18: Corruption: where did all the good apples go?

Much of global dirty money comes from corruption. The authors explain that corruption has no agreed definition or meaningful statistics. To try to make sense of corruption, policy makers have split grand corruption from petty corruption; in much the same way that policy makers have split money laundering from its predicate crimes. This artificial division has created similar debilitating confusion for practitioners.

The authors suggest that between grand corruption and petty corruption lies police corruption because this is a crucial enabler of both. The normalisation of police corruption allows the corrupt to keep their dirty money.

Many developing countries have Anti-Corruption Commissions modelled on the atypical jurisdictions of Hong Kong and Singapore. These have been set up over the last 20 years using donated money and skills from wealthy countries.

International bribery is a major source of dirty money. Although this can be investigated, there is no international infrastructure to prosecute or recover the money.

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