This chapter presents and interprets the results obtained from the statistical analyses of the 2000 Families Survey data to shed light upon the poverty impact of international migration for migrants and their descendants. It starts by summarising the key tendencies emerging from the descriptive analyses of the entire sample and the sub-sample of the settlers spread across multiple European destinations. It then outlines the probit results obtained through the comparisons drawn between the settlers, returnees and stayers spanning three family generations. This is followed by a presentation of the results arising from the probit estimations performed with the sub-sample of settlers. The chapter concludes by explaining the narrative behind the statistical findings.
Abramitzky, R., Boustan, L.P. and Eriksson, K. 2013. Have the Poor Always Been Less Likely to Migrate? Evidence from Inheritance Practices during the Age of Mass Migration? Journal of Development Economics 102(1): 2–14.
Aguilera, M.B. and Massey, D.S. 2003. Social Capital and Wages of Mexican Migrants: New Hypotheses and Tests. Social Forces 82(2): 671–701.
Akgündüz, A. 2008. Labour Migration from Turkey to Europe: 1960–1974. Aldershot: Ashgate.
Amelina, A. and Faist, T. 2012. Denaturalising the National in Research Methodologies: Key Concepts of Transnational Studies in Migration. Ethnic and Racial Studies 35(10): 1707–24.
Alba, R. and Nee, V. 1997. Rethinking Assimilation Theory for a New Era of Immigration. International Migration Review 31(4): 826–74.
Alba, R. and Nee, V. 2003. Remaking the American Mainstream: Assimilation and Contemporary Immigration. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Alba, R.D., Jimenez, T.R. and Marrow, H.B. 2011. The Kids Are (Mostly) Alright: Second-Generation Assimilation. Social Forces 89(3): 763–74.
Alexander, J.T., Leibbrand, C., Massey, C. and Tolnay, S. 2017. Second-Generation Outcomes of the Great Migration. Demography 54(6): 2249–71.
Alkire, S. and Santos, M.E. 2010. Acute Multidimensional Poverty: A New Index for Developing Countries. Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative (OPHI) Working Paper No. 38, United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report Office, Background Paper No. 2010/11. Published in Social Indicators Research Special Issue 112(2).
Alkire, S. and Santos, M.E. 2014. Measuring Acute Poverty in the Developing World: Robustness and Scope of the Multi-Dimensional Poverty Index. World Development 59: 251–74.
Anand, P., Jones, S., Donoghue, M. and Teitler, J. 2020. Non-Monetary Poverty and Deprivation: A Capability Approach. Journal of European Social Policy. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0958928720938334
Arcagni, A., di Belgiojoso, E.B., Fattore, M. and Rimoldi, S.M.L. 2019. Multidimensional Analysis of Deprivation and Fragility Patterns of Migrants in Lombardy, Using Partially Ordered Sets and Self-Organizing Maps. Social Indicators Research 141(2): 551–79.
Bárcena-Martìn, E. and Pérez-Moreno, S. 2017. Immigrant-Native Gap in Poverty: A Cross-National European Perspective. Review of Economics of the Household 15(4): 1105–36.
Baykara-Krumme, H. 2014. Three-Generation Marriage Patterns: Insight from a Dissimilation Perspective. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 41(8): 1324–146.
Baykara-Krumme, H. 2016 Consanguineous Marriage in Turkish Families in Turkey and in Western Europe. International Migration Review 50(3): 568–98.
Baykara-Krumme, H. 2017. Impact of Migration on Marriage Arrangement: A Comparison of Turkish Families in Turkey and Western Europe. Journal of Family Issues 38(15): 2150–77.
Baykara-Krumme, H. and Platt, L. 2018. Life Satisfaction of Migrants, Stayers and Returnees: Reaping the Fruits of Migration in Old Age? Ageing and Society 38(4): 721–45.
Bayrakdar, S. and Güveli, A. 2021. Understanding the Benefits of Migration: Multigenerational Transmission, Gender and Educational Outcomes of Turks in Europe. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 47(13): 3037–58.
Bebbington, A., Hinojosa-Valencia, L., and Rojas Lizaraz, R.E. 2007. Livelihoods and Resources in Accessing the Andes: Desencuentros in Theory and Practice. In I. Gough and J.A. McGregory (eds) Wellbeing in Developing Countries: From Theory to Research, pp 176–98. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Berger, J. and Mohr, J. 1975/2010. A Seventh Man. London: Verso.
