This chapter provides definitions of the state, legislation and of policy, as well as discussing how states operate, and considers how policy is put into practice by bodies such as local authorities. It also refers to supra-national bodies such as the European Union. The chapter talks about how the state exists as a framework within which we have rights and explores issues relating to rights and how this relates to power, including how we may deny rights to certain groups and what this means for children. It uses the example of seeing children as becomings rather than beings to justify actions aimed at children.
ACRWC (1990) African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child [online], Available from: www.unicef.org/esaro/African_Charter_articles_in_full.pdf [Accessed 7 April 2020].
Adams, R. (2020) ‘Women “put careers on hold” to home school during UK COVID-19 lockdown’, The Guardian , 30 July.
Albertson, K. and Stepney, P. (2019) ‘1979 and all that: a 40-year reassessment of Margaret Thatcher’s legacy on her own terms’, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 44(2): 319–342.
Allen, G. (2011) Early Intervention: The Next Steps, London: Cabinet Office.
Almond, B. (2008) The Fragmenting Family, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Alston, P. (2019) Visit to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland: Report of the Special Rapporteur on Extreme Poverty and Human Rights, Geneva: United Nations.
Anderson, D. L. and Graham, A. P. (2016) ‘Improving student wellbeing: having a say at school’, School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 27: 348–367.
Andrews, J., Hutchinson, J. and Johnes, R. (2016) Grammar Schools and Social Mobility, London: Education Policy Institute.
Anning, A. and Ball, M. (2008) Improving Services for Young Children: From Sure Start to Children’s Centres, London: SAGE.
Ashley, L., Duberley, J., Sommerlad, H. and Scholarios, D. (2015) A Qualitative Evaluation of Non-Educational Barriers to the Elite Professions, London: Social Mobility and Child Poverty Commission.
Bagguley, P. and Mann, K. (1992) ‘“Idle thieving bastards”? Scholarly representations of the “underclass”’, Work, Employment and Society, 6(1): 113–126.
Bailey, N. (2020). ‘Poverty and the re-growth of private renting in the UK, 1994–2018’, PLoS ONE, 15(2): e0228273.
Ball, E., Batty, E. and Flint, J. (2016) ‘Intensive family intervention and the problem figuration of “troubled families”’, Social Policy and Society, 15(2): 263–274.
Ball, S. J. (2016) ‘Neoliberal education? Confronting the slouching beast’, Policy Futures in Education, 14(8).
Baraldi, C. and Cockburn, T. (2018 ) ‘Introduction: lived citizenship, rights and participation in contemporary Europe’, in C. Baraldi and T. Cockburn (eds) Theorising Childhood: Citizenship, Rights and Participation, Cham: Springer International, pp 1–27.
Barlow, A. and Duncan, S. (2000) ‘Supporting families? New Labour’s communitarianism and the “rationality mistake”: Part I’, Journal of Social Welfare and Family Law, 22(1): 23–42.
Barnes, J., Belsky, J. and Melhuish, E. C. (2007) The National Evaluation of Sure Start: Does Area-Based Early Intervention Work?, Bristol: Policy Press.
Bates, L. (2014) Everyday Sexism, London: Simon & Schuster.
Bauman, Z. (2000) Liquid Modernity, Cambridge: Polity Press.
Bauman, Z. (2003) Liquid Love: On the Frailty of Human Bonds, Cambridge: Polity Press.
Beck, U. and Beck-Gernsheim, E. (1995) The Normal Chaos of Love, Cambridge: Polity Press.
Becker, S. (1997) Responding to Poverty: The Politics of Cash and Care, Harlow: Longman.
Belsey, A. (1986) ‘The new Right, social order and civil liberties’, in R. Levitas (ed) The Ideology of the New Right, Cambridge: Polity Press, pp 169–197.
Ben-Arieh, A. (2006) ‘Is the study of the “state of our children” changing? Re-visiting after 5 years’, Children and Youth Services Review, 28(7): 799–812.
Beresford, P. and Alibhai-Brown, Y. (2016) All Our Welfare: Towards Participatory Social Policy, Bristol: Policy Press.
Bessant, J. (2014) ‘A dangerous idea? Freedom, children and the capability approach to education’, Critical Studies in Education, 55(2): 138–153.
Best, S. (2002) Introduction to Politics and Society, London: SAGE.
Beveridge, W. (1942) Social Insurance and Allied Services, London: HMSO.
Bom, I. van der, Paterson, L. L., Peplow, D. and Grainger, K. (2018) ‘“It’s not the fact they claim benefits but their useless, lazy, drug taking lifestyles we despise”: analysing audience responses to Benefits Street using live tweets’, Discourse, Context and Media, 21(1): 36–45.
Bond, E. (2013). ‘Mobile phones, risk and responsibility: understanding children’s perceptions’, Cyberpsychology, 7(1): 1–11.
Bone, J. (2014). ‘Neoliberal nomads: housing insecurity and the revival of private renting in the UK’, Sociological Research Online, 19(4): 1–14 .
Bradshaw, J. (ed) (2016) The Well-Being of Children in the UK, Bristol: Policy Press.
Breen, R. (2022) The Stubborn Persistence of Educational Inequality, London: Institute for Fiscal Studies.
Brewer, M., Corlett, A., Handscomb, K. and Tomlinson, D. (2021) The Living Standards Outlook 2021, London: Resolution Foundation.
Bridge, G. (2020) ‘Some infant formula milks contain more sugar than soda drinks – new research’, The Conversation [online] 20 February, Available from: https://theconversation.com/some-infant-formula-milks-contain-more-sugar-than-soda-drinks-new-research-129655 [Accessed 11 October 2022].
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979) The Ecology of Human Development: Experiments by Nature and Design, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Brotherton, G. and Cronin, T. M. (2013) Working with Vulnerable Children, Young People and Families, London: Routledge.
Brown, K. J. (2017) Vulnerability and Young People: Care and Social Control in Policy and Practice, Bristol: Policy Press.
