoning mothers. Criminal Justice Matters, 86(1), 1213.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Epstein, R. (2021) Sentencing mothers: The rights of the child. In Donson, F. and Parkes, A. (eds) Parental Imprisonment and Children’s Rights. London: Routledge, pp 168186.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Epstein, R., Brown, G. and de Frutos, M. (2022) Why are pregnant women in prison? Report. Coventry University. https://www.coventry.ac.uk/globalassets/media/global/08-new-research-section/cawr/pregnant-women-in-prison-a4-final-report.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Farmer, M. (2019) The Importance of Strengthening Female Offenders’ Family and Other Relationships to Prevent Reoffending and Reduce Intergenerational Crime. London: Ministry of Justice.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Galloway, S., Haynes, A. and Cuthbert, C. (2014) All Babies Count – An Unfair Sentence: Spotlight on the Criminal Justice System. London: NSPCC.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Garcia-Hallett, J. (2019) Maternal identities and narratives of motherhood: A qualitative exploration of women’s pathways into and out of offending. Feminist Criminology, 14(2), 214240.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Garland, D. (1985) Punishment and Welfare: A History of Penal Strategies. Aldershot: Gower.

  • Gelsthorpe, L. and Morris, A. (eds) (2002) Feminist Perspectives in Criminology. Buckingham: Open University Press.

  • Ghate, D. and Hazel, N. (2002) Parenting in Poor Environments: Stress, Support and Coping. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

  • Goffman, E. (1963) Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. New Jersey: Penguin.

  • Grace, S., O’Neill, M., Walker, T., King, H., Baldwin, L., Jobe, A., Lynch, O., Measham, F., O’Brien, K. and Seaman, S. (2022) Criminal Women. Bristol: Bristol University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hackett, L. (2015) Working with women and mothers experiencing mental distress. In Baldwin, L. (ed) Mothering Justice: Working with Mothers in Criminal and Social Justice Settings. Sherfield on Loddon: Waterside Press, pp 4365.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harding, N. (2020) Co-constructing feminist research: Ensuring meaningful participation while researching the experiences of criminalised women. Methodological Innovations, 13(2). https://doi.org/10.1177/2059799120925262

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Health and Social Care Committee (2018) The State of Health and Care in English Prisons. London: UK Parliament. https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201719/cmselect/cmhealth/963/96302.htm

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Independent Monitoring Boards (2021) Annual Report of the Independent Monitoring Board at HMP/YOI Bronzefield for Reporting Year 1 August 2020–31 July 2021. https://s3-eu-west-2.amazonaws.com/imb-prod-storage-1ocod6bqky0vo/uploads/2021/11/Bronzefield-2020-21-annual-report-for-circulation.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Johnstone, H. (2019) Imprisoned mothers in Victorian England, 1853–1900: Motherhood, identity and the convict prison. Criminology & Criminal Justice, 19(2), 215231.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leverentz, A. (2014) The Ex-Prisoner’s Dilemma: How Women Negotiate Competing Narratives of Re-entry and Desistance. New York: Rutgers University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liss, M., Schiffrin, H. and Rizzo, K. (2013) Maternal guilt and shame: The role of self-discrepancy and fear of negative evaluation. Psychological Science, 5. https://scholar.umw.edu/psychological_science/5

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marshall, C.D. (2012) Compassionate Justice: An Interdisciplinary Dialogue with Two Gospel Parables on Law, Crime, and Restorative Justice (Vol 15). New York: Wipf and Stock Publishers.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martin, K. and Powell, C. (2021) Mother-infant separations in prison: Why does context matter? In Masson, I. and Booth, N. (eds) Handbook of Women’s Experiences of Criminal Justice. Abingdon: Routledge, pp 388–401.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Masson, I. (2019) Incarcerating Motherhood: The Enduring Harms of First Short Periods of Imprisonment on Mothers. Oxon: Routledge.

  • Mayhew, H. and Binny, J. (2011) The Criminal Prisons of London: And Scenes of Prison Life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • MBRRACE-UK (2021) Saving Lives, Improving Mothers’ Care: Lessons Learned to Inform Maternity Care from the UK and Ireland Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths and Morbidity 2017–19. https://www.npeu.ox.ac.uk/assets/downloads/mbrrace-uk/reports/maternal-report-2021/MBRRACE-UK_Maternal_Report_2021_-_FINAL_-_WEB_VERSION.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ministry of Justice (2018) Female Offender Strategy. London: Ministry of Justice.