Berti, F., D’Agostino, A., Lemmi, A. and Neri, A. 2014. Poverty and Deprivation of Migrants versus Natives in Italy. International Journal of Social Economics 41(8): 630–49.
Bertoli, S., Fernandez, H.M. and Ortega, F. 2013. Crossing the Border: Self-Selection, Earnings and Individual Migration Decisions. Journal of Development Economics 101(1): 75–91.
Blau, F.D. 1984. The Use of Transfer Payments by Immigrants. Industrial and Labor Relations Review 37(2): 222–39.
Blinder, S. and Markaki, Y. 2018. Europeans’ Attitudes to Immigration from within and outside Europe: A Role for Perceived Welfare Impacts? Working Paper. Available at: www.reminder-project.eu/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/D10.1-Final_July-2018_with-cover.pdf. Accessed 26 June 2020.
Blume, K., Gustafsson, B., Pedersen, P.J. and Verner, M. 2007. At the Lower End of the Table: Determinants of Poverty among Immigrants to Denmark and Sweden. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 33(3): 373–96.
Booth, C. 1891. Life and Labour of the People of London. Vol. 1. London: Macmillan.
Borjas, G.J. 1987. Self-Selection and the Earnings of Immigrants. American Economic Review 77(4): 531–53.
Borjas, G.J. and Hilton, L. 1996. Immigration and the Welfare State: Immigrant Participation in Means-Tested Entitlement Programs. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 111(2): 575–604.
Bourdieu, P. 1986. Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education. New York: Green Wood Press.
Boyd, M. 1984. At a Disadvantage: The Occupational Attainments of Foreign Born Women in Canada. International Migration Review 18(4): 1091–119.
Brown, S.K. 2007. Delayed Spatial Assimilation: Multi-Generational Incorporation of the Mexican-Origin Population in Los Angeles. City & Community 6(3): 193–209.
Buis, M. 2015. Logistic Regression: Why We Can Often Do What We Think We Can Do Working Paper. Available at: http://maartenbuis.nl/wp/odds_ratio.pdf
Büchel, F. and Frick, J.R. 2005. Immigrants’ Economic Performance across Europe: Does Immigration Policy Matter? Population Research and Policy Review 24(2): 175–212.
Carpio, C.C. 2017. Immigration and Economic Crisis: An Analysis of the Impact in Spain, 2007–2013. Critical Sociology 43(7–8): 1161–77.
Chapman, J. and Bernstein, J. 2003. Immigration and Poverty: How Are They Linked? Monthly Labor Review 126(4): 10–15.
Chiswick, B.R. 1978. The Effect of Americanization on the Earnings of Foreign-Born Men. Journal of Political Economy 86(5): 897–921.
Chiswick, B.R. 1986. Are Immigrants Favourably Selected? An Economic Analysis. In C.B. Brettell and J.F. Hollifield (eds) Migration Theory: Talking across Disciplines .London: Routledge, pp 61–76.
Cojanu, S.F. and Stroe, C. 2017. Poverty and Migratory Decision. Conference Proceedings Paper. 26th International Scientific Conference on Economic and Social Development – Building Resilient Society. 8–9 December, Zagreb, Croatia.
Coleman, J.S. 1988. Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital. American Journal of Sociology 94(Suppl. S): 95–120.
Coniglio, N.D. and Brzozowski, J. 2018. Migration and Development at Home: Bitter or Sweet Return? Evidence from Poland. European Urban and Regional Studies 25(1): 85–105.
Corrigan, O. 2014. Migrant Deprivation, Conditionality of Legal Status and the Welfare State. Journal of European Social Policy 24(3): 223–39.
Crul, M. and Vermeulen, H. 2003. The Second Generation in Europe. International Migration Review 37(4): 965–86.
Crul, M., Schnell, P., Herzog-Punzenberger, B., Wilmes, M., Slootman, M. and Aparicio Gómez, R. 2012. School Careers of Second-Generation Youth in Europe: Which Education Systems Provide the Best Chances for Success? In Crul, M., Schneider, J. and Lelie, F. (eds) The European Second Generation Compared: Does the Integration Context Matter? Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
Crul, M., Schneider, J., Keskiner, E. and Lelie, F. 2017. The Multiplier Effect: How the Accumulation of Cultural and Social Capital Explains Steep Upward Social Mobility of Children of Low-Educated Immigrants. Ethnic and Racial Studies 40(2): 321–38.