Brown, K. J. (2020) ‘Punitive reform and the cultural life of punishment: moving from the ASBO to its successors’, Punishment and Society, 22(1): 90–107.
Burkitt, I. (1993) ‘Overcoming metaphysics: Elias and Foucault on power and freedom’, Philosophy of the Social Sciences, 23(1): 50–72.
Cain, R. (2016) ‘Responsibilising recovery: lone and low-paid parents, Universal Credit and the gendered contradictions of UK welfare reform’, British Politics, 11(4): 488–508.
Calder, G. (2016) How Inequality Runs in Families: Unfair Advantage and the Limits of Social Mobility, Bristol: Policy Press.
Calder, G. (2018) ‘What would a society look like where children’s life chances were really fair?’, Local Economy, 33(6): 655–666.
Calder, M. C. (2008) Contemporary Risk Assessment in Safeguarding Children, Lyme Regis: Russell House.
Casey, L. C. B. (2014) ‘The National Troubled Families Programme’, Social Work and Social Sciences Review, 17(2): 57–62.
Cassidy, C. (2012) ‘Children’s status, children’s rights and “dealing with” children’, International Journal of Children’s Rights, 20(1): 57–71.
Chambers, D. (2001) Representing the Family, London: SAGE.
Charlesworth, S. J. (2000) A Phenomenology of Working Class Experience, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Child, P. (2018) ‘Landlordism, rent regulation and the Labour Party in mid-twentieth century Britain, 1950–64’, Twentieth Century British History, 29(1): 79–104.
Children’s Society (2018) The Good Childhood Report 2018, London: Children’s Society.
Choonara, J. (2019) Insecurity, Precarious Work and Labour Markets: Challenging the Orthodoxy, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Churchill, H. (2013) ‘Retrenchment and restructuring: family support and children’s services reform under the coalition’, Journal of Children’s Services, 8(3): 209–223.
Clark, D. (2021) ‘Gini index of the United Kingdom from 1977 to 2020’, [online], Available from: www.statista.com/statistics/872472/gini-index-of-the-united-kingdom/ [Accessed 8 December 2021].
Clarke, J. (2010) ‘After neo-liberalism?’, Cultural Studies, 24(3): 375–394.
Coates, D. (1984) The Context of British Politics, London: Hutchinson.
Cockcroft, T., Bryant, R. and Keval, H. (2016) ‘The impact of dispersal powers on congregating youth’, Safer Communities, 15(4): 213–223.
Coe, R., Jones, K., Searle, J., Kokotsaki, D., Mohd Kosnin, A. and Skinner, P. (2008) Evidence on the Effects of Selective Educational Systems, Durham: CEM Centre, Durham University.
Coleman, J. and Hagell, A. (2007) Adolescence, Risk and Resilience: Against the Odds, Chichester: John Wiley.
Cooper, M. (2017) Family Values: Between Neoliberalism and the New Social Conservatism, New York: Zone Books.
Coote, A. and Lyall, S. (2013) ‘Strivers v skivers: real life’s not like that at all’, The Guardian, 11 April.
Coram and Coram International (2017) Constructing a Definition of Vulnerability: Attempts to Define and Measure, London: Coram and Coram International.
Corby, F. H. (2015) ‘Parenting support: how failing parents understand the experience’, Journal of Education and Social Policy, 2(2): 38–46.
Coulter, R. (2017) ‘Social disparities in private renting amongst young families in England and Wales, 2001–2011’, Housing, Theory and Society, 34(3): 297–322.
CPAG (2019) Child Poverty in Working Families on the Rise [online], Available from: https://cpag.org.uk/news-blogs/news-listings/child-poverty-working-families-rise [Accessed 20 March 2020].
Creasy, R. (2018) The Taming of Education, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Creasy, R. and Corby, F. (2019) Taming Childhood? A Critical Perspective on Policy, Practice and Parenting, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Cronin, J. E. and Radtke, T. G. (1987) ‘The old and the new politics of taxation: Thatcher and Reagan in historical perspective’, Socialist Register, 23(1): 263–296.
Crossley, S. (2015) The Troubled Families Programme: The Perfect Social Policy?, CCJS Briefing paper 13, London: Centre for Crime and Justice Studies.
Crossley, S. (2017) In Their Place: Imagined Geographies of Poverty, London: Pluto Press.
Crossley, S. (2018a) Troublemakers: The Construction of ‘Troubled Families’ as a Social Problem, Bristol: Bristol University Press.
Crossley, S. (2018b) ‘The UK government’s Troubled Families Programme: delivering social justice?’, Social Inclusion, 6(3): 301–309.
D’Cruz, H., Gillingham, P. and Melendez, S. (2007) ‘Reflexivity, its meanings and relevance for social work: a critical review of the literature’, British Journal of Social Work, 37(1): 73–90.
Dauda, C. L. (2010a) ‘Childhood, age of consent and moral regulation in Canada and the UK’, Contemporary Politics, 16(3): 227–247.
Dauda, C. L. (2010b) ‘Sex, gender, and generation: age of consent and moral regulation in Canada’, Politics and Policy, 38(6): 1159–1185.
Davey, C. and Lundy, L. (2011) ‘Towards greater recognition of the right to play: an analysis of Article 31 of the UNCRC’, Children and Society, 25(1): 3–15.
David, M. E. (1986) ‘Moral and maternal: the family in the right’, in R. Levitas (ed) The Ideology of the New Right, Cambridge: Polity Press, pp 136–166.
David, M. E. (2016) Reclaiming Feminism: Challenging Everyday Misogyny, Bristol: Policy Press.
Davies, A. (2013) ‘“Right to Buy”: the development of a Conservative housing policy, 1945–1980’, Contemporary British History, 27(4): 24.
Davies, W. (2014) The Limits of Neoliberalism: Authority, Sovereignty and the Logic of Competition, London: SAGE.
