Introduction

Restricted access
Rights and permissions Cite this chapter

The introduction sets out what is covered in the book. It begins by defining the term ‘Transitional Safeguarding’ and explains the origins of it. This is an emergent concept and as such the book marks a moment in time where we (the three authors) take stock of the work we have done over the past six years and look to possible futures. We want the contents of the book to inspire, start discussions, and bring about changes to the way we support young people to be and feel safe.

  • Abimbola, S. (2023) ‘The art of medicine: when dignity meets evidence’, The Lancet, 401(10374): 340341.

  • Adams, G., Dobles, I., Gómez, L., Kurtiş, T., and Molina, L. (2015) ‘Decolonizing psychological science: introduction to the special thematic’, Journal of Social and Political Psychology, 3(1): 213238.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Albury, D., Beresford, T., Dew, S., Horton, T., Illingworth, J., and Langford, K. (2018) Against the odds: successfully scaling innovation in the NHS, Innovation Unit/Health Foundation. https://www.health.org.uk/publications/against-the-odds-successfully-scaling-innovation-in-the-nhs [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • American Psychiatric Association (2013) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders –DSM-5, Arlington, VA: APA Publishing.

  • American Psychological Association (2016) Clinical practice guideline for treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adults. https://www.apa.org/ptsd-guideline/ptsd.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anonymous Safeguarding Adult Board (undated) Safeguarding Adults Review Briefing: ‘Colin’. https://www.kirklees.gov.uk/beta/adult-social-care-providers/pdf/sar-colin-national-briefing.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • APPG (2017) APPG for ending homelessness: Homelessness prevention for care leavers, prison leavers and survivors of domestic violence (July). https://www.crisis.org.uk/media/237534/appg_for_ending_homelessness_report_2017_pdf.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Arnett, J. (2000) ‘Emerging adulthood: a theory of development from the late teens through the twenties’, American Psychologist, 55(5): 469480.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Arnett, J.J. (2004) Emerging Adulthood: The Winding Road from the Late Teens through the Twenties, New York: Oxford University Press.

  • Arnett, J.J. (2007) ‘Emerging adulthood: what is it, and what is it good for?’, Child Development Perspectives, 1: 6873.

  • Arnold, R. and Wade, J. (2015) ‘A definition of systems thinking: a systems approach’, Procedia Computer Science, 44: 669678.

  • Arnstein, S. (1969) ‘Eight rungs on the ladder of citizen participation’, Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 35(4): 216224.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Asmussen, K., Masterman, T., McBride, T., and Molloy, D. (2022) Trauma-informed care: understanding the use of trauma-informed approaches within children’s social care. https://www.eif.org.uk/report/trauma-informed-care-understanding-the-use-of-trauma-informed-approaches-within-childrens-social-care [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Association of Directors of Adult Social Services (ADASS) (2019) A Framework for Making Decisions on the Duty to Carry Out Safeguarding Adults Enquiries, London: ADASS/ LGA. https://www.adass.org.uk/media/7326/adass-advice-note.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Association of Directors of Adult Social Services (ADASS) (2022) ADASS Spring Budget Survey 2022, London: ADASS. Available at: https://www.adass.org.uk/adass-spring-budget-survey-2022 [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Association of Directors of Children’s Services (ADCS) (2013) What Is Care For? Alternative Models of Care for Adolescents. ADCS Position Statement, Manchester: ADCS.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Association of Directors of Children’s Services (2021) Safeguarding Pressures: Phase 7, Manchester: ADCS.

  • Association of Directors of Children’s Services (2022) Safeguarding Pressures: Phase 8, Manchester: ADCS.

  • Audit Commission (2008) Are We There Yet? Improving Governance and Resource Management in Children’s Trusts, London: Audit Commission. https://lx.iriss.org.uk/sites/default/files/resources/AreWeThereYet29Oct08REP.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bacchi, C. (2009) Analysing Policy: What’s the Problem Represented to Be?, London: Pearson Education.

  • Bachmann, M.O., O’Brien, M., Husbands, C., Shreeve, A., Jones, N., Watson, J., Reading, R., Thoburn, J., and Mugford, M. (2009) ‘Integrating children’s services in England: national evaluation of children’s trusts’, Child: Care, Health and Development, 35: 257265.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baginsky, M., Hickman, B., Harris, J., Manthorpe, J., Sanders, M., O’Higgins, A., Schoenwald, E., and Clayton, V. (2020) Evaluation of MTM’s Signs of Safety Pilots Evaluation Report, London: Department for Education.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bandura, A. (1977) ‘Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change’, Psychological Review, 84(2): 191215.

  • Barlow, C., Kidd, A., Green, S.T., and Darby, B. (2022) ‘Circles of analysis: a systemic model of child criminal exploitation’, Journal of Children’s Services, 17(3): 158174.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnardo’s (2019) Toolkit for supporting care leavers in custody 2019, HM Prison and Probation Service. https://www.nicco.org.uk/directory-of-resources/toolkit-for-supporting-care-leavers-in-custody [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bateman, F. and Cocker, C. (2021) Safeguarding Adults Review: Madeleine, Croydon Safeguarding Adults Board. https://www.croydonsab.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2022/03/PDF-Madeleine-SAR-Final-Report.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bateman, T. (2017) The state of youth justice 2017: An overview of trends and developments. National Association of Youth Justice. https://thenayj.org.uk/cmsAdmin/uploads/state-of-youth-justice-2020-final-sep20.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Batty, D. (2003) ‘Catalogue of cruelty’, The Guardian, 27 January. https://www.theguardian.com/society/2003/jan/27/childrensservices.childprotection?CMP=share_btn_link [Accessed 1 January 2022].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Batty, D. (2005) ‘Timeline: a history of child protection’, The Guardian 18 May. https://www.theguardian.com/society/2005/may/18/childrensservices2 [Accessed 1 January 2022].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beckett, H., Holmes, D. and Walker, J. (2017) Child Sexual Exploitation Definition & Guide for Professionals, Luton and Dartington: The International Centre: Researching Child Sexual Exploitation, Violence and Trafficking, and Research in Practice. https://bettercarenetwork.org/sites/default/files/Child%20Sexual%20Exploitation%20Extended%20Text.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beckett, H. and Lloyd, J. (2022) ‘Growing pains: developing safeguarding responses to adolescent harms’, in D. Holmes (ed) Safeguarding Young People: Rights, Risks, Resilience and Relationships, London: Jessica Kingsley Publications.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bennis, W. and Nanus, B. (1985) Leaders: The Strategies for Taking Charge, New York: Harper & Row.