Crul, M., Lelie, F. and Keskiner, F. 2019. The Second and Third Generation in Rotterdam: Increasing Diversity within Diversity. In Crul, M., Scholten, P. and van Laar, P. (eds) Coming to Terms with Superdiversity: The Case of Rotterdam, pp 57–71.
Curtis, K.J. 2018. US Return Migration and the Decline in Southern Black Disadvantage, 1970–2000. Social Science Quarterly 99(3): 1214–32.
De Haas, H. 2010. Migration and Development: A Theoretical Perspective. International Migration Review 44(1): 227–64.
Doyal, L. and Gough, I. 1991. A Theory of Human Need. London: Macmillan.
Dustmann, C., Frattini, T. and Lanzara, G. 2012. Educational Achievement of Second-Generation Immigrants: An International Comparison. Economic Policy 27(69): 143–85.
Eichenlaub, S.C., Stewart E.T. and Alexander, J.T. 2010. Moving Out but Not Up: Economic Outcomes in the Great Migration. American Sociological Review 75(1): 101–25.
Emeka, A.S. 2016. Poverty and Affluence across the First Two Generations of Voluntary Migration from Africa to the United States, 1990–2012. Sociology of Race and Ethnicity 2(2): 162–85.
Eroğlu, Ş. 2004. What Difference Do Resources Make? A Longitudinal Study of Household Responses to Poverty in a Gecekondu Settlement in Ankara, Turkey. PhD Thesis. University of Kent: School of Social Policy, Sociology and Social Research.
Eroğlu, Ş. 2007. Developing an Index of Deprivation which Integrates Objective and Subjective Dimensions: Extending the Work of Townsend, Mack and Lansley and Halleröd. Social Indicators Research 80(3): 493–510.
Eroğlu, Ş. 2011. Beyond the Resources of Poverty: Gecekondu Living in the Turkish Capital .London: Routledge.
Eroğlu, Ş. 2013. Extending the Resource-Based Approach to Livelihoods: An Urban Application to Turkish Gecekondu Households. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 37(2): 769–89.
Eroğlu, Ş. 2018. Trapped in Small Business? An Investigation of Three Generations of Migrants from Turkey to Western Europe. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 44(7): 1214–32.
Eroğlu, Ş. 2020. Are Movers More Egalitarian than Stayers? An Intergenerational Perspective on Household Financial Decision-Making. International Migration Review 54(1): 120–46.
Eroğlu, Ş. 2021. Understanding the Consequences of Migration for Asset Accumulation: A Multi-Site and Intergenerational Perspective. International Migration Review 55(3): 785–811.
Eugster, B. 2018. Immigrants and Poverty, and Conditionality of Immigrants’ Social Rights. Journal of European Social Policy 28(5): 452–70.
Eurostat. 2010. Combating Poverty and Social Exclusion: A Statistical Portrait of the European Union 2010. Luxembourg: Eurostat Statistical Books.
Eurostat. 2018. Euro/ECU Exchange Rates – Annual Data. Available at: https://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=ert_bil_eur_a&lang=en. Accessed 26 July 2018.
Fleischmann, F. and Dronkers, J. 2010 Unemployment among Immigrants in European Labor Markets: An Analysis of Origin and Destination Effects. Work, Employment and Society 24(2): 337–54.
Fleury, D. 2007. A Study of Poverty and Working Poverty among Recent Immigrants to Canada. Final Report. Canada: Human Resources and Social Development.
Flik, R.J. and Van Praag, B.M.S. 1991. Subjective Poverty Lines Definitions. De Economist 139(3): 330–331.
Galloway, T.A. and Aaberge, R. 2005. Assimilation Effects on Poverty among Immigrants in Norway. Journal of Population Economics 18(4): 691–718.
Galloway, T.A., Gustafsson, B., Pedersen, P.J. and Österberg, T. 2009. Immigrant Child Poverty in Scandinavia: A Panel Data Study. IZA DP, June(no 4232): 1–40.
Gans, H.J. 1992. Second-Generation Decline: Scenarios for the Economic & Ethnic Futures of the Post-1965 American Immigrants. Ethnic & Racial Studies 15(2): 173–92.
Ganzeboom, H.B.G., Sözeri, E.K., Güveli, A. and Bayrakdar, S. 2016. 2000 Families: Migration Histories of Turks in Europe – Data Documentation. Amsterdam: VU University of Amsterdam.