Davis, K. and Moore, W. E. (1945) ‘Some principles of stratification’, American Sociological Review, 10(2): 242–249.
Deacon, A. (2002) Perspectives on Welfare: Ideas, Ideologies and Policy Debates, Buckingham: Open University Press.
Dean, H. (1991) ‘In search of the underclass’, in P. Brown and R. Scase (eds) Poor Work: Disadvantage and the Division of Labour, Milton Keynes: Open University Press, pp 23–39.
Dean, M. (2014) ‘Rethinking neoliberalism’, Journal of Sociology, 50(2): 150–163.
Dermott, E. and Pomati, M. (2017 ) ‘The cost of children: parents, poverty and social support’, in G. Main and E. Dermott (eds) Poverty and Social Exclusion in the UK, Volume 1: The Nature and Extent of the Problem, Bristol: Policy Press, pp 155–172.
DfE and Ford, V. (2021) £20m to Provide More Early Help for Vulnerable Families, London: HM Government.
DfES (2006) What to Do if You’re Worried a Child Is Being Abused, Nottingham: DfES.
Dickerson, A. and Popli, G. (2018) ‘The many dimensions of child poverty: evidence from the UK Millennium Cohort Study’, Fiscal Studies, 39(2): 265–298.
Disney, R. and Luo, G. (2017) ‘The Right to Buy public housing in Britain: a welfare analysis’, Journal of Housing Economics, 35: 51–68.
Donetto, S. and Maben, J. (2015) ‘“These places are like a godsend”: a qualitative analysis of parents’ experiences of health visiting outside the home and of Children’s Centres services’, Health Expectations, 18: 2559–2570.
Dorey, P. (2015) ‘A farewell to alms: Thatcherism’s legacy of inequality’, British Politics, 10: 79–98.
Dorling, D. and Tomlinson, S. (2019) Rule Britannia: Brexit and the End of Empire, London: Bite Back Publishing.
Douglas, G. (1990) ‘Family law under the Thatcher government’, Journal of Law and Society, 17(4): 411–426.
Dowden, R. (1978) ‘Margaret Thatcher: interview for Catholic Herald’ [online], Available from: www.margaretthatcher.org/document/103793 [Accessed 9 December 2021].
Driver, S. and Martell, L. (1998) New Labour: Politics after Thatcherism, Cambridge: Polity Press.
Duffy, B., Hewlett, K., Murkin, G., Benson, R., Hesketh, R., Page, B., Skinner, G. and Gottfried, G. (2021) Culture Wars in the UK: Political Correctness and Free Speech, London: The Policy Institute.
Eatwell, R. and Goodwin, M. (2018) National Populism: The Revolt against Liberal Democracy, London: Pelican.
Ecclestone, K. and Hayes, D. (2009) The Dangerous Rise of Therapeutic Education, London: Routledge.
Ecclestone, K. and Lewis, L. (2014) ‘Interventions for resilience in educational settings: challenging policy discourses of risk and vulnerability’, Journal of Education Policy, 29: 195–217.
Edwards, P. (2015) ‘New ASBOs for old?’, Journal of Criminal Law, 79(4): 257–269.
Edwards, R. (2003) ‘Introduction: themed section on social capital, families and welfare policy’, Social Policy and Society, 2(4): 305–308.
Electoral Commission (2022) Results and Turnout at the EU Referendum [online], Available from: www.electoralcommission.org.uk/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/elections-and-referendums/past-elections-and-referendums/eu-referendum/results-and-turnout-eu-referendum [Accessed 19 July 2022].
Elliott, A. and Lemert, C. (2014) Introduction to Contemporary Social Theory, Abingdon: Routledge.
Elliott, B. and McCrone, D. (1987) ‘Class, culture and morality: a sociological analysis of neo-conservatism’, Sociological Review, 35(3): 485–515.
Emmerson, C., Frayne, C., McNally, S. and Silva, O. (2006) Aimhigher: Excellence Challenge: A Policy Evaluation Using the Labour Force Survey [online], Available from: https://ifs.org.uk/publications/3801 [Accessed 7 February 2022].
Etzioni, A. (2005) ‘Response to Simon Prideaux’s “From Organisational Theory to the New Communitarianism of Amitai Etzioni”’, Canadian Journal of Sociology/Cahiers canadiens de sociologie, 30(2): 215–217.
Fairclough, N. (2000). New Labour, New Language?, London: Routledge.
Farquharson, C., McNally, S. and Tahir, I. (2022) Education Inequalities, London: Institute for Fiscal Studies.
Farr, J. (2004) ‘Social capital: a conceptual history’, Political Theory, 32(1): 6–33.
Fattore, T., Mason, J. and Watson, E. (2007) ‘Children’s conceptualisation(s) of their well-being’, Social Indicators Research, 80: 5–29.
Fava, N. M., Li, T., Burke, S. L. and Wagner, E. F. (2017) ‘Resilience in the context of fragility: development of a multidimensional measure of child wellbeing within the Fragile Families dataset’, Children and Youth Services Review, 81(Supplement C): 358–367.
Featherstone, B., Gupta, A. and Morris, K. (2017) ‘Bringing back the social: the way forward for children’s social work?’, Journal of Children’s Services, 12(2/3): 190–196.
Ferguson, H. (2003) ‘Welfare, social exclusion and reflexivity: the case of child and woman protection’, Journal of Social Policy, 2: 199–216.
Fergusson, D. M. and Horwood, L. J. (2003) ‘Resilience to childhood adversity: results of a 21-year study’, in S. S. Luthar (ed) Resilience and Vulnerability: Adaptation in the Context of Childhood Adversities, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp 130–155.
Field, F. (2010) The Foundation Years: Preventing Poor Children Becoming Poor Adults, London: Cabinet Office.
Field, J. (2017) Social Capital, London: Routledge.
Fine, B. (2010) Theories of Social Capital: Researchers Behaving Badly, London: Pluto Press.