  • Benoit, F. (2013) Public Policy Models and Their Usefulness in Public Health: The Stages Model. Montréal, Québec: National Collaborating Centre for Healthy Public Policy.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bigland, C., Evans, D., Bolden, R., and Rae, M. (2020) ‘Systems leadership in practice: thematic insights from three public health case studies’, BMC Public Health, 20: 1735.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bion, W.R. (1962) Learning from Experience, London: Heinemann.

  • Blankenstein, N.E., Crone, E.A., van den Bos, W., and van Duijvenvoorde, A.C.K. (2016) ‘Dealing with uncertainty: testing risk- and ambiguity-attitude across adolescence’, Developmental Neuropsychology, 41(1–2): 7792.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bolden, R., Gulati, A., and Edwards, G. (2019) ‘Mobilizing change in public services: insights from a systems leadership development intervention’, International Journal of Public Administration, 43: 2636.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bostock, L., Munro, E., Khan, M., Lynch, A., Baker, C., Newlands, F., and Antonpoulou V. (2020) Havering: Face to Face Pathways: Final Evaluation Report. London: Department for Education/Tilda Goldberg for Social Work and Social Care, University of Bedfordshire.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bowyer, S. (2022) What is early help? Concepts, policy directions and multi-agency perspectives. Ofsted and Research in Practice. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/early-help-concepts-policy-directions-and-multi-agency-perspectives [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brammer, A. (2020) Social Work Law, Harlow: Pearson Education.

  • Brandon, M., Bailey, S., and Belderson, P. (2010) Building on the learning from SCRs: a two-year analysis of child protection data base notifications 2007–2009. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/5a7ab80bed915d71db8b2048/DFE-RR040.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brandon, M., Belderson, P., Warren, C., Howe, D., Gardner, R., Dodsworth, J., and Black, J. (2008) Analysing child deaths and serious injury through abuse and neglect: What we can learn? A biennial analysis of SCRs 2003–2005. https://dera.ioe.ac.uk/7190/1/dcsf-rr023.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brandon, M,. Bailey, S., Belderson, P., Gardner, R., Sidebotham, P., Dodsworth, J., and Black, J. (2009) Understanding SCRs and their impact: A biennial analysis of SCRs 2005–07. https://dera.ioe.ac.uk/11151/1/DCSF-RR129(R).pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brandon, M., Sidebotham, P., Bailey, S., and Belderson, P. (2011) A Study of Recommendations Arising from Serious Case Reviews 2009–2010, London: Department for Education.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brandon, M., Sidebotham, P., Bailey, S., Belderson, P., Hawley, C., Ellis, C., and Megson, M. (2012) New Learning from SCRs: A Two-Year Analysis of SCRs 2009–2011 (Vol. RR226). https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/5a7a0893ed915d6d99f5cab0/DFE-RR226_Report.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brandon, M., Sidebotham, P., Belderson, P., Cleaver, H., Dickens, J., Garstang, J., Harris, J., Sorensen, P., and Wate, R. (2020) Complexity and Challenge: A Triennial Analysis of SCRs 2014–2017 Final Report March 2020, London: Department for Education. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/869586/TRIENNIAL_SCR_REPORT_2014_to_2017.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Braye, S. and Preston-Shoot, M. (2017a) ‘Self-neglect and hoarding’, in A. Cooper and E. White (eds) Safeguarding Adults Under the Care Act: Understanding Good Practice, London: Jessica Kingsley Publications, pp 4056.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Braye, S. and Preston-Shoot, M. (2017b) Learning from Safeguarding Adults Reviews: A Report for the London Safeguarding Adults Board, London: London ADASS. https://londonadass.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/London-SARs-Report-Final-Version.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Braye, S. and Preston-Shoot, M. (2020a) ‘Adult safeguarding’, in S. Braye and M. Preston-Shoot (eds) The Care Act 2014, Wellbeing in Practice, London: SAGE.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Braye, S. and Preston-Shoot, M. (2020b) ‘Overview of the Care Act’, in S. Braye and M. Preston-Shoot (eds) The Care Act 2014, Wellbeing in Practice, London: SAGE.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Braye, S., Orr, D., and Preston Shoot, M. (2015) ‘Serious case review findings on the challenges of self-neglect: indicators for good practice’, The Journal of Adult Protection, 17(2): 75–87.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Broadhurst, K., Wastell, D., White, S., Hall, C., Peckover, S., Thompson, K., Pithouse, A., and Davey, D. (2010) ‘Performing “initial assessment”: identifying the latent conditions for error at the front-door of local authority children’s services’, The British Journal of Social Work, 40(2): 352370.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bronfenbrenner, U. (1974) ‘Developmental research, public policy, and the ecology of childhood’, Child Development, 45(1): 15.

  • Bronfenbrenner, U. (1977) ‘Toward an experimental ecology of human development’, American Psychologist, 32(7): 513.

  • Bronfenbrenner, U. (2005) Making Human Beings Human: Bioecological Perspectives on Human Development, Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Butler-Sloss, E. (1988) Report of the Inquiry into Child Abuse in Cleveland 1987 Cm 412, London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.

  • Butterworth, S., Singh, S.P., Birchwood, M., Islam, Z., Munro, E.R., Vostanis, P., Paul, M., Khan, A., and Simkiss, D. (2017) ‘Transitioning care-leavers with mental health needs: “they set you up to fail!”’, Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 22: 138147.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bynner, J. (2005) ‘Rethinking the youth phase of the life course: the case for emerging adulthood?’, Journal of Youth Studies, 8: 367384.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bywaters, P. (2008) ‘Learning from experience: developing a research strategy for social work in the UK’, British Journal of Social Work .38(5): 936952.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bywaters, P. and Skinner, G. (2022) The Relationship between Poverty and Child Abuse and Neglect: New Evidence .Nuffield Foundation.

  • Cabinet Office (2008) Think Family: Improving the Life Chances of Families at Risk, London: Cabinet Office Social Exclusion Task Force.

  • Cairney, P. (2019a) Fostering Evidence-Informed Policymaking: Uncertainty versus Ambiguity, Montreal, Quebec: National Collaborating Centre for Healthy Public Policy.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cairney, P. (2019b) ‘Evidence and policy making’, in A. Boaz, H. Davies, A. Fraser, and S. Nutley (eds) What Works Now?, Bristol: Policy Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Camillus, J. (2008) ‘Strategy as a wicked problem’, Harvard Business Review, May. https://hbr.org/2008/05/strategy-as-a-wicked-problem [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Campbell, F., Biggs, K., Aldiss, S.K., O’Neill, P.M., Clowes, M., McDonagh, J., While, A., and Gibson, F. (2016) ‘Transition of care for adolescents from paediatric services to adult health services’, Cochrane Database Systematic Reviews, 29(4): CD009794.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Care Council for Wales (2017) Social Services and Wellbeing (Wales) Act 2014: Getting in on the Act. https://socialcare.wales/cms-assets/documents/hub-downloads/Principles-Resource-Guide_March-17.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Care Quality Commission (2014) From the Pond into the Sea: Children’s Transitions to Adult Health Services, Gallowgate: CQC.