Gibson, J., McKenzie, D. and Stillman, S. 2013. Accounting for Selectivity and Duration Dependent Heterogeneity when Estimating the Impact of Emigration in Incomes and Poverty in Sending Areas. Economic Development and Cultural Change 61(2): 247–80.
Gibson, J., McKenzie, D., Rohorua, H. and Stillman, S. 2018. Long-Term Impacts of International Migration: Evidence from a Lottery. The World Bank Economic Review 32(1): 127–47.
Goedemé, T., Storms, B., Penne, T. and Bosch, K.V.D. 2015. The Development of a Methodology for Comparable Reference Budgets in Europe. Final report of the pilot project. Brussels: European Commission Directorate-General for Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion.
Gordon, D. 2015. Measuring Poverty in the UK. In Dermott, E. and Main, G. (eds) Poverty and Social Exclusion in the UK. Bristol: Policy Press pp 17–40.
Gordon, D., Adelman, L., Ashworth, K., Bradshaw, J., Levitas, R., Middleton, S. et al 2000. Poverty and Social Exclusion in Britain. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
Gordon, D., Eroğlu, Ş., Fahmy, E., Fifita, V., Nandy, S. and Olaya, A. 2019. Multidimensional Child Poverty and Deprivation in Uganda: Volumes 1 & 2. Kampala: UNICEF Uganda.
Gough, I. 2017. Heat, Greed and Human Need. Climate Change, Capitalism and Sustainable Well-Being. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Gough, I., McGregor, J.A. and Camfield, L. 2007. Theorising Well-Being in International Development. In Gough, I. and McGregor, J.A. (eds) Well-Being in Developing Countries Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp 1–3.
Guio, A.C., Gordon, D., Najera, H. and Pomati, M. 2017. Revising the EU Material Deprivation Variables. Luxembourg: EUROSTAT.
Gustafsson, B. and Österberg, T. 2018. How Are Immigrant Children in Sweden Faring? Mean Income, Affluence and Poverty Since the 1980s. Child Indicators Research 11(1): 329–53.
Güveli, A. 2014. Are Movers More Religious than Stayers? Religiosity of European Majority, Turks in Europe and Turkey. Review of Religious Research 57(1): 43–62.
Güveli, A., Ganzeboom, H., Platt, L., Bernard, N., Baykara, H., Eroğlu, Ş. et al 2015. Intergenerational Consequences of Migration: Socio-Economic, Family and Cultural Patterns of Change in Turkey and Europe. Basingstoke: Palgrave.
Güveli, A., Ganzeboom, H., Baykara-Krumme, H., Bayrakdar, S., Eroğlu, Ş., Hamutçi, B. et al 2016. 2000 Families: Migration Histories of Turks in Europe. GESIS Archive: Leibnitz Institute for the Social Sciences. ZA5957 Data file version 2.0.0, DOI: 10.4232/1.12541.
Güveli, A., Ganzeboom, H., Baykara-Krumme, H., Platt, L., Eroğlu, Ş., Spierings, N. et al 2017. 2000 Families: Identifying the Research Potential of an Origins-of-Migration Study. Ethnic and Racial Studies 40(14): 2558–76.
Halleröd, B. 1994. A New Approach to the Direct Consensual Measurement of Poverty. Social Policy Research Centre Discussion Paper No. 50. Sydney: University of New South Wales.
Halleröd, B. 1995. The Truly Poor: Direct and Indirect Consensual Measurement of Poverty in Sweden. Journal of European Social Policy 5(2): 11–29.
Hammarstedt, M. 2001. Disposable Income Differences between Immigrants and Natives in Sweden. International Journal of Social Welfare 10(2): 117–26.
Hansen, J. and Wahlberg, R. 2009. Poverty and its Persistence: A Comparison of Natives and Migrants in Sweden. Review of the Economics of the Household 7(2): 105–32.
Hatlebakk, M. 2016. Inter-Generational Determinants of Migration Decisions: The Case of International Labour Migration from Nepal. Oxford Development Studies 44(1): 93–112.
Heizmann, B. and Böhnke, P. 2016. Migrant Poverty and Social Capital: The Impact of Intra- and Interethnic Contacts. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 46(Part B): 73–85.
Hoaglin, D.C. and Iglewicz, B. 1987. Fine-Tuning Some Resistant Rules for Outlier Labeling. Journal of American Statistical Association 82(400): 1147–9.