Finlayson, L. (2016) An Introduction to Feminism, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Fives, A. (2008) Political and Philosophical Debates in Welfare, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Fletcher, A., Gardner, F., McKee, M. and Bonell, C. (2012) ‘The British government’s Troubled Families Programme: a flawed response to riots and youth offending’, British Medical Journal, 344(7860): np.
Fletcher, D. and Sarkar, M. (2013) ‘Psychological resilience: a review and critique of definitions, concepts, and theory’, European Psychologist, 18: 12–24.
Fletcher, D. R. and Wright, S. (2018) ‘A hand up or a slap down? Criminalising benefit claimants in Britain via strategies of surveillance, sanctions and deterrence’, Critical Social Policy, 38(2): 22.
Fontes, L. A. (2005) Child Abuse and Culture: Working with Diverse Families, London: Guilford.
Foucault, M. (1989) The Birth of the Clinic: An Archaeology of Medical Perception, London: Routledge.
Fraser, D. (2009) The Evolution of the British Welfare State: A History of Social Policy since the Industrial Revolution, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Freedman, J. (2001) Feminism, Buckingham: Open University Press.
Frost, N. (2011) Rethinking Children and Families: The Relationship between Childhood, Families and the State, London: Continuum.
Frost, N. and Parton, N. (2009) Understanding Children’s Social Care: Politics, Policy and Practice, London: SAGE.
Frydenberg, E. (2008) Adolescent Coping: Advances in Theory, Research, and Practice, London: Routledge.
Furedi, F. (2001) ‘Paranoid parenting’ , The Guardian, 26 April.
Furedi, F. (2004) Therapy Culture: Cultivating Vulnerability in an Uncertain Age, London: Routledge.
Gamble, A. (1988) The Free Economy and the Strong State: The Politics of Thatcherism, Basingstoke: Macmillan.
Gandesha, S. (2018) ‘Understanding Right and Left populism’, in J. Morelock (ed) Critical Theory and Authoritarian Populism, London: University of Westminster Press, pp 49 – 70.
Garrett, P. B. (2018) Welfare Words: Critical Social Work and Social Policy, London: SAGE.
Garrett, P. M. (2007) ‘“Sinbin” solutions: the “pioneer” projects for “problem families” and the forgetfulness of social policy research’, Critical Social Policy, 27(2): 203–230.
Gentleman, A. (2022) ‘Windrush scandal caused by “30 years of racist immigration laws” – report’, The Guardian, 29 May.
George, V. and Wilding, P. (1994) Welfare and Ideology, New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
Gerrard, J. (2017) Precarious Enterprise on the Margins: Work, Poverty, and Homelessness in the City, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Gibb, J., Jelicic, H. and La Valle, I. (2011) Rolling Out Free Early Education for Disadvantaged Two Year Olds: An Implementation Study for Local Authorities and Providers, London: National Children’s Bureau.
Gilbert, A. (2018) British Conservatism and the Legal Regulation of Intimate Relationships, Oxford: Hart Publishing.
Gillies, V., Horsley, N. and Edwards, R. (2017) Challenging the Politics of Early Intervention: Who’s ‘Saving’ Children and Why, Bristol: Policy Press.
Goldthorpe, J. H. (2016a) ‘Social class mobility in modern Britain: changing structure, constant process’, Journal of the British Academy, 4(2): 89–111.
Goldthorpe, J. H. (2016b) ‘Decades of investment in education have not improved social mobility’, The Guardian, 12 May.
Greenstein, J. (2019) ‘Development without industrialization? Household well-being and premature deindustrialization’, Journal of Economic Issues, 53(3): 612–633.
Gregg, D. (2010) Family Intervention Projects: A Classic Case of Policy-Based Evidence, London: Centre for Crime and Justice Studies.
Grieve, D. (2020) Conservatives and the European Convention on Human Rights, Conservative Group for Europe.
Griffith, R. (2009) ‘Safeguarding children: key concepts and principles’, British Journal of School Nursing, 4(7): 335–340.
Griffiths, R. (2017) ‘No love on the dole: the influence of the UK means-tested welfare system on partnering and family structure’, Journal of Social Policy, 46(3): 543–561.
Gross, S.-A., Musgrave, G. and Janciute, L. (2018) Well-Being and Mental Health in the Gig Economy: Policy Perspectives on Precarity, London: University of Westminster Press.
Guardian (2002) ‘Full text of Tony Blair’s speech on welfare reform’, The Guardian, 10 June.
Guardian (2014) ‘Teenagers who share “sexts” could face prosecution, police warn’, The Guardian, 22 July.
Guldberg, H. (2009) Reclaiming Childhood: Freedom and Play in an Age of Fear, London: Routledge.
Habib, S., Peacock, C., Ramsden-Karelse, R. and Tinsley, M. (2021) The Changing Shape of Cultural Activism: Legislating Statues in the Context of the Black Lives Matter Movement, Runnymede Trust, Runnymede/CoDE COVID 19 Briefings.
Hall, J., Eisenstadt, N., Sylva, K., Smith, T., Sammons, P., Smith, G., Evangelou, M., Goff, J., Tanner, E., Agur, M. and Hussey, D. (2015) ‘A review of the services offered by English Sure Start Children’s Centres in 2011 and 2012’, Oxford Review of Education, 41: 89–105.
Hamilton, W. (2011) ‘Young people and mental health: resilience and models of practice’, in L. O’Dell and S. Leverett (eds) Working with Children and Young People: Co-constructing Practice, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp 92–105.
Hannam, J. (2012) Feminism, Harlow: Longman.
Harris, J. and White, V. (2018) Undeserving Poor, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hart, H. L. A. (1997) ‘Are there any natural rights?’, in R. E. Goodin and P. Pettit (eds) Contemporary Political Philosophy: An Anthology, Oxford: Blackwell, pp 281–288.