  • Carr, H. and Goosey, D. (2017) Law for Social Workers (14th edn), Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Centre for Mental Health (2010) The Economic and Social Costs of Mental Health Problems in 2009/10. Centre for Mental Health.

  • Charlton, J. (2000) Nothing about Us without Us: Disability, Oppression and Empowerment, Oakland, CA: University of California Press.

  • Checkland, P. (1999) ‘Systems thinking. Rethinking management information systems’, in W.L. Currie and B. Galliers (eds) Rethinking Management Information Systems, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp 4556.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Children’s Commissioner (2023) Children’s Mental Health Services 2021–22 (March 2023), London: Children’s Commissioner. https://www.childrenscommissioner.gov.uk/wp-content/uploads/2023/03/Childrens-Mental-Health-Services-2021-2022-1.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Children’s Commissioner for England (2019) The Characteristics of Gang-Associated Children and Young People. Technical Report, London: Office of the Children’s Commissioner.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Children’s Society (2017) Criminal exploitation and county lines: a toolkit for working with children and young people. https://www.childrenssociety.org.uk/information/professionals/resources/county-lines-toolkit [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Child Safeguarding Practice Review Panel (2020) It Was Hard to Escape: Safeguarding Children at Risk from Criminal Exploitation, London: Crown Copyright. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/870035/Safeguarding_children_at_risk_from_criminal_exploitation_review.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Child Safeguarding Practice Review Panel (2022) Child protection in England: national review into the murders of Arthur Labinjo-Hughes and Star Hobson, HM Government. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/1078488/ALH_SH_National_Review_26-5-22.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chowdry, H. and Fitzsimons, P. (2016) The Cost of Late Intervention: Analysis, London: Early Intervention Foundation.

  • Chughtai, S. and Blanchet K. (2017) ‘Systems thinking in public health: a bibliographic contribution to a meta-narrative review’, Health Policy Plan, 32: 585594.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clarke, A., Burgess, G., Morris, S., and Udagawa, C. (2015) ‘Estimating the scale of youth homelessness in the UK: final report’, Cambridge Centre for Housing and Planning Research. https://www.cchpr.landecon.cam.ac.uk/Research/Start-Year/2014/Estimating-the-scale-of-youth-homelessness-in-the-UK/Report [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cockbain, E. (2013) ‘Grooming and the “Asian sex gang predator”: the construction of a racial crime threat’, Race & Class, 54(4): 2232.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cocker, C. and Hafford-Letchfield, P. (eds) (2014) Rethinking Anti-Discriminatory and Anti-Oppressive Theories for Social Work Practice, Basingstoke: Palgrave.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cocker, C. and Allain, L. (2019) Social Work with Looked After Children (3rd edn), London: Sage/Learning Matters.

  • Cocker, C., Minnis, H., and Sweeting, H. (2018) ‘Potential value of the current mental health monitoring of children in state care in England’, BJPsych Open, 4(6): 486491.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cocker, C., Cooper, A., and Holmes, D. (2022a) ‘Transitional Safeguarding: transforming how adolescents and young adults are safeguarded’, British Journal of Social Work, 52(3): 12871306.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cocker, C., Cooper, A., and Holmes, D. (2022b) ‘Transitional Safeguarding: bridging the gap between children’s and adults’ safeguarding responses’, in D. Holmes (ed) Safeguarding Young People: Risk, Rights, Resilience and Relationships .London: Jessica Kingsley Publishing, pp 203222.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cocker, C., Cooper, A., Holmes, D., and Bateman, F. (2021) ‘Transitional Safeguarding: presenting the case for developing Making Safeguarding Personal for young people in England’, The Journal of Adult Protection, 23(3): 144157.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Coleman, J. and Hagell, A. (2022) ‘Understanding the age of adolescence’, in D. Holmes (ed) Safeguarding Young People: Risk, Rights, Resilience and Relationships, London: Jessica Kingsley Publications.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Commission on Young Lives (2022) Hidden in plain sight: a national plan of action to support vulnerable teenagers to succeed and to protect them from adversity, exploitation and harm. https://thecommissiononyounglives.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2022/11/COYL-FINAL-REPORT-FINAL-VERSION.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Conway, R., Masters, J., and Thorold, J. (2017) From Design Thinking to Systems Change: How to Invest in Innovation for Social Impact, London: RSA Action and Research Centre.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cooper, A. (2019) Making Safeguarding Personal Outcomes Framework: Project Summary Report 2018/19, London: LGA/ADASS. https://www.local.gov.uk/sites/default/files/documents/25.155%20Making%20Safeguarding%20Personal%20Outcomes%20Framework_03.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cooper, A. and Bruin, C. (2017) ‘Adult safeguarding and the Care Act (2014)—the impacts on partnerships and practice’, Journal of Adult Protection, 19(4): 209219.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cooper, A. and White, E. (eds) (2017), Safeguarding Adults under the Care Act: Understanding Good Practice, London, Jessica Kingsley Publications.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cooper, A., Cocker, C., and Briggs, M. (2018) ‘Making Safeguarding Personal and social work practice with older adults: findings from local authority survey data in England’, British Journal of Social Work, 48: 10141032.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cooper, A., Lawson, J., Lewis, S., and Williams, C. (2015) ‘Making Safeguarding Personal: Learning and messages from the 2013/14 programme’, Journal of Adult Protection, 17(3): 153165.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cooper, A., Briggs, M., Lawson, J., Hodson, B., and Wilson, M. (2016) MSP Temperature Check, London: Association of Directors of Adult Social Services.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Corby, B., Shemmings, D., and Wilkins, D. (2012) Child Abuse: An Evidence Base for Confident Practice (4th edn), Maidenhead: Open University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cossar, J., Brandon, M., and Jordan, P. (2011) Don’t Make Assumptions: Children’s and Young People’s Views of the Child Protection System and the Messages for Change, London: Office of the Children’s Commissioner.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cossar, J., Brandon, M. and Jordan, P. (2016) ‘“You’ve got to trust her and she’s got to trust you”: children’s views on participation in the child protection system’, Child & Family Social Work, 21: 103112.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Côté, J. (2014) ‘The dangerous myth of emerging adulthood: an evidence-based critique of a flawed developmental theory’, Applied Developmental Science, 18(4): 177188.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Craston, M., Balfour, R., Henley, M., Baxendale, J., and Fullick, S. (2020) Process Evaluation of the Violence Reduction Units, Research Report 116, London: Home Office.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Crenshaw, K. (1991) ‘Mapping the margins: intersectionality, identity politics, and violence against women of color’, Stanford Law Review, 43: 12411299.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Criado Perez, C. (2019) Invisible Women: Exposing Data Bias in a World Designed for Men, London: Chatto and Windus.