Hooijer, G. and Picot, G. 2015. European Welfare States and Migrant Poverty: The Institutional Determinants of Disadvantage. Comparative Political Studies 48(14): 1879–904.
Huddleston, T., Niessen, J., Chaoimin, E.N. and White, E. 2011. MIPEX – Migrant Integration Policy Index III. Brussels: British Council and Migration Policy Group.
Ichou, M. 2014. Who They Were There: Immigrants’ Educational Selectivity and their Children’s Educational Attainment. European Sociological Review 30(6): 750–65.
ILO. 1976. Employment Growth and Basic Needs: A One-World Problem. Geneva: International Labour Organization.
IMF. 2018. World Economic Outlook Database. Available at: www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2018/02/weodata/download.aspx. Accessed 26 July 2018.
Imran, K., Devadason, E.S. and Cheok, C.K. 2020. Foreign Remittances and Regional Poverty: Evidence from Household Data. International Migration 58(4): 214–30.
Jakobsen, V. and Pedersen, P.J. 2017. Poverty Risk among Older Immigrants in a Scandinavian Welfare State. European Journal of Social Security 19(3): 242–62.
Jensen, L. 1991. Secondary Earner Strategies and Family Poverty: Immigrant Native Differentials. International Migration Review 25(1): 113–39.
Kalter, F. 2011. The Second Generation in the German Labor Market: Explaining the Turkish Exception. In Alba, R. and Waters, M.C. (eds) The Next Generation: Immigrant Youth in Comparative Perspective. New York: New York University Press, pp 166–84.
Kasinitz, P., Mollenkopf, J.H., Waters, M.C. and Holdaway, J. 2008. Inheriting the City: The Children of Immigrants Come of Age. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Kazemipur, A. and Halli, S.S. 2001. Immigrants and ‘New Poverty’: The Case of Canada. International Migration Review 35(4): 1129–56.
Keister, L.A., Vallejo, J.A. and Smith, P.B. 2020. Investing in the Homeland: Cross-Border Investments and Immigrant Wealth in the U.S. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 46(18): 3785–807.
Keskiner, E. and Crul, E. 2017 How to Reach the Top? Fields, Forms of Capital, and Strategies in Accessing Leadership Positions in France among Descendants of Migrants from Turkey. Ethnic and Racial Studies 40(2): 283–300.
Kesler, C. 2015. Welfare States and Immigrant Poverty: Germany, Sweden, and the United Kingdom in Comparative Perspective. Acta Sociologica 58(1): 39–61.
Kloosterman, R. 2000. Immigrant Entrepreneurship and the Institutional Context: A Theoretical Exploration. In Rath, J. (ed) Immigrant Businesses: The Economic, Political and Social Environment. London: Palgrave MacMillan, pp 90–106.
Kloosterman, R., Rusinovic, K. and Yeboah, D. 2016. Super-Diverse Migrants: Similar Trajectories? Ghanaian Entrepreneurship in the Netherlands Seen from a Mixed Embeddedness Perspective. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 42(6): 913–32.
Kogan, I. 2006. Labor Markets and Economic Incorporation among Recent Immigrants in Europe. Social Forces 85(2): 697–721.
Konyali, A. 2017. International Opportunities on the Way up: Alternative Career Paths of Descendants of Migrants from Turkey in the Field of Professional Business Services. Ethnic and Racial Studies 40(2): 264–82.
Lamb, D., Banerjee, R. and Verma, A. 2021 . Immigrant-Non-Immigrant Wage Differentials in Canada: A Comparison between Standard and Non-Standard Jobs. International Migration 59(5): 113–33.
Lee, E.S. 1966. A Theory of Migration. Demography 3(1): 47–57.
Lelkes, O. 2007. Poverty Among Migrants in Europe. Policy Brief, April. Vienna: European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research.
Lelkes, O. and Zólyomi, E. 2011. Poverty and Social Exclusion of Migrants in the European Union. Vienna: European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research.
Lessard-Phillips, L., Fibbi, R. and Wanner, P. 2012. Assessing the Labour Market Position and its Determinants for the Second Generation. In Crul, M., Schneider, J. and Lelie, F. (eds) The European Second Generation Compared: Does the Integration Context Matter? Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, pp 165–224.
Levels, M. and Dronkers, J. 2008. Educational Performance of Native and Immigrant Children from Various Countries of Origin. Ethnic and Racial Studies 31(8): 1404–25.
Lightman, N. and Gingrich, L.G. 2018. Measuring Economic Exclusion for Racialized Minorities, Immigrants and Women in Canada: Results from 2000 and 2010. Journal of Poverty 22(5): 398–420.
Louie, V. 2012. Keeping the Immigrant Bargain: The Costs and Rewards of Success in America. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Luthra, R.R. and Waldinger, R. 2010. Into the Mainstream? Labor Market Outcomes of Mexican Origin Workers. International Migration Review 44(4): 830–68.
Mack, J. and Lansley, S. 1983. Breadline Britain: The Rise of Mass Poverty. London: Oneworld Publications.
Mack, J. and Lansley, S. 1985. Poor Britain. London: George Allen & Unwin.
Marcuse, H. 1964. One-Dimensional Man: Studies in the Ideology of Advanced Industrial Society. Boston: Beacon Press.
Margolis, D., Miotti, L., Mouhoud, E.M. and Oudinet, J. 2013. ‘To Have and Have Not’: Migration, Remittances, Poverty and Inequality in Algeria. IZA Discussion Paper 7747. Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor.
Max-Neef, M. 1989. Human Scale Development: An Option for the Future. Development Dialogue 1: 5–80.
McCormick, B. and Wahba, J. 2001. Overseas Work Experience, Savings and Entrepreneurship amongst Return Migrants to LDCS. Scottish Journal of Political Economy 48(2): 164–78.
Mohanty, S.K., Mohapatra, S.R., Kastor, A., Singh, A.K. and Mahapatra, B. 2016. Does Employment-Related Migration Reduce Poverty in India? Journal of International Migration and Integration 17(3): 761–84.
Mood, C. 2010. Why We Cannot Do What We Think We Can Do and What We Can Do about It? European Sociological Review 26(1): 67–82.
Moser, C.O.N. 1998. The Asset Vulnerability Framework: Reassessing Urban Poverty Reduction Strategies. World Development 26(1): 1–19.
Muñozoz de Bustillo, R. and Anton, J.I. 2011. From Rags to Riches? Immigration and Poverty in Spain. Population Research and Policy Review 30(5): 661–76.
Murrugarra, E., Larrison, J. and Sasin, M. 2011. Migration and Poverty: Toward Better Opportunities for the Poor – Directions in Development .Washington, DC: World Bank.
Nandy, S. and Pomati, M. 2014. Applying the Consensual Method of Estimating Poverty in a Low Income African Setting. Social Indicators Research 124(3): 693–726.
Nauck, B. 2001. Social Capital, Intergenerational Transmission and Intercultural Contact in Immigrant Families. Journal of Comparative Family Studies 32(4): 465–89.
Niessen, J., Huddleston, T. and Citron, L. 2007. MIPEX – Migrant Integration Policy Index. Brussels: British Council and Migration Policy Group.
Nussbaum, M. 2000. Women and Human Development: The Capabilities Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Nussbaum, M. 2006. Frontiers of Justice: Disability, Nationality and Species Membership. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Obucina, O. 2014. Paths into and out of Poverty among Immigrants in Sweden. Acta Sociologica 57(1): 5–23.
OECD. nd. Income Distribution Database. Available at: https://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=IDD#. Accessed 1 August 2018.
OECD. 2011. Employment Outlook 2011. Paris: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.
OECD. 2019. Society at a Glance: OECD Social Indicators. Paris: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.
Oropesa, R.S. and Landale, N.S. 1997. Immigrant Legacies: Ethnicity, Generation, and Children’s Familial and Economic Lives. Social Science Quarterly 78(2): 399–416.
Pi Alperin, M. 2008. A Comparison of Multidimensional Deprivation Characteristics between Natives and Immigrants in Luxembourg. IRISS Working Paper No. 14, CEPS/INSTEAD. Differdange, Luxembourg.
Pichler, F. 2011. Success on European Labor Markets: A Cross-National Comparison of Attainment between Immigrant and Majority Populations. International Migration Review 45(4): 938–78.
Picot, G., Hou, F. and Coulombe, S. 2008. Poverty Dynamics among Recent Immigrants to Canada. International Migration Review 42(2): 393–424.
Piracha, M. and Vadean, F. 2010. Return Migration and Occupational Choice: Evidence from Albania. World Development 38(8): 1141–55.