Hatt, S., Baxter, A. and Tate, J. (2008) ‘“The best government initiative in recent years”: teachers’ perceptions of the Aimhigher programme in the south west of England’, Journal of Further and Higher Education, 32(2): 129–138.
Hauhart, R. C. (2003) ‘The Davis–Moore theory of stratification: the life course of a socially constructed classic’, The American Sociologist, 34(4): 5–24.
Hay, C. (2014) ‘Neither real nor fictitious but “as if real”? A political ontology of the state’, British Journal of Sociology, 65(3): 459–480.
Hayek, F. v. (2013 [1973, 1976, 1979]) Law, Legislation and Liberty, Abingdon: Routledge.
Heap, V. and Dickinson, J. (2018) ‘Public Spaces Protection Orders: a critical policy analysis’, Safer Communities, 17(3): 182–192.
Hegewisch, A. and Gornick, J. C. (2011) ‘The impact of work-family policies on women’s employment: a review of research from OECD countries’, Community, Work and Family, 14(2): 119–139.
Hewitt, M. (1992) Welfare, Ideology and Need: Developing Perspectives on the Welfare State, Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
Heywood, A. (2021) Political Ideologies: An Introduction, London: Bloomsbury.
Hick, R. O. D. and Lanau, A. (2018) ‘Moving in and out of in-work poverty in the UK: an analysis of transitions, trajectories and trigger events’, Journal of Social Policy, 47(4): 661–682.
Hirsch, D. (2018) ‘The “living wage” and low income: can adequate pay contribute to adequate family living standards?’, Critical Social Policy, 38(2): 367–386.
HM Government (2020) ‘Government confirms extra support for Troubled Families to succeed’, Press release.
HM Government (2021) Supporting Families – 2021 and Beyond, London: Ministry of Housing.
Hoggett, J. and Frost, E. (2018) ‘The Troubled Families Programme and the problems of success’, Social Policy and Society, 17(4): 523–524.
Hoghughi, M. and Long, N. (2004) Handbook of Parenting: Theory and Research for Practice, London: SAGE.
Holt, A. (2010) Managing ‘Spoiled Identities’: Parents’ Experiences of Compulsory Parenting Support Programmes, London: John Wiley & Sons.
Holt, K. (2014) Child Protection, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Hood, C. (1991) ‘A public administration for all seasons?’, Public Administration, 69 (Spring): 3–19.
Hughes, M., Wikely, F. and Nash, T. (1994) Parents and Their Children’s Schools, Oxford: Blackwell.
Inglis, D. and Thorpe, C. (2019) An Invitation to Social Theory, Cambridge: Polity Press.
Ireland, S. (2011) ‘ASBOs are dead, long live ASBOs’, Criminal Justice Matters, 86(1): 26–27.
James, A. (2009) ‘Childhood matters: is children’s wellbeing a high enough priority’, Mental Health Today: June, 18–20.
James, A. and Prout, A. (1997) Constructing and Reconstructing Childhood: Contemporary Issues in the Sociological Study of Childhood, London: Falmer Press.
Jay, Z. (2021) ‘A tale of two Europes: how conflating the European Court of Human Rights with the European Union exacerbates Euroscepticism’, British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 24(4): 563–581.
Jenkins, N. E. (2006) ‘“You can’t wrap them up in cotton wool!” Constructing risk in young people’s access to outdoor play’, Health, Risk and Society, 8(4): 379–394.
Jenkins, S. (2006) Thatcher & Sons: A Revolution in Three Acts, London: Allen Lane.
Jensen, T. (2018) The Cultural Industry of Parent-Blame: Parenting the Crisis, Bristol: Bristol University Press.
Jochelson, K. (2005) Nanny or Steward? The Role of Government in Public Health, London: The King’s Fund.
John, E. and Furnish, D. (2017) ‘Elton John: “We want to raise children who accept our choices”’, The Daily Telegraph, 4 July.
Johnston, G. and Percy-Smith, J. (2003) ‘In search of social capital’, Policy and Politics, 31(3): 321–334.
Jones, G. (2007) ‘Assessing the success of the sale of social housing in the UK’, Journal of Social Welfare and Family Law, 29(2): 135–150.
Jones, K. (1991) The Making of Social Policy in Britain 1830–1990, London: Athlone.
Jones, O. (2016) Chavs: The Demonization of the Working Class, London: Verso.
Jones, P. and Bradbury, L. (2018) Introducing Social Theory, Cambridge: Polity Press.
Jordan, B. (1973) Paupers: The Making of the New Claiming Class, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Jordan, B. (1987) Rethinking Welfare, Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Joseph Rowntree Foundation (2018) UK Poverty 2018 [online], Available from: www.jrf.org.uk/report/uk-poverty-2018 [Accessed 20 March 2020].
Joseph-Salisbury, R., Connelly, L. and Wangari-Jones, P. (2021) ‘“The UK is not innocent”: Black Lives Matter, policing and abolition in the UK’, Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, 40(1): 21–28.
Joyce, R. and Sibieta, L. (2013) Labour’s Record on Poverty and Inequality [online], Available from: www.ifs.org.uk/publications/6738 [Accessed 27 July 2020].
Jupp, E. (2017) ‘Families, policy and place in times of austerity’, Area, 49(3): 266–273.
Kaltwasser, C. R., Taggart, P., Espejo, P. O. and Ostiguy, P. (2017 ) Populism: An Overview of the Concept and the State of the Art, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kemp, P. A. (2015) ‘Private renting after the Global Financial Crisis’, Housing Studies, 30(4): 601–620.
King, P. (2010) Housing Policy Transformed: The Right to Buy and the Desire to Own, Bristol: Policy Press.
Knight, A., La Placa, V. and McNaught, A. (eds) (2014) Wellbeing: Policy and Practice, Banbury: Lantern Publishing.
Knowles, G. (2009) Ensuring Every Child Matters, London: SAGE.