  • Ministry of Justice (2020) Summary Report of the Review of PSI 49/2014 and Operational Policy on Pregnancy and Women Separated from Children under 2 in Prison. 31 July. Open Government Licence. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/905559/summary-report-of-review-of-policy-on-mbu.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ministry of Justice (2023) Female Offender Strategy Delivery Plan 2022–25. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/1132790/female-offender-strategy-delivery-plan-2022-25.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ministry of Justice and HMPPS (2021) Pregnancy, Mother and Baby Units (MBUs), and Maternal Separation from Children up to the Age of Two in Women’s Prisons . https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/1023428/mbu-pf.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ministry of Justice Statistical Release (2021) 3 of 31 births. HMPPS Annual Digest, April 2020 to March 2021. www.gov.uk

  • Minson, S. (2020) Maternal Sentencing and the Rights of the Child. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.

  • Minson, S. (2021) The impact of COVID-19 prison lockdowns on children with a parent in prison. Report. https://www.law.ox.ac.uk/content/impact-covid-19-and-prison-lockdown-children-imprisoned-parent-uk

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morley, C. and Rushton, C. (2023) Gendering justice: Adopting a whole-systems approach and why a women’s specialist team model makes sense. In Baldwin, L. (ed) Gendered Justice: Trauma Informed Working with Criminalised Women. Sherfield on Loddon: Waterside Press, pp 37–61.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morriss, L. (2018) Haunted futures: The stigma of being a mother living apart from her child(ren) as a result of state-ordered court removal. The Sociological Review, 66(4), 816831.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mulligan, C. (2019) Staying together: Mothers and babies in prison. British Journal of Midwifery, 27(7), 436441. https://www.britishjournalofmidwifery.com/content/literature-review/staying-together-mothers-and-babies-in-prison/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • National Prison Healthcare Board (2019) Principle of Equivalence of Care for Prison Healthcare in England. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/837882/NPHB_Equivalence_of_Care_principle.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nursing and Midwifery Order, 45 Statutory (2001) Department of Health. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2002/253/pdfs/uksi_20020253_en.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Observer (2021) Jailed women in UK five times more likely to suffer stillbirths data shows. Observer, 5 December. https://www.theguardian.com/society/2021/dec/05/jailed-women-in-uk-five-times-more-likely-to-suffer-stillbirths-data-shows

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O’Keefe, C. and Dixon, L. (2015) Enhancing Care for Childbearing Women and their Babies in Prison. http://www.birthcompanions.org.uk/media/Public/Resources/Extpublications/FINAL_MBU_report_8th_December_2016.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O’Malley, S. (2018) The Experience of Imprisonment for Incarcerated Mothers and their Children in Ireland. Doctoral thesis, NUI Galway.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O’Malley, S. and Devaney, C. (2016) Supporting incarcerated mothers in Ireland with their familial relationships: A case for the revival of the social work role. Probation Journal, 63(3), 293309.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O’Malley, S. and Baldwin, L. (2019) Mothering interrupted: Mother-child separation via incarceration in England and Ireland. In Beyer, C. and Robertson, A. (eds) Mothers Without Their Children. Toronto: Demeter Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O’Malley, S., Baldwin, L. and Abbott, L. (2021) Starting life in prison: Reflections of the UK and Irish contexts of pregnant and new mothers in prison, through a children’s rights lens. In Donson, F. and Parks, A. (eds) Presenting a Children’s Rights Approach to Parental Imprisonment. London: Routledge, pp 87113.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O’Malley, S., Devaney, C. and Millar, M. (2022) Incarcerated mothers’ experience of adversity heard using participatory mixed-method research. Probation Journal, 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1177/02645505221143335

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Opsal, T.D. (2011) Women disrupting a marginalized identity: Subverting the parolee identity through narrative. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 40(2), 135–167.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Powell, C., Marzano, L. and Ciclitira, K. (2017) Mother–infant separations in prison: A systematic attachment-focused policy review. The Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 28(2), 274289.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pitman, J., Hull, J. and Crest (2021) Counting the Cost of Maternal Imprisonment: Insights Report. London: Crest Advisory. https://www.crestadvisory.com/post/report-counting-the-cost-of-maternal-imprisonment