Pizzorno, A. 2001. Why Pay for Petrol? Notes for a Theory of Social Capital. Paper presented at EURESCO Conference on Social Capital: International Perspectives. Exeter, 15–20 September.
Portes, A. 1995. Economic Sociology and the Sociology of Immigration: A Conceptual Overview. In Portes, A. (ed) The Economic Sociology of Immigration: Essays on Networks, Ethnicity and Entrepreneurship. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, pp 1–41.
Portes, A. and Zhou, M. 1993. A New Second Generation: Segmented Assimilation and its Variants. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 530(1): 74–96.
Portes, A. and Rumbaut, R.G. 2001. Legacies: The Story of the Immigrant Second Generation. Berkeley and New York: University of California Press.
Pratomo, D.S. and Jayanthakumaran, K. 2018. Returned Migrants and Remittances Alleviating Poverty: Evidence from Malang, East Java. Economics and Sociology 11(1): 2015–17.
Rath, J. 2000. Introduction: Immigrant Businesses and Their Economic, Politico-Institutional and Social Environment. In Rath, J. (ed) Immigrant Businesses: The Economic, Political and Social Environment. London: Palgrave MacMillan, pp 1–19.
Reitz, J.G., Zhang, H. and Hawkins, N. 2011. Comparisons of the Success of Racial Minority Immigrant Offspring in the United States, Canada, and Australia. Social Science Research, 40(4): 1051–66.
Rekers, A. and van Kempen, R. 2000. Location Matters: Ethnic Entrepreneurs and the Spatial Context. In Rath, J. (ed) Immigrant Businesses: The Economic, Political and Social Environment. London: Palgrave MacMillan.
Rezai, S. 2017. Self-Made Lawyers? Pathways of Socially Mobile Descendants of Migrants from Turkey in Europe. Ethnic and Racial Studies 40(2): 230–46.
Rowntree, B.S. 1910. Poverty: A Study of Town Life. London: Macmillan.
Ryan, D., Dooley, B. and Benson, C. 2008. Theoretical Perspectives on Post-Migration Adaptation and Psychological Wellbeing among Refugees: Towards a Resource-Based Model. Journal of Refugee Studies 21(1): 1–18.
Ryan, L., Erel, U. and Angelo, A. (eds). 2015. Migrant Capital: Networks, Identities and Strategies. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Sabates-Wheeler, R., Claudia, N. and Black, R. 2007. Migration, Legal Status and Poverty: Evidence from Return to Ghana. Working Paper T19. University of Sussex: Development Research Centre on Migration, Globalisation and Poverty.
Sabates-Wheeler, R., Sabates, R. and Castaldo, A. 2008. Tackling Poverty-Migration Linkages: Evidence from Ghana and Egypt. Social Indicators Research 87(2): 307–28.
Sainsbury, D. 2012. Welfare States and Immigrant Rights: The Politics of Inclusion and Exclusion. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Salgado, C.D. and Ortiz, V. 2020. Mexican Americans and Wealth: Economic Status, Family and Place. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 46(18): 3855–73.
Schneider, J. and Crul, M. 2012. Comparative Integration Theory: Participation and Belonging in Diverse European Cities. In Crul, M., Schneider, J. and Lelie, F. (eds) The European Second Generation Compared: Does the Integration Context Matter? Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
Scruggs, L. and Allan, J. 2006. The Material Consequences of Welfare States: Benefit Generosity and Absolute Poverty in 16 OECD Countries. Comparative Political Studies 39(7): 880–904.
Sen, A.K. 1983. Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Sen, A.K. 1987. The Standard of Living .Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sen, A.K. 1993. Capability and Well-Being. In Nussbaum, M. and Sen, A.K. (eds) Quality of Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp 30–53.
Sen, A.K. 1999. Commodities and Capabilities. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Soysal, Y.N. 2012. Citizenship, Immigration, and the European Social Project: Rights and Obligations of Individuality. British Journal of Sociology 63(1): 1–21.
Spierings, N. 2014. Gender Equality Attitudes among Turks in Western Europe and Turkey: The Interrelated Impact of Migration and Parents’ Attitudes. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 41(5): 1–23.
Spörlein, C. and Van Tubergen, F. 2014. The Occupational Status Immigrants in Western and Non-Western Societies. International Journal of Comparative Sociology 55(2): 119–43.