  • Cullen, N. (2020) Burnt Bridges? A Thematic Review of the Deaths of Five Men on the Streets of Halifax During Winter 2018/19. Calderdale Safeguarding Adult Board. https://safeguarding.calderdale.gov.uk/wp-content/uploads/2021/06/burnt-bridges.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Davis, J. and Marsh, N. (2020) ‘Boys to men: the cost of “adultification” in safeguarding responses to Black boys’, Critical and Radical Social Work, 8(2): 255259.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Davis, J. and Marsh, N. (2022) ‘The myth of the universal child’, in D. Holmes (ed) Safeguarding Young People: Risk, Rights, Relationships and Resilience. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dearden, L. (2018) ‘Grooming gangs abused more than 700 women and girls around Newcastle after police appeared to punish victims’, The Independent, 23 February. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/crime/grooming-gangs-uk-britain-newcastle-serious-case-review-operation-sanctuary-shelter-muslim-asian-a8225106.html [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dent, R.J. and Cocker, C. (2005) ‘Serious case reviews – lessons for practice in cases of child neglect’, in B. Daniel and J. Taylor (eds) Neglect: Issues for Health and Social Care, London: Jessica Kingsley Publications.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Department for Education (2010) The Children Act 1989 guidance and regulations volume 3: planning transition to adulthood for care leavers. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/children-act-1989-transition-to-adulthood-for-care-leavers [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Department for Education (2014a) Rethinking Support for Adolescents in or on the Edge of Care: Children’s Social Care Innovation Programme, London : Department for Education.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Department for Education (2014b) Statutory Guidance on Children Who Run Away or Go Missing from Home or Care, London : Department for Education.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Department for Education (2018) Extending Personal Adviser Support to all Care Leavers to Age 25. Statutory Guidance for Local Authorities, London: Department for Education.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Department for Education (2021) Reforms to Unregulated Provision for Children in Care and Care Leavers. Government Consultation Response, London Department for Education.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Department for Education (2023a) Regulating supported accommodation for looked after children and care leavers aged 16 and 17: Government consultation response March 2023. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/1145589/Supported_accommodation_-_government_response.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Department for Education (2023b) Stable Homes, Built on Love: Implementation Strategy and Consultation. Children’s Social Care Reform 2023, London: Department for Education.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Department for Education and Department of Health (2015) Special educational needs and disability code of practice: 0 to 25 years. Statutory guidance for organisations which work with and support children and young people who have special educational needs or disabilities. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/398815/SEND_Code_of_Practice_January_2015.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Department of Health (2007) Putting People First: A Shared visions and Commitment to the Transformation of Adult Social Care, London: HMSO.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Department of Health (2012) Caring for Our Future: Reforming Care and Support, London: Crown Copyright.

  • Department of Health (2017a) Statutory Guidance to Support Local Authorities Implement the Care Act 2014, London: HMSO.

  • Department of Health (2017b) Strengths-based social work practice with adults: Roundtable report, London: Department of Health https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/652773/Strengths-based_social_work_practice_with_adults.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Department of Health and Home Office (2000) No Secrets: Guidance on Developing and Implementing Multi-Agency Policies and Procedures to Protect Vulnerable Adults from Abuse, London: HMSO.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Department of Health and Social Care (2019) Strengths-Based Approach: Practice Framework and Practice Handbook, London: Department of Health https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/778134/stengths-based-approach-practice-framework-and-handbook.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Department of Health and Social Care (2021) People at the heart of care: Adult social care reform white paper. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/6234b0a6e90e0779a18d3f46/people-at-the-heart-of-care-asc-reform-accessible-with-correction-slip.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Department of Health and Social Care (2022) Revisiting safeguarding practice. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/revisiting-safeguarding-practice [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Department of Health and Social Care (2023) Care and support statutory guidance, updated 19 January. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/care-act-statutory-guidance/care-and-support-statutory-guidance [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dickens, J., Taylor, J., Cook, L., Garstang, J., Hallett, N., Okpokiri, C., and Rimmer, J. (2022) Annual Review of Local Child Safeguarding Practice Reviews, London: The Child Safeguarding Practice Review Panel. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/1123918/Annual_review_of_local_child_safeguarding_practice_reviews.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dooley, T. (2019) Transitions panel: life in motion – does age matter? Unpublished report to the Havering Safeguarding Adults Board, 20 May.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Downey, C. and Crummy A. (2022) ‘The impact of childhood trauma on children’s well-being and adult behavior’, European Journal of Trauma and Dissociation. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejtd.2021.100237 [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Droy, R. and Lawson, J. (2017) Making Safeguarding Personal Supporting Increased Involvement of Service Users, London: Local Government Association and ADASS.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Elder, G.H., Jr. (1974) Children of the Great Depression: Social Change in Life Experience, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  • Elder, G. Jr. (1994) ‘Time, human agency, and social change: perspectives on the life course’, Social Psychology Quarterly, 57(1): 415.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Elder, G., Jr. (1998) ‘The life course as development theory’, Child Development, 69(1): 112.

  • Eshalomi, F. (2020) Gang-Associated Girls: Supporting Young Women at Risk, London: Greater London Assembly.

  • Farmer, L. (2017) The importance of strengthening prisoners’ family ties to prevent reoffending and reduce intergenerational crime, Ministry of Justice. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/642244/farmer-review-report.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Faulkner, A. (2012) The right to take risks: service users’ views of risk in adult social care, Joseph Rowntree Foundation. https://www.jrf.org.uk/sites/default/files/jrf/migrated/files/right-to-take-risks-faulkner.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Featherstone, B., White, S., and Morris, K. (2014) Reimagining Child Protection, Bristol: Policy Press.

  • Featherstone, B., Gupta, A., Morris, K., and White, S. (2018) Protecting Children: A Social Model, Bristol: Policy Press.

  • Firmin, C. (2020) Contextual Safeguarding and Child Protection: Rewriting the Rules, Abingdon: Routledge.