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PPO (Prisons and Probation Ombudsman) (2015) Independent Investigation into the Death of Ms Michelle Barnes a Prisoner at HMP Low Newton on 16 December 2015. https://www.ppo.gov.uk/app/uploads/2017/04/L229-15-Death-of-Ms-Michelle-Barnes-Low-Newton-16-12-2015-SID-31-40.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PPO (Prisons and Probation Ombudsman) (2021) Independent Investigation into the Death of Baby A at HMP Bronzefield on 27 September 2019. https://s3-eu-west-2.amazonaws.com/ppo-prod-storage-1g9rkhjhkjmgw/uploads/2021/09/F4055-19-Death-of-Baby-A-Bronzefield-26-09-2019-NC-Under-18-0.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PPO (Prisons and Probation Ombudsman) (2022) Independent Investigation into the Death of Baby B at HMP&YOI Styal on 18 June 2020. https://s3-eu-west-2.amazonaws.com/ppo-prod-storage-1g9rkhjhkjmgw/uploads/2022/01/F4376-20-Death-of-Baby-B-Styal-18-06-2020-NC-Under-18-0.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PRT (Prison Reform Trust) (2022) Bromley Briefings Prison Factfile Winter 2022. https://prisonreformtrust.org.uk/publication/bromley-briefings-prison-factfile-winter-2022/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Raikes, B. and Lockwood, K. (2011) ‘Mothering from the inside’: A small scale evaluation of Acorn House, an overnight child contact facility at HMP Askham Grange. Prison Service Journal, 194, 1926.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Redshaw, M. and Martin, C. (2013) Babies, ‘bonding’ and ideas about parental ‘attachment’. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 31(3), 219221.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rees, A., Waits, C. and Bezeczky, Z. (2023) ‘Together a Chance’: Evaluation of the Social Worker for Mothers in Prison Pilot Project, 2021–2023 Second Interim Report. Cardiff: Cascade and Pact. https://www.prisonadvice.org.uk/Handlers/Download.ashx?IDMF=cf29a773-603f-492a-b1c7-8877d11ef16d

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Renzetti, C.M. (2013) Feminist Criminology. Abingdon: Routledge.

  • Sharpe, G., Gelsthorpe, L. and Worrall, A. (2009) Looking for trouble: A recent history of girls, young women and youth justice. Youth Justice, 9(3), 209223.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sikand, M. (2015) Lost Spaces: Is the Current Procedure for Women Prisoners to Gain a Place in a Prison Mother and Baby Unit Fair and Accessible? London: The Griffins Society.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smoyer, A.B. and Lopes, G. (2017) Hungry on the inside: Prison food as concrete and symbolic punishment in a women’s prison. Punishment & Society, 19(2), 240255.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stewart, P.W. (2015) A psychodynamic understanding of mothers and babies in prison. In Baldwin, L. (ed) Mothering Justice: Working with Mothers in Criminal and Social Justice Settings. Sherfield on Loddon: Waterside Press, pp 167185.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sykes, G.M. (2007 [1958]) The Society of Captives: A Study of a Maximum-Security Prison. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

  • Thomas, M. (2023) ‘Just because I’ve gone to prison, my mum hat doesn’t switch off’: An Analysis of Black Mothers’ Narratives of Imprisonment and Life after Release. Unpublished thesis, Cardiff University.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thornburg, K., Patterson, A. and Zhang, L. (2014) Programming and the barker hypothesis. In Zhang, L. and Longo, L.D. (eds) Stress and Developmental Programming of Health and Disease: Beyond Phenomenology. Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Torchalla, I., Linden, I.A., Strehlau, V., Neilson, E.K. and Krausz, M. (2014) ‘Like a lots happened with my whole childhood’: Violence, trauma, and addiction in pregnant and postpartum women from Vancouver’s Downtown Eastside. Harm Reduction Journal, 11(1), 110.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trowler, I. (2022) Applications to mother and baby units in prison: How decisions are made and the role of social work: A case review of social work decision making (2017–2021), 24 November. Gov.Uk. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/1119733/Applications_to_mother_and_baby_units_in_prison_-_how_decisions_are_made_and_the_role_of_social_work.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Warr, J. (2016) The deprivation of certitude, legitimacy and hope: Foreign national prisoners and the pains of imprisonment. Criminology & Criminal Justice, 16(3), 301318.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wismont, J.M. (2000) The lived pregnancy experience of women in prison. Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health, 45(4), 292300.

  • Zedner, L. (1991) Women, crime and penal responses: A historical account. Crime and Justice, 14, 307362.

Content Metrics

May 2022 onwards Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 183 183 71
Full Text Views 4 4 1
PDF Downloads 5 5 1

Altmetrics