Knowles, G. and Holmstrom, R. (2013) Understanding Family Diversity and Home–School Relations: A Guide for Students and Practitioners in Early Years and Primary Settings, London: Routledge.
Koch, I. (2017) ‘What’s in a vote? Brexit beyond culture wars’, American Ethnologist, 44(2): 225–230.
La Placa, V. and Knight, A. (2014) ‘Wellbeing: a new policy phenomenon?’, in A. McNaught, V. La Placa and A. Knight (eds) Wellbeing: Policy and Practice, Branbury: Lantern Publishing, pp 17–26.
Lambert, M. (2019) ‘Between “families in trouble” and “children at risk”: historicising “troubled family” policy in England since 1945’, Children and Society, 33(1): 82–91.
Lambie-Mumford, H. and Green, M. A. (2017) ‘Austerity, welfare reform and the rising use of food banks by children in England and Wales’, Area, 49(3): 273–280.
Lareau, A. (2011) Unequal Childhoods: Class, Race, and Family Life, London: University of California Press.
Larner, W. (2000) ‘Neo-liberalism: policy, ideology, governmentality’, Studies in Political Economy, 63(1): 5–25.
Layard, R. (2011) Happiness: Lessons from a New Science, London: Penguin.
Lee, S. and Beech, M. (2008) Ten Years of New Labour, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Lehtonen, A. (2018) ‘“Helping workless families”: cultural poverty and the family in austerity and anti-welfare discourse’, Sociological Research Online, 23(1): 84.
LeMoyne, T. and Buchanan, T. (2011) ‘Does “hovering” matter? Helicopter parenting and its effect on well-being’, Sociological Spectrum, 31(4): 399–419.
Levitas, R. (1998) The Inclusive Society? Social Exclusion and New Labour, Basingstoke: Palgrave.
Levitas, R. (2012) There May be ‘Trouble’ Ahead: What We Know about Those 120,000 ‘Troubled’ Families, Poverty and Social Exclusion [online], Available from: www.poverty.ac.uk/policy-response-working-papers-families-social-policy-life-chances-children-parenting-uk-government [Accessed 11 October 2022].
Lewis, J. (2011) ‘Parenting programmes in England: policy development and implementation issues, 2005–2010’, Journal of Social Welfare and Family Law, 33(2): 107–122.
Lewis, J., Cuthbert, R. and Sarre, S. (2011) ‘What are Children’s Centres? The development of CC services, 2004–2008’, Social Policy and Administration, 45(1): 35–54.
Lin, N. (2001) Social Capital: A Theory of Social Structure and Action, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lindon, J., Webb, J. and Lindon, J. (2016) Safeguarding and Child Protection, London: Hodder Education.
Lindsay, G., Strand, S. and Davis, H. (2011) ‘A comparison of the effectiveness of three parenting programmes in improving parenting skills, parent mental-well being and children’s behaviour when implemented on a large scale in community settings in 18 English local authorities: the parenting early intervention pathfinder (PEIP)’, BMC Public Health, 1: 962.
Lindsay, G., Totsika, V. and Thomas, R. (2019) ‘Evaluating Parent Gym: a community implemented universal parenting programme’, Journal of Children’s Services, 14(1): 1–15.
Longfield, A. (2020) Best Beginnings: A Proposal for a New Early Years Guarantee to Give All Children in England the Best Start in Life, London: Children’s Commissioner for England.
Lowe, R. (2005) The Welfare State in Britain since 1945, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Lund, B. (2016) Housing Politics in the United Kingdom: Power, Planning and Protest, Bristol: Policy Press.
Lupton, D. (1999) Risk, London: Routledge.
Lyndon, S. (2019) ‘Troubling discourses of poverty in early childhood in the UK’, Children and Society, 33(6): 602–609.
Lyon, C. M. (2007) ‘Interrogating the concentration on the UNCRC instead of the ECHR in the development of children’s rights in England?’, Children and Society, 21(2): 147–154.
MacDonald, R. and Giazitzoglu, A. (2019) ‘Youth, enterprise and precarity: or, what is, and what is wrong with, the “gig economy”?’, Journal of Sociology, 55(4): 724–740.
Macdonald, R., Shildrick, T. and Furlong, A. (2014) ‘In search of “intergenerational cultures of worklessness”: hunting the yeti and shooting zombies’, Critical Social Policy, 34: 199–220.
MacInnes, T., Aldridge, H., Bushe, S., Kenway, P. and Tinson, A. (2013) Monitoring Poverty and Social Exclusion 2013, York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
Mann, K. (1992) The Making of an English ‘Underclass’? The Social Divisions of Welfare and Labour, Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
Marmot, M. (2015) ‘The richer you are, the better your health – and how this can be changed’, The Guardian, 11 September.
Martínez-Martí, M. L. and Ruch, W. (2017) ‘Character strengths predict resilience over and above positive affect, self-efficacy, optimism, social support, self-esteem, and life satisfaction’, Journal of Positive Psychology, 12(2): 110–120.
Mason, R., Proctor, K. and Elliott, L. (2019) ‘Fears child poverty may rise to record 60-year high under Tories’, The Guardian, 26 November.
May-Chahal, C. and Coleman, S. (2003) Safeguarding Children and Young People, London: Routledge.
McBride, J., Smith, A. and Mbala, M. (2018) ‘“You end up with nothing”: the experience of being a statistic of “in-work poverty” in the UK’, Work, Employment and Society, 32(1): 210–218.
McDermott, S. (2017) ‘I lost my job over a Facebook post – was that fair?’, BBC [online], Available from: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/stories-41851771 [Accessed 3 November 2019].
McElwee, N. (2007) ‘Chapter 1: Snowflake children’, Child and Youth Services, 29(1/2): 1–27.
McNamee, S. (2016) The Social Study of Childhood, London: Palgrave.
McNaught, A. (2011) ‘Defining wellbeing’, in A. Knight and A. McNaught (eds) Understanding Wellbeing: An Introduction for Students and Practitioners of Health and Social Care, Cheltenham: Lantern Publishing, pp 30–45.
Megele, C. and Buzzi, P. (2018) Safeguarding Children and Young People Online: A Short Guide for Social Workers, Bristol: Policy Press.
Mende, M., Scott, M. L., Garvey, A. M. and Bolton, L. E. (2019) ‘The marketing of love: how attachment styles affect romantic consumption journeys’, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 47(2): 255–273.
Miller, L. and Hevey, D. (2012) Policy Issues in the Early Years, London, SAGE.
Mirowski, P. (2014) The Political Movement That Dared Not Speak Its Own Name: The Neoliberal Thought Collective under Erasure, New York: Institute for New Economic Thinking.
Mirowski, P. and Plehwe, D. (eds) (2009) The Road from Mont Pèlerin: The Making of the Neoliberal Thought Collective, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Moore, A. and Reynolds, P. (2018) ‘Sex, sexuality and social media: a new and pressing danger?’, in A. Moore and P. Reynolds (eds) Childhood and Sexuality: Contemporary Issues and Debates, London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp 225–246.
Moore, K. (2019) Wellbeing and Aspirational Culture, Cham: Springer International.
Morgan, D. H. J. (2011) Rethinking Family Practices, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Morgan, D. H. J., McCarthy, J. R., Gillies, V. and Hooper, C.-A. (2019) ‘Family troubles, troubling families, and family practices’, Journal of Family Issues, 40(16): 2225–2238.
Morgan, P. (2007) The War between the Family and the State: How Government Divides and Impoverishes, London: Institute for Economic Affairs.
Morris, K., Mason, W., Bywaters, P., Featherstone, B., Daniel, B., Brady, G., Bunting, L., Hooper, J., Mirza, N., Scourfield, J. and Webb, C. (2018) ‘Social work, poverty, and child welfare interventions’, Child and Family Social Work, 23(3): 364–372.
Moss, P., Dillon, J. and Statham, J. (2000) ‘The “child in need” and “the rich child”: discourses, constructions and practice’, Critical Social Policy, 20(2): 233–255.
Mount, F. (1982) The Subversive Family, New York: The Free Press.
Mudde, C. and Kaltwasser, R. (2017) Populism: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Mullin, A. (2012) ‘The ethical and social significance of parenting: a philosophical approach’, Parenting: Science and Practice, 12(2/3): 134–143.
Munro, L. (2019) Life Chances, Education and Social Movements, London: Anthem Press.
Murie, A. (2016) The Right to Buy? Selling off Public and Social Housing, Bristol: Policy Press.
Murray, C. (1984) Losing Ground: American Social Policy, 1950–1980, New York: Basic Books.
Murray, C., Lister, R., Institute of Economic Affairs and Health and Welfare Unit (1996) Charles Murray and the Underclass: The Developing Debate, London: Institute of Economic Affairs, Health and Welfare Unit.
Neckerman, K. M. (1993) ‘The emergence of “underclass” family patterns, 1900–1940’, in M. B. Katz (ed) The ‘Underclass’ Debate, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, pp 194–219.
NESS (2012) The Impact of Sure Start Local Programmes on Seven Year Olds and Their Families, London: Institute for the Study of Children, Families and Social Issues, University of London.
Nettleingham, D. (2019) ‘Beyond the heartlands: deindustrialization, naturalization and the meaning of an “industrial” tradition’, British Journal of Sociology, 70(2): 610–626.
Nicolson, P. (2014) A Critical Approach to Human Growth and Development, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Nixon, J. (2007) ‘Deconstructing “problem” researchers and “problem” families: a rejoinder to Garrett’, Critical Social Policy, 27(4): 546–556.
O’Brien, B. (2016) ‘Public spaces protection orders: an “attack of vagueness’”, Safer Communities, 15(4): 183–189.
O’Brien, M. and Kyprianou, P. (2017) Just Managing? What It Means for the Families of Austerity Britain, Cambridge, Open Book Publishers.
O’Byrne, D. J. (2019) ‘The rise of populism, the demise of the neoliberal and neoconservative globalist projects, and the war on human rights’, International Critical Thought, 9(2): 254–268.
O’Hara, G. (2018) New Labour’s Domestic Policies: Neoliberal, Social Democratic or a Unique Blend?, London: Tony Blair Institute for Global Change.
O’Hara, M. (2020) The Shame Game: Overturning the Toxic Narrative of Poverty, Bristol: Policy Press.
O’Hara, M. and Thomas, M. (2014) Austerity Bites: A Journey to the Sharp End of Cuts in the UK, Bristol: Policy Press.
OBR (2022) Brexit Analysis [online], Available from: https://obr.uk/forecasts-in-depth/the-economy-forecast/brexit-analysis/#assumptions [Accessed 19 July 2022].
Olssen, M. (2016) ‘Neoliberal competition in higher education today: research, accountability and impact’, British Journal of Sociology of Education, 37(1): 129–148.
Olsson, C. A., Bond, L., Burns, J. M., Vella-Brodrick, D. A. and Sawyer, S. M. (2003) ‘Adolescent resilience: a concept analysis’, Journal of Adolescence, 26(1): 1–12.
ONS (2018) Statistical Bulletin: UK Labour Market: February 2018 Estimates of Employment, Unemployment, Economic Inactivity and Other Employment-Related Statistics for the UK, London: Office for National Statistics.
ONS (2019) Families and Households in the UK: 2019 [online], Available from: www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/birthsdeathsandmarriages/families/bulletins/familiesandhouseholds/2019 [Accessed 3 August 2020].
ONS (2020) Average Weekly Earnings in Great Britain: February 2020 [online], Available from: www.ons.gov.uk/employmentandlabourmarket/peopleinwork/employmentandemployeetypes/bulletins/averageweeklyearningsingreatbritain/february2020 [Accessed 20 March 2020].
Page, R. M. (2015) Clear Blue Water? The Conservative Party and the Welfare State since 1940, Bristol: Policy Press.
Parr, S. (2017) Explaining and understanding state intervention into the lives of “troubled” families’, Social Policy and Society, 16(4): 577.
Parton, N. (2004) ‘From Maria Colwell to Victoria Climbié: reflections on public inquiries into child abuse a generation apart’, Child Abuse Review, 13(2): 80–94.
Parton, N. (2006) Safeguarding Childhood: Early Intervention and Surveillance in a Late Modern Society, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Paterson, L. L., Coffey-Glover, L. and Peplow, D. (2016) ‘Negotiating stance within discourses of class: reactions to Benefits Street’, Discourse and Society, 27(2): 195–214.
Peck, J. (2010) Constructions of Neoliberal Reason, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Perraudin, F. (2019) ‘Yorkshire schools will not get back millions lost in trust’s collapse: Wakefield City Academies Trust centralised schools’ reserves and then went bust’, The Guardian, 18 November.
Pinto, S. (2017) ‘Researching romantic love’, Rethinking History, 21(4): 567–585.
Portes, J. (2021) ‘Now it’s official: Brexit will damage the economy long into the future’, The Guardian, 28 October.
Powell, M. A. (ed) (1999) New Labour, New Welfare State? The ‘Third Way’ in British Social Policy, Bristol: Policy Press.
Powell, M. A. (2000) ‘New Labour and the Third Way in the British welfare state: a new and distinctive approach?’, Critical Social Policy, 20(1): 39–60.
Prendergast, L. M., Hill, D. and Jones, S. (2017) ‘Social exclusion, education and precarity: neoliberalism, neoconservatism and class war from above’, Journal for Critical Education Policy Studies, 15(2): 23–58.
Prideaux, S. (2005) Not So New Labour: A Sociological Critique of New Labour’s Policy and Practice, Bristol: Policy Press.
Putnam, R. D. (2001) Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community, London: Touchstone.
Putnam, R. D. and Goss, K. A. (2002) ‘Introduction’, in R. D. Putnam (ed) Democracies in Flux: The Evolution of Social Capital in Contemporary Society, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp 3–20.
Rawlinson, K., Badshah, N. and Weaver, M. (2022) ‘Windrush scandal: timeline of key events’, The Guardian, 16 April.
Reay, D. (2017) Miseducation: Inequality, Education and the Working Classes, Bristol: Policy Press.
Reay, D., Davies, J., David, M. and Ball, S. J. (2001) ‘Choices of degree or degrees of choice? Class, “race” and the higher education choice process’, Sociology, 35(4): 855–874.
Reay, D., David, M. E. and Ball, S. (2005) Degrees of Choice: Social Class, Race and Gender in Higher Education, Stoke on Trent: Trentham Books.
Ridge, T. (2013) ‘“We are all in this together”? The hidden costs of poverty, recession and austerity policies on Britain’s poorest children’, Children and Society, 27(5): 406–417.
Robb, C. (2018) More People in Work, But Many Still Trapped in Poverty, York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
Roberts, R. (2010) Wellbeing from Birth, London: SAGE.
Robson, S. (2011) ‘Internationalization: a transformative agenda for higher education?’, Teachers and Teaching, 17(6): 619–630.
Romano, S. (2018) Moralising Poverty: The ‘Undeserving’ Poor in the Public Gaze, London: Routledge.
Rönkä, A., Malinen, K., Metsäpelto, R.-L., Laakso, M.-L., Sevón, E. and Verhoef-van Dorp, M. (2017) ‘Parental working time patterns and children’s socioemotional wellbeing: comparing working parents in Finland, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands’, Children and Youth Services Review, 76: 133–141.
Rose, W. and McAuley, C. (2019) ‘Poverty and its impact on parenting in the UK: re-defining the critical nature of the relationship through examining lived experiences in times of austerity’, Children and Youth Services Review, 97: 134–141.
Royston, S. (2017), Welfare reform and the “family test”, in Broken Benefits, Bristol: Bristol University Press, pp 122–133.
Runciman, W. G. (1990) ‘How many classes are there in contemporary British society?’, Sociology, 24(3): 377–396.
Ryan, F. (2019) ‘Young people like Jess need the safety net. But austerity has destroyed it; councils are buckling under the strain of families in crisis, thanks to catastrophic cuts to children and young people’s services’, The Guardian, 28 February.
Sage, D. (2012) ‘A challenge to liberalism? The communitarianism of the Big Society and Blue Labour’, Critical Social Policy, 32(3): 365–382.
Saltiel, D. (2013) ‘Understanding complexity in families’ lives: the usefulness of family practices as an aid to decision-making’, Rediscovering Family and Kinship: New Directions for Social Work Theory, Policy and Practice, 18: 15–24.
Sayer, T. (2008) Critical Practice in Working with Children, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Scholz, S. J. (2010) Feminism: A Beginner’s Guide, Richmond: Oneworld.
Shaw, B., Watson, B., Frauendienst, B., Redecker, A., Jones, T. and Hillman, M. (2013) Children’s Independent Mobility: A Comparative Study in England and Germany (1971–2010), London: Policy Studies Institute.
Shildrick, T. (2018) ‘Lessons from Grenfell: poverty propaganda, stigma and class power’, Sociological Review, 66(4): 783–798.
Simpson, D., Lumsden, E. and McDowall Clark, R. (2015) ‘Neoliberalism, global poverty policy and early childhood education and care: a critique of local uptake in England’, Early Years, 35(1): 96–109.
Siraj, I. and Mayo, A. (2014) Social Class and Educational Inequality: The Impact of Parents and Schools, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Siraj-Blatchford, I., Mayo, A., Melhuish, E., Taggart, B., Sammons, P. and Sylva, K. (2013) ‘The learning life course of at “risk” children aged 3–16: perceptions of students and parents about “succeeding against the odds”’, Scottish Educational Review, 42(2): 5–17.