Stark, O. and Taylor, J.E. 1989. Relative Deprivation and International Migration. Demography 26(1): 1–14.
Stillman, S., Gibson, J., McKenzie, D. and Rohorua, H. 2015. Miserable Migrants? Natural Experiment Evidence on International Migration and Objective and Subjective Well-Being. World Development 65(1): 79–93.
Streeton, P., Burki, S.J., Haq, M., Hicks, N. and Stewart, F. 1981. First Things First: Meeting Basic Needs in Developing Countries. London: Oxford University Press.
Sullivan, D.H. and Ziegert, A.L. 2008. Hispanic Immigrant Poverty: Does Ethnic Origin Matter? Population Research and Policy Review 27(6): 667–87.
Swift, J. 1989. Why Are Rural People Vulnerable to Famine? IDS Bulletin 20(1): 8–15.
Telles, E.E. and Ortiz, V. 2008. Generations of Exclusion: Mexican Americans, Assimilation, and Race. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Thomas, K.J. 2011. Familial Influences on Poverty among Young Children in Black Immigrant, US-Born Black and Nonblack Immigrant Families. Demography 48(2): 437–60.
Tienda, M. and Jensen, L. 1986. Immigration and Social Program Participation: Dispelling the Myth of Dependency. Social Science Research 15(4): 327–400.
Todaro, M.P. 1969. A Model for Labor Migration and Urban Unemployment in Less Developed Countries. American Economic Review 59(1): 138–48.
Townsend, P. 1979. Poverty in the United Kingdom: A Survey of Household Resources and Standards of Living. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California.
UNDP. 1990. Human Development Report 1990. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
UNDP. 2010. Human Development Report 2010 .New York: United Nations Development Programme.
UNSTATS. 2005. Handbook on Poverty Statistics: Concepts, Methods and Policy Use. New York: United Nations Statistics Division.
Vacaflores, D.E. 2018. Are Remittances Helping Lower Poverty and Inequality Levels in Latin America? Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance 68(C): 254–65.
Van Hook, J., Brown, S. and Kwenda, M.N. 2004. A Decomposition of Trends in Poverty among Children of Immigrants. Demography 41(4): 649–70.
Van Tubergen, F. 2006. Occupational Status of Immigrants in Cross-National Perspective: A Multilevel Analysis of 17 Western Societies. In Parsons, C.A. and Smeeding, T.M. (eds) Immigration and the Transformation of Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp 147–71.
Van Tubergen, F., Flap, H. and Mass, I. 2004. The Economic Incorporation of Immigrants in 18 Western Societies: Origin, Destination, and Community Effects. American Sociological Review 69(5): 704–27.
Veit-Wilson, J.H. 1986. Paradigms of Poverty: A Rehabilitation of B.S. Rowntree. Journal of Social Policy 15(1): 69–99.
Villarreal, A. and Tamborini, C. 2018. Immigrants’ Economic Assimilation: Evidence from Longitudinal Earnings Records. American Sociological Review 83(4): 686–715.
Wagle, U.R. and Devkota, S. 2018. The Impact of Foreign Remittances on Poverty in Nepal: A Panel Study of Household Survey Data, 1996–2011. World Development 110(October): 38–50.
Whelan, C.T. and Maître, B. 2007. Measuring Material Deprivation with EU-SILC: Lessons from the Irish Survey. European Societies 9(2): 147–73.
Wisor, S. 2012. Measuring Global Poverty: Towards a Pro-Poor Approach. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Wong, R., Palloni, A. and Soldo, B.J. 2007. Wealth in Middle and Old Age in Mexico: The Role of International Migration. International Migration Review 41(1): 127–51.
World Bank. No Date. Understanding Poverty. Available at: www.worldbank.org/en/topic/poverty. Accessed 2 October 2021.
Young, M.E.D., Leon-Perez, G., Wells, C.R. and Wallace, S.P. 2018. More Inclusive States, Less Poverty Among Immigrants? An Examination of Poverty, Citizenship Stratification, and State Immigrant Policies. Population Research and Policy Review 37(2): 205–28.
Zuccotti, C., Ganzeboom, H. and Güveli, A. 2017. Has Migration Been Beneficial for Migrants and their Children? Comparing Social Mobility of Turks in Western Europe, Turks in Turkey and Western European Natives. International Migration Review 51(1): 97–126.
|May 2022 onwards||Past Year||Past 30 Days|
|Full Text Views||1||1||0|