  • Firmin, C. and Lloyd, J. (2020) Contextual Safeguarding. A 2020 Update on the Operational, Strategic and Conceptual Framework, Luton: University of Bedfordshire.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Firmin, C. and Knowles, R. (2022) ‘Has the purpose outgrown the design?’, in D. Holmes (ed) Safeguarding Young People: Risk, Rights, Resilience and Relationships, London: Jessica Kingsley Publications.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Firmin, C., Wroe, L., and Skidmore, P. (2020) A Sigh of Relief. A Summary of the Phase One Results from the Securing Safety Study, Luton: University of Bedfordshire.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Firmin, C., Horan J., Holmes, D., and Hopper, G. (2019) Safeguarding during Adolescence – The Relationship between Contextual Safeguarding, Complex Safeguarding and Transitional Safeguarding, Dartington: Research in Practice, University of Bedfordshire, Rochdale Borough Council, and Contextual Safeguarding Network.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Flynn, M. (2007) ‘The murder of Steven Hoskin: a serious case review’, Cornwall Adult Protection Committee. https://www.hampshiresab.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2007-December-Serious-Case-Review-regarding-Steven-Hoskin-Cornwall.pdf [Accessed 29 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Flynn, M. (2021) Safeguarding adults review: Joanna, Jon and Ben. Norfolk Safeguarding Adults Board. https://www.norfolksafeguardingadultsboard.info/assets/SARs/SAR-Joanna-Jon-and-Ben/SAR-Rpt-Joanna-JonBen_EXEC-SUMMARY02-June2021.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Forrester, D., Goodman, K., Cocker, C., Binnie, C., and Jensch, G. (2009) ‘What is the impact of public care on children’s welfare? A review of research findings from England and Wales and their policy implications’, Journal of Social Policy, 38: 439456.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Forrester, D., Lynch, A., Bostock, L., Newlands, F., Preston, B., and Cary, A. (2017) Family Safeguarding Hertfordshire: Evaluation Report, London: Department for Education.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fraser, A. and Irwin-Rogers, K. (2021) A Public Health Approach to Violence Reduction: Strategic Briefing, Dartington: Research in Practice.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gamble, J. and McCallum, R. (2022) Local Child Safeguarding Practice Review: Child Q. City and Hackney Safeguarding Children Partnership. https://chscp.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2022/03/Child-Q-PUBLISHED-14-March-22.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Geronimus, A.T., Hicken, M., Keene, D., and Bound, J. (2006) ‘“Weathering” and age patterns of allostatic load scores among blacks and whites in the United States’, American Journal of Public Health, 96(5): 826833.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ghate, D., Lewis, J., and Welbrown, D. (2013) Systems Leadership for Exceptional Times. Synthesis Paper. Virtual Staff College. https://thestaffcollege.uk/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Systems-Leadership-Full-Report-Staff-College.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Giddens, A. and Sutton, P. (2021) Sociology (9th edn), Cambridge: Polity Press.

  • Glover Williams, A. and Finlay, F. (2019) ‘County lines: how gang crime is affecting our young people’, Archive of Diseases in Childhood, 104: 730732.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goff, P.A., Jackson, M., Di Leone, B., Culotta, C., and Ditomasso, N. (2014) ‘The essence of innocence: consequences of dehumanizing black children’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 106(4): 526545.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gorin, S. and Jobe, A. (2013) ‘Young people who have been maltreated: different needs – different responses?’, British Journal of Social Work, 43(7): 13301346.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Government Social Research Profession (2022) A guide to inclusive social research practices produced as part of the Government Social Research Strategy 2021–2025. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/a-guide-to-inclusive-social-research-practices/a-guide-to-inclusive-social-research-practices [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gradus, J.L. and Galea, S. (2022) ‘Reconsidering the definition of trauma’, The Lancet Psychiatry, 9(8): 608609.

  • Green, L.W. (2008) ‘Making research relevant: if it is an evidence-based practice, where’s the practice-based evidence?’, Family Practice, 25(1): 2024.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Griffiths R. (2022) ‘Transitional Safeguarding in London Borough of Hackney: a case study’, Practice: Social Work in Action, 34(1): 4150.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grohs, J., Kirk, G., Soledad, M., and Knight, D. (2018) ‘Assessing systems thinking: A tool to measure complex reasoning through ill-structured problems’, Thinking Skills and Creativity, 28: 110130.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gunner, J. (2017) ‘Working towards recovery and resolution, including mediation and restorative justice’, in A. Cooper and E. White (eds) Safeguarding Adults Under the Care Act: Understanding Good Practice, London: Jessica Kingsley Publications, pp 7490.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gupta, A. and Blumhardt, H. (2016) ‘Giving poverty a voice: families’ experiences of social work practice in a risk-averse child protection system’, Families, Relationships and Societies, 5(1): 163172. https://bristoluniversitypressdigital.com/view/journals/frs/5/1/article-p163.xml [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hafford-Letchfield, P., Lambley, S., Spolander, G., and Cocker, C. (2014) Inclusive Leadership: Managing to Make A Difference in Social Work and Social Care, Bristol: Policy Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hall, B. (2012) ‘Reflective social work practice with older people: the professional and the Organisation’, in B. Hall and T. Scragg (eds) Social Work with Older People: Approaches to Person-Centred Practice, Maidenhead: Open University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hallet, S. (2016) ‘An uncomfortable comfortableness: “care”, child protection and child sexual exploitation’, British Journal of Social Work, 46(7): 21372152.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hanson, E. and Holmes, D. (2014) That Difficult Age: Developing a More Effective Response to Risks in Adolescence, Dartington, Research in Practice/Association of Directors of Children’s Services.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harris, J., Tinarwo, M., and Ramanathan, R. (2020) Leeds Partners in Practice: Reimagining Child Welfare Services for the 21st Century. Final Evaluation Report, London: Department for Education.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harris, M. and Fallot, R.D. (2001) ‘Envisioning a trauma-informed service system: a vital paradigm shift’, New Directions for Mental Health Services, 89: 322.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harris, M. and Edwards, M. (2023) Young People in Transition in the Criminal Justice System: Evidence Review. Alliance for Youth Justice. https://barrowcadbury.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2023/06/FINAL-AYJ-Young-people-in-transition-in-the-criminal-justice-system-Evidence-review-April-2023.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hart, R. (1992) Children’s Participation from Tokenism to Citizenship, Florence: UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre.

  • Health and Social Care Committee (2021) Has the Provision of Mental Health Services for Children and Young People Improved? https://ukparliament.shorthandstories.com/children-young-people-mental-health/index.html [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Health Foundation (2021) Social Care Funding Gap, London: The Health Foundation.

  • Helyar-Cardwell, V. and Moran, K. (2020) Timely Justice: Turning 18: A Briefing on the Impact of Turning 18 in the Criminal Justice System, London: Just for Kids Law.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hendrick, H. (2003) Child Welfare: Historical Dimensions, Contemporary Debates, Bristol: Policy Press.

  • Hendry, L.B. and Kloep, M. (2007), ‘Conceptualizing emerging adulthood: inspecting the emperor’s new clothes?’, Child Development Perspectives, 1: 7479.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hertfordshire. Evaluation Report. Department for Education. Reference: DFE-RR574

  • Hickle, K. (2020) ‘Introducing a trauma-informed capability approach in youth services’, Child Soc, 34(6): 537551.

  • Hickle, K. and Lefevre, M. (2022) ‘Learning to love and trust again: a relational approach to developmental trauma’, in D. Holmes (ed) Safeguarding Young People: Risk, Rights, resilience and Relationships, London: Jessica Kingsley, pp 159176.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hill, N. and Warrington, C. (2022) ‘Nothing about me without me’, in D. Holmes (ed) Safeguarding Young People: Risk, Rights, Relationships and Resilience, London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HM Government (2013) Care Leaver Strategy: A Cross-Departmental Strategy for Young People Leaving Care, London: Crown Copyright. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/266484/Care_Leaver_Strategy.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HM Government (2020) Working Together to Safeguard Children, London: HMSO. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/working-together-to-safeguard-children--2 [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HM Government (2021) Joint national protocol for transitions in England: joint protocol for managing the cases of children moving from Youth Offending Teams to the National Probation Service. Youth Justice Board, National Probation Service. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/joint-national-protocol-for-transitions-in-england [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HM Government (2022) SEND Review: Right Support, Right Place, Right Time, London: HMSO.

  • HM Government (2023) Multi-agency practice principles for responding to child exploitation and extra-familial harm. Research in Practice. https://tce.researchinpractice.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2023/03/FINAL-Multi-agency-Practice-Principles-for-responding-to-child-exploitation-and-extrafamilial-harm-Designed-.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HMI Probation (2016) Transitions arrangements: a follow-up inspection. HM Inspectorate of Probation. https://www.justiceinspectorates.gov.uk/hmiprobation/inspections/transitions-followup/ [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holland, S., Tannock, S., and Collicut, H. (2011) ‘Everybody’s business? A research review of the informal safeguarding of other people’s children in the UK’, Children & Society, 25(5): 406416.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holmes, D. (2022a) ‘Transitional Safeguarding: the case for change’, Practice: Social Work in Action, 34(1): 723.

  • Holmes, D. (ed) (2022b) Safeguarding Young People: Risk, Rights, Resilience and Relationships, London: Jessica Kingsley.

  • Holmes, D. and Smale, E. (2018) Mind the Gap: Transitional Safeguarding – Adolescence to Adulthood, Dartington: Research in Practice.

  • Holmes, D. and Smith, L. (2022) Transitional Safeguarding. HM Inspectorate of Probation. https://www.justiceinspectorates.gov.uk/hmiprobation/wp-content/uploads/sites/5/2022/03/Academic-Insights-Holmes-and-Smith-RM.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holmström, C. (2020) ‘Transitions to adult social care’, in S. Braye and M. Preston-Shoot (eds) The Care Act 2014: Wellbeing in Practice, London: Sage/Learning Matters, pp 159172.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Home Office (2018) Criminal Exploitation of Children and Vulnerable Adults: County Lines Guidance, London: HMSO.

  • House of Commons Health and Social Care Committee (2020) Social care: funding and workforce. Third Report of Session 2019–21. https://committees.parliament.uk/publications/3120/documents/29193/default/ [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • House of Commons Home Affairs Committee (2013) Child sexual exploitation and the response to localised grooming. Second Report of Session 2013–14. https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201314/cmselect/cmhaff/68/68i.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • House of Commons Housing, Communities and Local Government Committee (2019) Funding of local authorities’ children’s services. Fourteenth Report of Session 2017–19. https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201719/cmselect/cmcomloc/1638/1638.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • House of Commons Justice Committee (2016) The treatment of young adults in the criminal justice system. Seventh Report of Session 2016–17. https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201617/cmselect/cmjust/169/169.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • House of Commons Levelling Up, Housing and Communities Committee (2022) Long-term funding of adult social care Second Report of Session 2022–23. https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm5803/cmselect/cmcomloc/19/report.html#heading-3 [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Howe, D. (2005) Child Abuse and Neglect: Attachment, Development and Intervention, London: Palgrave.

  • Huegler, N. and Ruch, G. (2021) ‘Risk, vulnerability and complexity: transitional Safeguarding as a reframing of binary perspectives’, Practice: Social Work in Action, 34(1): 2539.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Human Trafficking Foundation (2022) Child Criminal Exploitation and The Need for Consistency, London: Human Trafficking Foundation: Human Trafficking Foundation.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hutchison E. (2014) ‘Life course theory’, in J. Roger and R. Levesque (eds) Encyclopedia of Adolescence, New York: Springer, pp 15861594.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Idzelis Roth, M., Nelson-Dusek, S. and Skrypek, M. (2013) Innovations in Child Protection Services in Minnesota, Chicago: Casey Family Programs.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Independent Review of Children’s Social Care (2022) The independent review of children’s social care – final report. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/1141532/Independent_review_of_children_s_social_care_-_Final_report.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Institute of Public Care (2013) Evidence Review - Adult Safeguarding, London: Skills for Care. Available at: https://ipc.brookes.ac.uk/files/publications/Evidence_Review_-_Adult_Safeguarding.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Irwin-Rogers, K., Muthoo, A. and Billingham, L. (2020) Youth Violence Commission Final Report .Youth Violence Commission.

  • Ison, R. and Blackmore, C. (2014) ‘Designing and developing a reflexive learning system for managing systemic change’, Systems, 2: 119136.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jago, S., Arocha, L., Brodie, I., Melrose, M., Pearce, J., and Warrington, C. (2011) What’s Going On to Safeguard Children and Young People from Sexual Exploitation?, Luton: University of Bedfordshire.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jay, A. (2014) Independent Inquiry into Child Sexual Exploitation in Rotherham 1997–2013. https://www.rotherham.gov.uk/downloads/file/279/independent-inquiry-into-child-sexual-exploitation-in-rotherham [Accessed 1 January 2022].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jobe, A. and Gorin, S. (2013) ‘“If kids don’t feel safe they don’t do anything”: young people’s views on seeking and receiving help from Children’s Social Care Services in England’, Child & Family Social Work, 18(4): 429438.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Johansson, T. (2021) ‘Becoming and belonging: modern passages and transitions from childhood to adulthood’, British Journal of Sociology of Education, 42(3): 440446.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Johnson, A. and Avery, C. (2022) ‘Preparing for adult life: safety planning in transition’, Practice: Social Work in Action, 34(1): 5159.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Johnson, S.B., Blum, R.W., and Giedd, J. M. (2009) ‘Adolescent maturity and the brain: the promise and pitfalls of neuroscience research in adolescent health policy’, Journal of Adolescent Health, 45(3): 216221.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Joint Targeted Area inspection (2016) ‘Time to listen’− A Joined Up Response to Child Sexual Exploitation and Missing Children, Manchester: OFSTED. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/5a81dd5c40f0b62305b91382/Time_to_listen___a_joined_up_response_to_child_sexual_exploitation_and_missing_children.pdf. Accessed on 30.10.23

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Joint Targeted Area inspection (2018) Protecting Children from Criminal Exploitation, Human Trafficking and Modern Slavery: An Addendum, Manchester: OFSTED. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/756031/Protecting_children_from_criminal_exploitation_human_trafficking_modern_slavery_addendum_141118.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, P. (2013) ‘Adult mental health disorders and their age at onset’, The British Journal of Psychiatry, 202(S54): S5S10.

  • Kenward, H. (2002) Ainlee Labonte: Chapter Eight Integrated Review. Newham Area Child Protection Committee.

  • Kellett, M. (2009) ‘Children and young people’s participation’, in H. Montgomery and M. Kellett (eds) Children and Young People’s Worlds: Developing Frameworks for Integrated Practice, Bristol: Policy Press, pp 4360.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kerr, H., Widger, K., Cullen-Dean, G., Price, J., and O’Halloran, P. (2020) ‘Transition from children’s to adult services for adolescents/young adults with life-limiting conditions: developing realist programme theory through an international comparison’, BMC Palliative Care, 19(1): 111.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kessler, R., Bergland, P., Demler, O., Jin, R., Merikangas, K., and Walters, E. (2005) ‘Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication’, Arch Gen Psychiatry, 62: 593602.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kezelman, C., Hossack, N., Stavropoulos, P., and Burley, P. (2015) The Cost of Unresolved Childhood Trauma and Abuse in Adults in Australia, Sydney: Adults Surviving Child Abuse and Pegasus Economics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Klee, D. and Williams, C. (2014) Making Safeguarding Personal, London: Local Government Association. https://www.local.gov.uk/sites/default/files/documents/Making%20Safeguarding%20Personal%202012-13%20full%20report.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kneale, D., Henley, J., Thomas, J., and French, R. (2021) ‘Inequalities in older LGBT people’s health and care needs in the United Kingdom: a systematic scoping review’, Ageing and Society, 41: 493515.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krieger, N. (2020) ‘Measures of racism, sexism, heterosexism, and gender binarism for health equity research: from structural injustice to embodied harm – an ecosocial analysis’, Annual Review of Public Health, 41(1): 3762.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lalor, K. and McElvaney, R. (2010) ‘Child sexual abuse, links to later sexual exploitation/high-risk sexual behavior, and prevention/treatment programs’, Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 11(4): 159177.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Laming Report (2003) The Victoria Climbie Inquiry: Report of an Inquiry by Lord Laming, London: Stationery Office.

  • La Valle, I. and Graham, B. (2016) Child sexual exploitation: support in children’s residential homes. Department for Education. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/582354/Child-sexual-exploitation-support-in-childrens-homes.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lawson, J. (2017) ‘The Making Safeguarding Personal approach to practice’, in A. Cooper and E. White (eds) Safeguarding Adults Under the Care Act: Understanding Good Practice, London: Jessica Kingsley, pp 2039.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lawson, J., Lewis, S., and Williams, C. (2014) Making Safeguarding Personal: Guide. Association of Directors of Adult Social Services and Local Government Association.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leeds City Council (no date) One minute guide: restorative practice. https://www.leeds.gov.uk/one-minute-guides/restorative-practice [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lefevre, M., Hickle, K., and Luckock, B. (2018) ‘“Both/and” not “either/or”: reconciling rights to protection and participation in working with child sexual exploitation’, British Journal of Social Work, 49(7): 18371855.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lefevre, M., Hampson, M., and Goldsmith, C. (2022) ‘Towards a synthesised directional map of the stages of innovation in children’s social care’, The British Journal of Social Work, 183: 121.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lefevre, M., Hickle, K., Luckock, B., and Ruch, G. (2017) ‘Building trust with children and young people at risk of child sexual exploitation: the professional challenge’, The British Journal of Social Work, 47(8): 24562473.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lennox, C. (2014) ‘The health needs of young people in prison’, British Medical Bulletin, 112(1): 1725.

  • Levine, J. (2016) ‘Mental health issues in survivors of sex trafficking’, Cogent Medicine, 4(1): doi.org/10.1080/2331205X.2017. 1278841.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Levy, A. and Kahan, B.J. (1991) The Pindown Experience and the Protection of Children: The Report of the Staffordshire Child Care Inquiry 1990, Stafford: Staffordshire County Council.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LGiU (2013) Whole-Place Community Budgets. An LGiU Essential Guide, London: LGiU.

  • Liebel, M. (2021) Decolonizing Childhoods: From Exclusion to Dignity, Bristol: Policy Press.

  • Lister, R. (2021) Poverty (2nd edn), Cambridge: Polity Press.

  • Local Government Association (2012) Sector-Led Improvement in Local Government. London: Local Government Association. https://www.local.gov.uk/sites/default/files/documents/sli-local-government-pdf--f4c.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Local Government Association/Association of Directors of Adult Social Services (LGA/ADASS) (2014), Making Safeguarding Personal Case Studies 2013/14, London: Local Government Association. https://www.local.gov.uk/sites/default/files/documents/Making%20Safeguarding%20Personal%202013-2014%20-%20Case%20Studies.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Local Government Association/Association of Directors of Adult Social Services (LGA/ADASS) (2018a) Making Safeguarding Personal Toolkit, London: Local Government Association. https://www.local.gov.uk/msp-toolkit [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Local Government Association/Association of Directors of Adult Social Services (LGA/ADASS) (2018b )Making Safeguarding Personal Toolkit, Case Study 15 Transitional Safeguarding – Adolescence to Adulthood, London: Local Government Association. https://www.local.gov.uk/sites/default/files/documents/case-example_15_Transitional_safeguarding_adolescence_to_adulthood%20WEB.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Local Government Association/Association of Directors of Adult Social Services (LGA/ADASS) (2019a) Making Decisions on the Duty to Carry Out Safeguarding Adults Enquiries, London: Local Government Association.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Local Government Association/Association of Directors of Adult Social Services (LGA/ADASS) (2019b) Myths and Realities about MSP, London: Local Government Association. https://www.local.gov.uk/sites/default/files/documents/25.144%20MSP%20Myths_04%20WEB.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Local Government Association/Association of Directors of Adult Social Services (LGA/ADASS) (2019c) Making Safeguarding Personal Case Studies 2018/19, London: Local Government Association. https://www.local.gov.uk/sites/default/files/documents/25.143%20Making%20Safeguarding%20Personal_04%20WEB_0.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Local Government Association/Association of Directors of Adult Social Services (LGA/ADASS) (2019d) Briefing for Practitioners, Analysis of Safeguarding Adults Reviews, London: Local Government Association and Directors of Adult Social Services. https://www.local.gov.uk/topics/social-care-health-and-integration/adult-social-care/resources-safeguarding-adults-boards/practitioners [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Local Government Association/Association of Directors of Adult Social Services (LGA/ADASS) (2020) Understanding What Constitutes a Safeguarding Concern and How to Support Effective Outcomes, London: Local Government Association. https://www.local.gov.uk/sites/default/files/documents/25.168_Understanding_what_constitutes_a_safeguarding_07.1.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lowe, T., Padmanabhan, C., McCart, D., McNeill, K., Brogan, A., and Smith, M. (2022) Human Learning Systems: A Practical Guide for the Curious. Centre for Public Impact. https://www.humanlearning.systems/ [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Luke, N., Sinclair, I., Woolgar, I., and Sebba, J. (2014) What Works in Preventing and Treating Poor Mental Health in Looked After Children?, London: NSPCC, Rees Centre Oxford University.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lymbery, M. (2014) ‘Austerity, personalisation and older people: the prospects for creative social work practice in England’, European Journal of Social Work, 17(3): 367382.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mahon, D. (2022) ‘Implementing trauma informed care in human services: an ecological scoping review’, Behavioral Sciences (2076–328X), 12(11): 431.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Manchester Safeguarding Partnership (2020) Manchester’s Complex Safeguarding Strategy 2020–2023. https://www.manchestersafeguardingpartnership.co.uk/resources/complex-safeguarding/ [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Manthorpe, J. and Martineau, S. (2011), ‘Serious case reviews in adult safeguarding in England: an analysis of a sample of reports’, British Journal of Social Work, 41(2): 224241.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Manthorpe, J. and Martineau, S. (2015) ‘What can and cannot be learned from serious case reviews of the care and treatment of adults with learning disabilities in England? Messages for social workers’, British Journal of Social Work, 45(1): 331348.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Manthorpe, J. and Martineau, S. (2016) ‘Serious case reviews into dementia care: an analysis of context and content’, British Journal of Social Work, 46(2): 514531.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Manthorpe, J. and Martineau, S. (2017) ‘Engaging with the new system of safeguarding adults reviews concerning care homes for older people’, British Journal of Social Work, 47(7): 20862099.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Manthorpe, J., Klee, D., Williams, C., and Cooper, A. (2014) ‘Making Safeguarding Personal: developing responses and enhancing skills’, Journal of Adult Protection, 16(2): 96103.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Manthorpe, J., Stevens, M., Samsi, K., Aspinal, F., Woolham, J., Hussein, S., Ismail, M., and Baxter, K. (2015) ‘Did anyone notice the transformation of adult social care? An analysis of Safeguarding Adult Board Annual Reports’, Journal of Adult Protection, 17(1): 1930.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Markauskaite, L. and Goodyear, P. (2017) Epistemic Fluency and Professional Education: Innovation, Knowledgeable Action and Actionable Knowledge, Dordrecht: Springer.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marmot, M. (2020) ‘Health equity in England: the Marmot review 10 years on’ , BMJ, 24;368: m693.

  • Martineau, S. and Manthorpe, J. (2020) ‘Safeguarding adults reviews and homelessness: making the connections’, Journal of Adult Protection, 22(4): 181197.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mason, K., Cornes, M., Dobson, R., Meakin, A., Ornelas, B., and Whiteford, M. (2017/18) ‘Multiple exclusion homelessness and adult social care in England: exploring the challenges through a researcher-practitioner partnership’, Research, Policy and Planning, 33(1): 314.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mason, K., Biswas Sasidharan, A., Cooper, A., Shorten, K., and Sutton, J. (2022) ‘Discriminatory abuse: time to revive a forgotten form of abuse?Journal of Adult Protection, 24(2): 115125.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • May, C. and Finch, T. (2009) ‘Implementation, embedding, and integration: an outline of Normalization Process Theory’, Sociology, 43(3): 535–554.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • May, C.R., Mair, F., Finch, T., MacFarlane, A., Dowrick, C., Treweek, S., Rapley, T., Ballini, L., Ong, B.N., Rogers, A., Murray, E., Elwyn, G., Légaré, F., Gunn, J., and Montori, V.M. (2009) ‘Development of a theory of implementation and integration: Normalization Process Theory’, Implementation Science, 4(29): doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-4-29.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McNamara, R. and Morgan, S. (2016) Risk Enablement: A Frontline Briefing, Dartington: Research into Practice for Adults. https://www.local.gov.uk/sites/default/files/documents/Practice_Tool_10%20risk%20enablement%20chart%20WEB.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meltzer, H., Gohuard, R., Corbin, T., Goodman, R., and Ford, T. (2003) The mental health of young people looked after by local authorities in England: the report of a survey carried out in 2002 by Social Survey Division of the Office for National Statistics on behalf of the Department of Health, London: Office for National Statistics/Stationery Office.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meyer, I.H. (2003) ‘Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: conceptual issues and research evidence’, Psychological Bulletin, 129(5): 674697.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Metz, A., Jensen, T., Farley, A., Boaz, A., Bartley, L., and Villodas, M, (2022) ‘Building trusting relationships to support implementation: a proposed theoretical model’, Frontiers in Health Services 2: doi.org/10.3389/frhs.2022.894599.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ministry of Justice (2022) Transition of Young People from the Children and Young People Secure Estate to Adult Custody Policy Framework. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/transition-of-young-people-from-the-children-and-young-people-secure-estate-to-adult-custody-policy-framework [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mistry, D. and Chauhan, S. (2003) ‘Don’t leave race on the side’, Community Care, 31 July. https://www.communitycare.co.uk/2003/07/31/dont-leave-race-on-the-side/ [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Molina, J. and Levell, J. (2020) Children’s Experience of Domestic Abuse and Criminality: A Literature Review, London: Victims Commissioner for England and Wales.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morgan, D. (2019) Safeguarding Adults Review: Mr D. Portsmouth Safeguarding Adults Board. http://www.portsmouthsab.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/PSAB-Mr-D-2019-Executive-Summary-vFINAL.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mulgan, G. (2019) Social Innovation: How Societies Find the Power to Change, Bristol: Policy Press.

  • Munro, E. (2004) ‘The impact of child abuse inquiries since 1990’, in N. Stanley and J. Manthorpe (eds) The Age of the Inquiry, London: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Munro, E. (2011) The Munro Review of Child Protection: Final Report – A Child-Centred System, Norwich: The Stationery Office. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/175391/Munro-Review.pdf [Accessed 30 October 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation