Chapter 3 focuses on waste’s diversion (recycling) as an industrial profit-making enterprise. While reduction (reduced consumption) is consistently touted as diversion’s primary goal, it is recycling (and to some extent re-use) that most represents our global (downstream) response to waste production. Chapter 3 provides a comprehensive examination of diversion practices and their limitations, and provocatively argues that industry and local governments work in tandem to deflect attention away from the upstream issue of limitless growth and consumption as foundational to neoliberal growth capitalism.
Abuelsamid, S. (2021) ‘GM to make only electric vehicles by 2035, be carbon neutral by 2040’, Forbes, [online], 28 January, Available from: https://www.forbes.com/sites/samabuelsamid/2021/01/28/general-motors-commits-to-being-carbon-neutral-by-2040/?sh=50390b1b6355 [Accessed 13 March 2021].
Ademe (2018) ‘Modélisation et evaluation des impacts environnementaux de produits de consommations et biens d’equipement’, [online], Available from: https://librairie.ademe.fr/dechets-economie-circulaire/1189-modelisation-et-evaluation-des-impacts-environnementaux-de-produits-de-consommation-et-biens-d-equipement.html [Accessed 5 May 2021].
Adeola, F.O. (2012) Industrial Disasters, Toxic Waste, and Community Impact: Health Effects and Environmental Justice Struggles around the Globe, London: Lexington Books.
Adyel, T.M. (2020) ‘Accumulation of plastic waste during COVID-19’, Science, 369(6509): 1314–15.
Agamben, G. (1995) Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life. Trans. Daniel Heller-Roazen. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Agar, B.J., Baetz, R.W. and Wilson, B. (2012) ‘Fuel consumption, emissions estimation, and emimissions cost estimates using global positioning data’, Journal of Air and Waste Management Association, 57: 348–54.
Airinum (nd) [online], Available from: https://www.airinum.com/ [Accessed 15 May 2021].
Alexander, C. and Sanchez, A. (2020) Indeterminacy: Waste, Value, and the Imagination, New York: Berghahn Books.
Ali, S.H. (1999) ‘The search for a landfill site in the risk society’, Canadian Review of Sociology, 36(1): 1–19.
Allen, B.L. (2007) ‘Environmental justice and expert knowledge in the wake of a disaster’, Social Studies of Science, 37(1): 103–10.
Amegah, A.K. and Jaakkola, J.J. (2016) ‘Household air pollution and the sustainable development goals’, Bull World Health Organ, 94(3): 215–21.
American Chemistry Council (2016) ‘Study finds plastics reduce environmental costs by nearly 4 times compared to alternatives’, [online], Available from: https://www.americanchemistry.com/Media/PressReleasesTranscripts/ACC-news-releases/Study-Finds-Plastics-Reduce-Environmental-Costs-By-Nearly-4-Times-Compared-to-Alternatives.html [Accessed 25 November 2020].
Anderson, W. (2010) ‘Crap on the map, or postcolonial waste’, Postcolonial Studies, 13(2): 169–78.
Andrady, A.L. and Neal, M.A. (2009) ‘Applications and societal benefits of plastics’, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 364: 1977–84.
Arboleda, M. (2020) Planetary Mine: Territories of Extraction under Late Capitalism, Brooklyn: Verso Books.
Ariss, R. (2017) ‘Platinex V Kitchenuhmaykoosib Inninuwug: extraction and the role of law in KI’s struggle for self-determination’, Contours, 7.
Ariss, R. and Cutfeet, J. (2011) ‘Kitchenuhmaykoosib Inninuwug First Nation: mining, consultation, reconciliation and law’, Indigenous Law Journal, 10(1): 1–37.
Arms Control Association (2020) ‘The nuclear testing tally’, [online], Available from: https://www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/nucleartesttally [Accessed 31 December 2020].
Art Public Ville de Montreal (2017) ‘Anamnèse 1+1’, [online], Available from: https://artpublic.ville.montreal.qc.ca/oeuvre/anamnese-11/ [Accessed 10 May 2021].
Baarschers, W.H. (1996) Eco-Facts and Eco-Fiction: Understanding the Environmental Debate, 1st edn, London: Routledge.
Bahers, J.B. (2021) ‘En quoi les politiques locales d’économie circulatire no sont pas des résistances aux régimes métaboliques dominants: le cas des métabolismes urbains de Nantes-Nazaire et Göteborg’, Paper presented at the Congrès ABSP-CoSPoF conference, 8 April 2021.
Badawi, N., Kurinczuk, J.J., Keogh, J.M., Chambers, H.M. and Stanley, F. (2000) ‘Why is the placenta being ignored?’, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 40: 343–6.
Baergen, R.N. (2007) ‘The placenta as witness’, Clinics in Perinatology, 34: 393–407.
Bank of England (2019) ‘Polymer banknotes’, [online], Available from: https://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20191202203834/https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/banknotes/polymer-banknotes [Accessed 21 December 2020].
Barachini, S., Trombi, L., Danti, S., D’Alessandro, D., Battolla, B., Legitimo, A., Nesti, C., Mucci, I., D’Acunto, M., Cascone, M.G., Lazzeri, L., Mattii, L., Consolini, R. and Petrini, M. (2009) ‘Morpho-functional characterization of human mesenchymal stem cells from umbilical cord blood for potential uses in regenerative medicine’, Stem Cells and Development, 18: 293–305.
Barbati, A., Mameli, M.G., Sidoni, A. and Di Renzo, G.C. (2012) ‘Amniotic membrane: separation of amniotic mesoderm from amniotic epithelium and isolation of their respective mesenchymal stromal and epithelial cells’, Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology, 1E: 1–20.
Barbosa, F., Bresciani, G., Graham, P., Nyquist, S. and Yanosek, K. (2020) ‘Oil and gas after COVID-19: the day of reckoning or a new age of opportunity?’, McKinsey & Company, [online], Available from: https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/oil-and-gas/our-insights/oil-and-gas-after-covid-19-the-day-of-reckoning-or-a-new-age-of-opportunity# [Accessed 5 January 2021].
Basel Action Network (2016) ‘Secret tracking project finds that your old electronic waste gets exported to developing countries’, [online], Available from: https://www.ban.org/news/2016/9/15/secret-tracking-project-finds-that-your-old-electronic-waste-gets-exported-to-developing-countries [Accessed 23 December 2020].
Bataille, G. (1949/91). The Accursed Share: An Essay on General Economy, New York: Zone Books.
Baudrillard, J. (1983) Simulations, Los Angeles: Semiotext(e).
BBC News (2019) ‘Why some countries are shipping back plastic waste’, [online], 2 June, Available from: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-48444874 [Accessed 20 May 2021].
BBC News (2020) ‘Coronavirus: US “wants 3M to end mask exports to Canada and Latin America”’, [online], 3 April, Available from: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-52161032 [Accessed 21 May 2021].
Beacock, M. (2012) ‘Does eating placenta offer postpartum health benefits?’, British Journal of Midwifery, 20: 464–9.
Beck, U. (1992) Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity, London: SAGE.
Beck, U. (2007) World at Risk, Cambridge: Polity Press.
Beckett, C. and Keeling, A. (2019) ‘Rethinking remediation: mine reclamation, environmental justice, and relations of care’, Local Environment, 24(3): 216–30.
Bedford, E. (2020) ‘Canadian sales growth of personal care and cleaning products due to coronavirus 2020’, Statista, [online], Available from: https://www.statista.com/statistics/1110802/coronavirus-growth-in-personal-care-and-cleaning-product-sales-canada/ [Accessed 4 May 2021].
Benirschke, K. (1998) ‘Remarkable placenta’, Clinical Anatomy, 11: 194–205.
Benirschke, K., Kaufmann, P. and Baergen, R.N. (2006) Pathology of the Human Placenta, New York: Springer New York.
Bharti, B. (2020) ‘Coronavirus updates: stockpile food and meds in case of infection, Canada’s health minister says’, National Post, [online], 27 February, Available from: https://nationalpost.com/news/world/coronavirus-live-updates-who-covid19-covid-19-italy-china-canada-wuhan-deaths [Accessed 4 May 2021].
Bhattacharya, N. and Stubblefield, P. (eds) (2011) Regenerative Medicine Using Pregnancy-Specific Biological Substances, London: Springer.
Bodenheimer, M. and Leidenberger, J. (2020) ‘COVID-19 as a window of opportunity for sustainability transitions? Narratives and communication strategies beyond the pandemic’, Sustainability: Science, Practice and Policy, 16(1): 61–6.
Boswell, C. (2019) ‘Canadian petrochemicals: investments begin to flow’, Chemical Week, [online], 19 August, Available from: https://chemweek.com/CW/Document/105460/Canadian-petrochemicals-Investments-begin-to-flow [Accessed 9 March 2021].
Bousso, R. (2020) ‘BP wipes up to $17.5 billion from assets with bleaker oil outlook’, Reuters, [online], 15 June, Available from: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-bp-writeoffs/bp-wipes-up-to-17-5-billion-from-assets-with-bleaker-oil-outlook-idUSKBN23M0QA [Accessed 10 February 2021].
Bowles, N. (2020) ‘I used to make fun of silicon preppers. And then I became one’, New York Times, [online], 24 April, Available from: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/24/technology/coronavirus-preppers.html [Accessed 4 May 2021].
Braune, B., Muir, D., DeMarch, B., Gamberg, M., Poole, K., Currie, R., Dodd, M., Duschenko, W., Eamer, J., Elkin, B., Evans, M., Grundy, S., Hebert, C., Johnstone, R., Kidd, K., Koenig, B., Lockhart, L., Marshall, H., Reimer, K., Sanderson, J. and Shutt, L. (1999) ‘Spatial and temporal trends of contaminants in Canadian Arctic freshwater terrestrial ecosystems: a review’, Science and the Total Environment, 230(1–3): 145–207.
Brewer, J.D. (2013) The Public Value of the Social Sciences, London: Bloomsbury.
Britton-Purdy, J. (2016) ‘The violent remaking of Appalachia’, The Atlantic, 21 March.
Brooks, M. (2003) The Zombie Survival Guide: Complete Protection from the Living Dead, New York: Three Rivers Press.
Brown, B. (nd) ‘The prepping guide, SHTF plans’, The Prepping Guide, [online], Available from: https://thepreppingguide.com/about/ [Accessed 26 October 2020].
Brown, K. (2013) Plutopia: Nuclear Families, Atomic Cities, and the Great Soviet and American Plutonium Disasters, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Browne, H. (2008) ‘Curbing my appetite for plastic’, Kingston Whig-Standard, 20 September, 1–2.
Bulkeley, H., Watson, M., Hudson, R. and Weaver, P. (2005) ‘Governing municipal waste: towards a new analytical framework’, Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning, 7: 1–23.
Bulkeley, H., Watson, M. and Hudson, R. (2007) ‘Modes of governing municipal waste’, Environment and Planning A, 39(2): 733–53.
Burawoy, M. (2004) ‘American Sociological Association Presidential address: for public sociology’, American Sociological Review, 70(1): 4–28.
Burchell, G., Gordon, C. and Miller, P. (1991) The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Burd, A. and Huang, L. (2011) ‘A massive wastage of the global resources’, in N. Bhattacharya and P. Stubblefield (eds) Regenerative Medicine Using Pregnancy-Specific Biological Substances, London: Springer, pp 3–8.
Callaghan, H. (2007) ‘Birth dirt’, in M. Kirkham (ed) Exploring the Dirty Side of Women’s Health, New York: Routledge, pp 8–25.
Canadian Plastics (2020) ‘U.S. plastics industry reports another year of trade surplus’, Canadian Plastics, [online], 23 October, Available from: https://www.canplastics.com/economy/u-s-plastics-industry-reports-another-year-of-trade-surplus/1003454405/ [Accessed 9 March 2021].
Carter, A.M. (2011) ‘Thomas George Lee – implantation and early development of North American rodents’, Placenta, 32: 8–10.
Carter, A.M. and Mess, A. (2010) ‘Hans Strahl’s pioneering studies in comparative placentation’, Placenta, 31: 848–52.
Cavé, J. and Tastevin, Y.P. (2021) ‘Zones interdites, zones de sacrifices: penser les résistances aux déjections et aux extractions dans une même trajectoire’, Paper presented at the Congrès ABSP-COSPOF, 8 April.
Cecco, L. (2021) ‘Dozens of Canada’s First Nations lack drinking water: “Unacceptable in a country so rich”’, Guardian, [online], 30 April, Available from: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/apr/30/canada-first-nations-justin-trudeau-drinking-water [Accessed 16 May 2021].
Celik B., Rowe, R.K. and Unlü, K. (2009) ‘Effect of vadose zone on the steady-state leakage rates from landfill barrier systems’, Waste Management, 29(1): 103–9.
Center for Sustainability (2012) ‘Problems with current recycling methods’, Aquinas College, [online], Available from: http://www.centerforsustainability.org/resources.php?category=40&root= [Accessed 20 September 2012].
Chang, C-M., Kao, C-L., Chang, Y-L., Yang, M.-J., Chen, Y.-C., Sung, B.-L. Tsai, T.-H., Chao, K.-C., Chiou, S.-H. and Ku, H.-H. (2007) ‘Placenta-derived multipotent stem cells induced to differentiate into insulin-positive cells’, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 357: 414–20.
Chavis, B. and Lee, C. (1987) ‘Toxic waste and race in the United States: a national report on the racial and socio-economic characteristics of communities with hazardous waste’, United Church of Christ’s Commission on Racial Justice.
Chertow, M. (2009) ‘The ecology of recycling’, UN Chronicle, 46(3–4): 56–60.
Chong, W.K. and Hermreck, C. (2010) ‘Understanding transportation energy and technical metabolism of construction waste recycling’, Resources , Conservation & Recycling, 54(9): 579–90.
Chung, E. (2019) ‘Most styrofoam isn’t recycled: here’s how 3 startups aim to fix that’, CBC News, [online], 25 March, Available from: https://www.cbc.ca/news/technology/styrofoam-chemical-recycling-polystyrene-1.5067879 [Accessed 20 April 2021].
CIEL (Centre for International Environmental Law) (2019) ‘Plastic & climate: the hidden costs of a plastic planet’, CIEL, [online], Available from: https://www.ciel.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/Plastic-and-Climate-FINAL-2019.pdf [Accessed 7 December 2020].
CIEL (Centre for International Environmental Law) (2020) ‘Convention on plastic pollution: toward a new global agreement to address plastic pollution’, [online], Available from: https://www.ciel.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/Convention-on-Plastic-Pollution-June-2020-Single-Pages.pdf [Accessed 14 May 2021].
Cirino, E. (2017) ‘Charles Moore is now a two-time Garbage Patch discoverer (and I can tell you what a Garbage Patch looks like)’, National Geographic Newsroom, [online], 28 July, Available from: https://blog.nationalgeographic.org/2017/07/28/charles-moore-is-now-a-two-time-garbage-patch-discoverer-and-i-can-tell-you-what-a-garbage-patch-looks-like/ [Accessed 2 January 2021].
City Hall Public Notice (2013) ‘City wants to recognize remarkable recyclers’, City of Kingston, [online], 18 March, Available at: http://www.cityofkingston.ca/-/city-wants-to-recognize-remarkable-recyclers [Accessed 10 September 2013].
City of Kingston (2013) ‘Environment, Infrastructure & Transportation Policies Committee: meeting #04-2013’, City of Kingston, [online], 16 April, Available at: http://www.cityofkingston.ca/documents/10180/634489/EIT_Agenda-0413.pdf/3f5652b3-7460-47c2-a1ea-5a55b24a5c33 [Accessed 3 September 2013].
Clapp, J. (2002) ‘The distancing of waste: overconsumption in a global economy’, in T. Princen, M. Maniates and K. Conca (eds) Confronting Consumption, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp 155–76.
Clark, G. and Clark, A. (2002) ‘Common rights to land in England, 1475–1839’, Journal of Economic History, 61(4): 1009–36.
Collie, M. (2020) ‘Yes, you should have a coronavirus emergency kit: here’s what to include’, Global News, [online], 10 April, Available from: https://globalnews.ca/news/6665520/coronavirus-emergency-kit/ [Accessed 6 May 2021].
Collins, K. and Yaffe-Bellany, D. (2020) ‘About 2 million guns were sold in the U.S. as virus fears spread’, New York Times, [online], 1 April, Available from: https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/04/01/business/coronavirus-gun-sales.html [Accessed 6 May 2021].
Collins, S.L., Micheli, F. and Hartt, L. (2000) ‘A method to determine rates and patterns of variability in ecological communities’, Oikos, 91: 285–93.
Conference Board of Canada (2013) ‘Environment: municipal waste generation’, [online], Available at: http://www.conferenceboard.ca/hcp/details/environment/municipal-waste-generation.aspx [Accessed 23 November 2013].
Coninck, P., Séguin, M., Chornet, E., Laramée, L., Twizeyemariya, A., Abatzoglou, N. and Racine, L. (1999) ‘Citizen involvement in waste management: an application of the STOPER model via an informed consensus approach’, Environmental Management, 23(1): 87–94.
Conway, J. (2020) ‘Cleaning product sales growth from the coronavirus in the U.S. in March 2020’, Statista, [online], 6 January, Available from: https://www.statista.com/statistics/1104333/cleaning-product-sales-growth-from-coronavirus-us/ [Accessed 6 May 2021].
Corse, A. (2012) ‘Nature as infrastructure: making and managing the Panama Canal watershed’, Social Studies of Science, 42(4): 539–63.
COVRA (nd) ‘The art of preservation’, [online], Available from: https://www.covra.nl/en/radioactive-waste/the-art-of-preservation/ [Accessed 18 May 2021].
Cram, S. (2015) ‘Wild and scenic wasteland: conservation politics in the nuclear wilderness’, Environmental Humanities, 7: 89–105.
Crooks, H. (1993) Giants of Garbage: The Rise of the Global Waste Industry and the Politics of Pollution Control, Toronto: James Lorimer & Company.
Crutzen, P.J. and Stoermer, E.F. (2000) ‘The Anthropocene’, Global Change Newsletter, 41 (May): 17–18.
Dauvergne, P. (2008) The Shadows of Consumption: Consequences for the Global Environment, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Dannoritzer, C. (2014) The E-Waste Tragedy [documentary].
Davies, A.R. (2008) The Geographies of Garbage Governance: Interventions, Interactions and Outcomes, Milton Park: Routledge.
Davis, M. (2007) Planet of Slums, Brooklyn: Verso Books.
Deloitte (2019) Economic Study of the Canadian Plastic Industry, Market and Waste Task 5 – Summary Report to Environmental and Climate Change Canada. Deloitte LLC.
Dent, M. (2020) ‘Polymer recycling technologies 2020–2030’, IDTechEx, [online], Available from: https://www.idtechex.com/en/research-report/polymer-recycling-technologies-2020-2030/760 [Accessed 14 May 2021]
DePryck, K. and Gemenne, F. (2017) ‘The denier-in-chief: climate change, science and the election of Donald j. Trump’, Law and Critique, 24(2): 119–26.
Dias, S.M. (2016) ‘Waste pickers and cities’, Environment and Urbanization, 28(2): 375–90.
Dias, S. and Fernandez, L. (2013) ‘Wastepickers: a gendered perspective’, in Powerful Synergies: Gender Equality, Economic Development and Environmental Sustainability, United Nations Development Programme, pp 153–5.
Dodds, L. and Hopwood, B. (2006) ‘BAN waste, environmental justice and citizen participation in policy setting’, Local Environment, 11(3): 269–86.
Doomsday Preppers, Season 1 (2012) Produced by National Geographic & Sharp Entertainment, United States: National Geographic Channel.
Du Bois, W.E.B., Anderson, E. and Eaton, I. (1996) The Philadelphia Negro: A Social Study, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Ducros, H. (2019) ‘Approaching Waste through Environmental History: An Interview With Thomas Le Roux’, EuropeNow, [online], Available from: https://www.europenowjournal.org/2019/05/06/approaching-waste-through-environmental-history-an-interview-with-thomas-le-roux/ [Accessed 5 January 2021].
Durant, D. and Johnson, G.F. (eds) (2009) Nuclear Waste Management in Canada: Critical Issues, Critical Perspectives, Vancouver: University of British Columbia.
ECCC (Environment and Climate Change Canada) (2018) ‘Canadian environmental sustainability indicators: solid waste diversion and disposal’, [online], Available from: http://www.publications.gc.ca/site/eng/9.865728/publication.html [Accessed 14 May 2021].
ECCC (Environment and Climate Change Canada) (2019) ‘Economic study of the Canadian plastic industry, markets and waste: summary report to Environment and Climate Change Canada’, Prepared by Deloitte, [online], Available from: http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2019/eccc/En4-366-1-2019-eng.pdf [Accessed 5 January 2021].
Eddy, C. (2014) ‘The art of consumption: capitalist excess and individual psychosis in hoarders’, Canadian Review of American Studies, 44(1): 1–24.
Edmiston, J. (2010) ‘Don’t fear the wrapper: users say clear bags no biggie’, Kingston Whig-Standard, [online], 12 August, Available at: http://www.thewhig.com/2010/08/12/dont-fear-the-wrapper-users-say-clear-bags-no-biggie [Accessed 10 September 2013].
Einsiedel E.F., Jelsøe, E. and Breck, T. (2001) ‘Publics at the technology table: the consensus conference in Denmark, Canada, and Australia’, Public Understanding of Science, 10(1): 83–98.
Eisted, R., Larsen, A.W. and Christensen, T.H. (2009) ‘Collection, transfer and transport of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contribution’, Waste Management & Research, 27(8): 738–45.
Ellen McArthur Foundation (2016) ‘The new plastics economy: rethinking the future of plastics’, [online], 19 January, Available from: https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/assets/downloads/EllenMacArthurFoundation_TheNewPlasticsEconomy_Pages.pdf [Accessed 7 December 2020].
Ellen MacArthur Foundation (2017) ‘A new textiles economy: redesigning fashion’s future’, [online], November 28, Available from: https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/publications/a-new-textiles-economy-redesigning-fashions-future [Accessed 7 December 2020].
Entman, R.M. (1993) ‘Framing: toward clarification of a fractured paradigm’, Journal of Communication, 43(4): 51–8.
Environmental Defence (2021) ‘Statement on the plastics industry’s announcement to pursue legal action against Canada’s efforts to control plastic pollution’, [online], Available from: https://environmentaldefence.ca/2021/05/19/statement-plastics-industrys-announcement-pursue-legal-action-canadas-efforts-control-plastic-pollution/ [Accessed 5 January 2021].
Eroglu, H. (2020) ‘Effects of Covid-19 outbreak on environment and renewable energy sector’, Environment, Development and Sustainability, 23: 4782–90.
Esposito, F. (2019) ‘Saudi Aramco to make big investment in Reliance petrochemicals’, Plastic News, [online], 13 August, Available from: https://www.plasticsnews.com/news/saudi-aramco-make-big-investment-reliance-petrochemicals [Accessed 3 March 2021].
European Commission (2008) ‘Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on waste and repealing certain directives’ (OJ L 312), Brussels, Belgium: European Commission, 3–30.
ExxonMobil (2019) ‘Multi-billion Gulf investment to create tens of thousands of high-paying jobs’, [online], 5 February, Available from: https://corporate.exxonmobil.com/Locations/United-States/Growing-the-Gulf/20-billion-Gulf-investment-to-create-tens-of-thousands-of-high-paying-jobs#Beaumont [Accessed 9 March 2021].
Fauci, A.S., Lane, H.C. and Redfield, R.R. (2020) ‘Covid-19: navigating the uncharted’, New England Journal of Medicine, 382: 1268–89.
Fawcett-Atkinson, M. (2020) ‘U.S. companies threaten to use CUSMA to fight Canada’s plastics ban’, National Observer, [online], 6 November, Available from: https://www.nationalobserver.com/2020/11/06/news/us-companies-cusma-canada-plastics-ban [Accessed 13 March 2021].
Fawcett-Atkinson, M. (2021) ‘The backroom battle between industry, Ottawa and environmentalists over plastics regulation’, National Observer, [online], 8 March, Available from: https://www.nationalobserver.com/2021/03/08/backroom-battle-between-industry-ottawa-and-environmentalists-over-plastics [Accessed 9 March 2021].
Flower, W. (2016) ‘What operation green fence has meant for recycling’, Waste 360, [online], 11 February, Available from: https://www.waste360.com/business/what-operation-green-fence-has-meant-recycling [Accessed 10 February 2021].
Foote, S. and Mazzolini, E. (eds) (2012) Histories of the Dustheap: Waste, Material Cultures, Social Justice, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Forkert, P.-G. (2017) Fighting Dirty: How a Small Community Took On Big Trash, Toronto: Between the Lines.
Forster, P.M., Forster, H.I., Evans, M.J., Gidden, M.J., Jones, C.D., Keller, C.A., Lamboll, R.D., Le Quéré, C., Rogelj, J., Rosen, D., Schleussner, C.-F., Richardson, T.B., Smith, C.J. and Turnock, S.T. (2020) ‘Current and future global climate impacts resulting from COVID-19’, Nature Climate Change, 10: 913–19.
Foster, G.A. (2014) Hoarders, Doomsday Preppers, and the Culture of Apocalypse, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Foucault, M. (1976) The History of Sexuality: The Care of the Self, New York: Éditions Gallimard.
Foucault, M. (1984) ‘The politics of health in the eighteenth century’, in P. Rabinow (ed) The Foucault Reader, New York: Pantheon Books, pp 273–89.
Foucault, M. (1988) ‘Technologies of the self’, in L.H. Martin, H. Gutman and P.H. Hutton (eds) Technologies of the Self: A Seminar with Michel Foucault, London: Tavistock Publications, pp 16–49.
Franklin Associates (2018) ‘Life cycle impacts of plastic packaging compared to substitutes in the United States and Canada: theoretical substitution analysis’, [online], Available from: https://plastics.americanchemistry.com/Reports-and-Publications/LCA-of-Plastic-Packaging-Compared-to-Substitutes.pdf [Accessed 23 December 2020].
Freinkel, S. (2011) Plastic: A Toxic Love Story, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Furedy, C. (1997) ‘Socio-environmental initiatives in solid waste management in southern cities: developing international comparisons’, Journal of Public Health (Bangkok), 27(2): 150–51.
Galison, P. in Kruse, J. (2014) ‘Waste-wilderness: a conversation between Peter Galison and Smudge Studio’, Discard Studies, [online], 26 March, Available from: http://discardstudies.com/2014/03/26/waste-wilderness-a-conversation-between-peter-galison-and-smudge-studio/ [Accessed 6 May 2021].
Garrett, R. (2020) ‘Doomsday preppers and the architecture of dread’, Geoforum (in press).
Geyer, R., Jambeck, J.R. and Law, K.L. (2017) ‘Production, use and fate of all plastics ever made’, Science Advances, 3(7):e1700782.
Gharfalkar, M., Court, R., Campbell, C., Ali, Z. and Hillier, G. (2015) ‘Analysis of waste hierarchy in the European waste directive 2008/98/EC.’, Waste Management, 39: 305–13.
Ghoreishi, O. (2013) ‘Canada highest per capita waste producer compared to other developed nations’, Epoch Times, 30 January.
Gies, E. (2016) ‘Landfills have a huge greenhouse gas problem: here’s what we can do about it’, Ensia, [online], 25 October, Available from: https://ensia.com/features/methane-landfills/ [Accessed 21 April 2021].
Giesy, J.P. and Kannan, K. (1998) ‘Dioxin-like and non-dioxin-like toxic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): implications for risk assessment’, Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 28(6): 511–69.
Gilg, A., Barr, S. and Ford, N. (2005) ‘Green consumption or sustainable lifestyles? Identifying the sustainable consumer’, Futures, 37: 481–504.
Ginn, F. (2015) ‘When horses won’t eat: apocalypse and the Anthropocene’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 105(2): 351–9.
Goffman, E. (1959) ThePresentation of Self in Everyday Life, New York: Doubleday.
Goffman, E. (1974) Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience, Cambridge: Harper Row.
Government of Alberta (2020a) ‘Alberta’s recovery plan’, [online], Available from: https://www.alberta.ca/assets/documents/alberta-recovery-plan.pdf [Accessed 9 March 2021].
Government of Alberta (2022) ‘Getting Alberta back to work: natural gas vision and strategy’, [online], Available from: https://open.alberta.ca/dataset/988ed6c1-1f17-40b4-ac15-ce5460ba19e2/resource/a7846ac0-a43b-465a-99a5-a5db172286ae/download/energy-getting-alberta-back-to-work-natural-gas-vision-and-strategy-2020.pdf [Accessed 9 March 2021].
Government of Canada (2016) ‘Municipal solid waste and greenhouse gases’, [online], Available from: https://www.canada.ca/en/environment-climate-change/services/managing-reducing-waste/municipal-solid/greenhouse-gases.html [Accessed 20 May 2021].
Grajeda, T. (2005) ‘Disasterologies’, Social Epistemology, 19(4): 315–19.
Greenpeace Canada (2020) ‘Plastic recycling: that’s not a thing’, [online], Available from: https://www.greenpeace.org/static/planet4-canada-stateless/1d30117a-greenpeacereport_plasticrecyclingthatsnotathing.pdf [Accessed 5 January 2021].
Gregson, N., Metcalfe, A. and Crewe, L. (2007) ‘Moving things along: the conduits and practices of divestment in consumption’, Transaction of the Institute of British Geographers, 32: 187–200.
Gregson, N., Watkins, H. and Calestani, M. (2010) ‘Inextinguishable fibres: demolition and the vital materialism of asbestos’, Environment and Planning, 42(5): 1065–83.
Griffiths, S. (2020) ‘Why your internet habits are not as clean as you think’, BBC, [online], Availble from: https://www.bbc.com/future/article/20200305-why-your-internet-habits-are-not-as-clean-as-you-think
Hamilton, L.A. and Feit, S. (2019) ‘Plastic and climate: the hidden costs of a plastic planet’, CIEL (May).
Haraway, D.J. (2008) When Species Meet, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Harris, S. (2015) ‘Canadians piling up more garbage than ever before as disosables rule’, CBC News.
Hawkins, G. (2006) The Ethics of Waste: How We Relate to Rubbish, London: Rowman & Littlefield.
Healy, S.A. (2010) ‘Facilitating public participation in toxic WM through engaging “the object of politics”’, East Asian Science, Technology and Society: An International Journal, 4(4): 585–99.
Hesse, M. and Zak, D. (2020) ‘The history and mystery of Purell, the most sacred goo of our new era’, Washington Post, [online], 26 March, Available from: https://www.washingtonpost.com/lifestyle/style/the-power-of-purell-compels-you/2020/03/26/41243960-6dde-11ea-b148-e4ce3fbd85b5_story.html [Accessed 6 May 2021].
Hinde, D. (2020) ‘The Swedish recycling revolution’, Government of Sweden, [online], 3 November, Available from: https://sweden.se/nature/the-swedish-recycling-revolution/ [Accessed 14 January 2021].
Hird, M.J. (2009) The Origins of Sociable Life: Evolution after Science Studies, Houndmills and Basingstoke: Palgrave.
Hird, M.J. (2011) Sociology of Science: A Critical Canadian Introduction, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hird, M.J. (2021) Canada’s Waste Flows, Montréal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.
Hird, M.J. and Riha, J. (2021) ‘Prepping for the [insert here] apocalypse and wasting the future’, in Z. Gille and J. Lepawsky (eds) Handbook of Waste Studies, New York and London: Routledge, pp 305–21.
Hodgetts, A. (2018) ‘Is plastic actually good for the environment?’, Environment Journal, [online], 16 November, Available from: https://environmentjournal.online/articles/is-plastic-actually-good-for-the-environment/ [Accessed 7 December 2020].
Hoffman, E.M., Curran, A.M., Dulgerian, N., Stockham, R.A. and Eckenrode, B.A. (2009) ‘Characterization of the volatile compounds present in the headspace of decomposing human remains’, Forensic Science International, 186: 6–13.
Hoornweg, D., Bhada-Tata, P and Kennedy, C. (2013) ‘Waste production must peak this century’, Nature, 502: 615–17.
Hoover, E. (2017) The River Is in Us: Fighting Toxics in a Mohawk Community, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Hosler, D., Burkett, S.L. and Tarkanian, M.J. (1999) ‘Prehistoric polymers: rubber processing in ancient Mesoamerica’, Science, 284: 1988–91.
Hultman, J. and Corvellec, H. (2012) ‘The European waste hierarchy: from the sociomateriality of waste to a politics of consumption’, Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space, 44(10): 2413–27.
Human Rights Watch (2020) ‘Lebanon: huge cost of inaction in trash crisis’, [online], 9 June, Available from: https://www.hrw.org/news/2020/06/09/lebanon-huge-cost-inaction-trash-crisis [Accessed 1 January 2021].
Hume, T. and Tawfeeq, M. (2016) ‘Lebanon: “river of trash” chokes Beirut suburb as city’s garbage crisis continues’, CNN, [online], 25 February, Available from: https://www.cnn.com/2016/02/24/middleeast/lebanon-garbage-crisis-river [Accessed 14 May 2021].
IEA (2018) ‘The future of petrochemicals, IEA’, [online], Available from: https://www.iea.org/reports/the-future-of-petrochemicals [Accessed 10 February 2021].
IEA (2020a) ‘Global energy review 2020, IEA’, [online], Available from: https://www.iea.org/reports/global-energy-review-2020 [Accessed 10 February 2021].
IEA (2020b) ‘Global EV outlook 2020, IEA’, [online], Available from: https://www.iea.org/reports/global-ev-outlook-2020 [Accessed 10 February 2021].
Ilancheran, S., Moodley, Y. and Manuelpillai, U. (2009) ‘Human fetal membranes: a source of stem cells for tissue regeneration and repair?’, Placenta, 30: 2–10.
Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (2016) Highway Loss Data: General Statistics, [online], Availble from: http://www.iihs.org/iihs/topics/t/general-statistics/fatalityfacts/overview-of-fatality-facts
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2020) ‘Climate change and land’, [online], Available from: https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/sites/4/2020/02/SPM_Updated-Jan20.pdf [Accessed 21 May 2021].
Islam, M.Z. and Rowe, R.K. (2009) ‘Permeation of BTEX through unaged and aged HDPE geomembranes’, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 135(8): 1130 –40.
ISWA (2016) ‘A roadmap for closing waste dumpsites, the world’s most polluted places’, [online], Available from: https://www.resource-recovery.net/sites/default/files/iswa_dumpsites-roadmap_report.pdf [Accessed 19 May 2021].
Jambeck, J.R., Geyer, R., Wilcox, C, Siegler, T.R., Perryman, M., Andrady, A., Narayan, R. and Law, K.L. (2015) ‘Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean’, Science, 347(6223): 768–71.
Jarrige, F. and Le Roux, T. (2020) The Contamination of the Earth: A History of Pollutions in the Industrial Age, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Jeong, B.Y. (2016) ‘Occupational injuries and deaths in domestic waste collecting process’, Human Factors Management, 26: 608–14.
John, R. (2012) ‘City of Kingston to recognize “remarkable recyclers”’, Kingston Herald, 29 February, 1–2.
Johns Hopkins University & Medicine (2020) ‘Covid-19 dashboard by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University (JHU)’, [online], Available at: https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html
Johnson, K. (2005) ‘Structure impacts of landfill sites in cold region communities’, in Waste: the Social Context, Edmonton: May, pp 11–14.
Judah, J.C. (2008) Buzzards and Butterflies: Human Remains Detection Dogs, np: Coastal Books.
Kallis, G. and March, H. (2015) ‘Imaginaries of hope: the utopianism of degrowth’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 105(2): 360–8.
Kaufman, M. (nd) ‘The carbon footprint sham: a “successful, deceptive” PR campaign’, [online], Mashable, Available from: https://mashable.com/feature/carbon-footprint-pr-campaign-sham/ [Accessed 17 May 2021].
Kavanagh, M. (2020) Daughters of Uranium. Lethbridge, AB: Southern Alberta Art Gallery; Calgary, AB: Founders’ Gallery at The Military Museums; Calgary, AB: University of Calgary; and Kitchener, ON: Kitchener-Waterloo Art Gallery.
Kaza, S., Yao, L.C., Bhada-Tata, P. and Van Woerden, F. (2018) What a Waste 2.0: A Global Snapshot of Solid Waste Management, Washington, DC: World Bank.
Kelly, C. (2016) ‘The man-pocalypse: doomsday preppers and the rituals of apocalyptic manhood’, Text Performance Quarterly, 36 (2–3): 95–114.
Kingston City Council (2013) ‘Information report to the near campus neighbourhoods advisory committee’, Report # NCN-13–004, 14 August. Available at: http://www.cityofkingston.ca/documents/10180/1885123/NCN_A0313-13004.pdf/c989083a-8b10-41db-a984-e7d94a1b7a53 [Accessed 25 November 2013].
Klein, N. (2008) The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism, Toronto: Vintage Canada.
Kollikkathara, N., Feng, H. and Stern, E. (2009) ‘A purview of waste management evolution: special emphasis on USA’, Waste Management, 29(2): 974–85.
Kristeva, J. (1980/2) Powers of Horror: An Essay on Abjection, New York: Columbia University Press.
Krupar, S.R. (2013) Hot Spotter’s Report: Military Fables of Toxic Waste, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Kulkarni, B.N. and Anantharama, V. (2020) ‘Repercussions of COVID-19 pandemic on municipal solid waste management: challenges and opportunities’, Science of the Total Environment, 743: 2–8.
Kurdve, M., Shahbazi, S., Wendin, M., Bengtsson, C. and Wiktorsson, M. (2015) ‘Waste flow mapping to improve sustainability of waste management: a case study approach’, Journal of Cleaner Production, 98: 304–15.
Lagus, T.P. (2005) ‘Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel: a policy analysis’, University of Minnesota: Washington Internships for Students of Engineering.
Lamy, P. (1996) Millennium Rage: Survivalists, White Supremacists, and the Doomsday Prophecy, Springer: New York.
Lapaire, O., Holzgreve, W., Oosterwijk, J.C., Brinkhaus, R. and Bianchi, D.W. (2007) ‘Georg Schmorl on trophoblasts in the maternal circulation’, Placenta, 28: 1–5.
LaPensee, E.W., Tuttle, T.R., Fox, S.R. and Ben-Jonathan, N. (2009) ‘Bisphenol A at low nanomolar doses confers chemoresistance in estrogen receptor-α-positive and -negative breast cancer cells’, Environmental Health Perspectives, 117(2): 175–80.
Larson, L.R. and Shin, H. (2018) ‘Fear during natural disaster: its impact on perceptions of shopping convenience and shopping behavior’, Services Marketing Quarterly, 39(2): 293–309.
Laycock, R. and Binsted, S. (2020) ‘Doomsday prepper statistics’, Finder, [online], 25 May, Available from: https://www.finder.com/ca/doomsday-prepper-statistics [Accessed 6 May 2021].
Leber, R. (2020) ‘Fossil fuel companies are counting on plastics to save them’, Grist, [online], 8 March, Available from: https://grist.org/climate/fossil-fuel-companies-are-counting-on-plastics-to-save-them/ [Accessed 5 January 2021].
Leggett, J. (2005) The Empty Tank: Oil, Gas, Hot Air, and the Coming Global Financial Catastrophe, New York: Random House.
Lemon, B.S. (2002) ‘Exploring Latino rituals in birthing: understanding the need to bury the placenta’, AWHONN Lifelines, 6: 443–5.
Leonard, A. (2011) The Story of Stuff, New York: Simon & Schuster.
Lepawsky, J. (2018) Reassembling Rubbish: Worlding Electronic Waste, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Le Roux, T. (2016) ‘Chemistry and industrial and environmental governance in France, 1770-1830’, History of Science, 54: 195–222.
Levis, J.W., Barlaz, M.A., Themelis, N.J. and Ulloa, P. (2010) ‘Assessment of the state of food waste treatment in the United States and Canada’, Waste Management (New York, N.Y.), 30(8–9): 1486–94.
Lewis, D.L. and Willis, D. (2005) A Small Nation of People: W.E.B. Du Bois and African American Portraits of Progress, New York: HarperCollins.
Liboiron, M. (2010) ‘Recycling as a crisis of meaning’, Etopia: Canadian Journal of Cultural Studies, 4: 1–9.
Liboiron, M. (2013) ‘Modern waste as strategy’, Lo Squaderno: Explorations in Space and Society, 29: 9–12.
Liboiron, M. (2014) ‘Solutions to waste and the problem of scalar mismatches’, Discard Studies, [online], 10 February, Available from: https://discardstudies.com/2014/02/10/solutions-to-waste-and-the-problem-of-scalar-mismatches/ [Accessed 6 May 2020].
Local, The (2020) ‘French told to “go out and start shopping” to relaunch economy’, [online], 29 May, Available from: https://www.thelocal.fr/20200529/french-told-go-out-and-start-spending-to-relaunch-the-economoy?fbclid=IwAR1H1SNc227Sm3LdJ65L4-sPbhkhYBWN8h53TPuC9LuUChB-K3tvSHUmvbQ [Accessed 6 May 2021].
Lord, R. (2016) ‘Plastics and sustainability: a valuation of environmental benefits, costs and opportunities for continuous improvement’, Trucost, [online], Available from: https://www.plasticpackagingfacts.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/ACC-report_July-2016_v4.pdf [Accessed 9 March 2021].
Lougheed, S. (2017) ‘Disposing of risk: the biopolitics of recalled food and the (un)making of waste’, PhD Thesis, Available from: https://qspace.library.queensu.ca/bitstream/handle/1974/23777/Lougheed_Scott_C_201712_PhD.pdf?sequence=3
Lougheed, S., Hird, M.J. and Rowe, R.K. (2016) ‘Governing household waste management: an empirical analysis and critique’, Environmental Values, 25(3): 287–308.
Lundin, C. (2007) When All Hell Breaks Loose: Stuff You Need to Survive When Disaster Strikes, Kaysville, UT: Gibbs Smith.
Luther, D. (2015) The Prepper’s Water Survival Guide, Berkeley: Ulysses Press.
Lynas, M. (2011) The God Species: How Humans Really Can Save the Planet, London: Fourth Estate.
Mabee, W. (2021) ‘Biden’s Keystone XL death sentence requires Canada’s oil sector to innovate’, The Conversation, [online], 21 January, Available from: https://theconversation.com/bidens-keystone-xl-death-sentence-requires-canadas-oil-sector-to-innovate-153615 [Accessed 5 March 2021].
MacBride, S. (2012) Recycling Reconsidered: The Present Failure and Future Promise of Environmental Action in the United States, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Mackenzie, A. (2013) ‘From validating to verifying: Public appeals in synthetic Biology’, Science as Culture, 22(4): 476–96.
Malm, A. and Hornborg, A. (2014) ‘The geology of mankind? A critique of the Anthropocene narrative’, Anthropocene Review, 1(1): 62–9.
Maniates, M. (2002) ‘Plant a tree, buy a bike, save the world?’, in T. Princen, M. Maniates and K. Conca (eds) Confronting Consumption, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp 43–66.
Marten, B. and Hicks, A. (2018) ‘Expanded polystyrene life cycle analysis literature review: an analysis for different disposal scenarios’, Sustainability, 11(1): 29–35.
Masco, J. (2006) The Nuclear Borderlands: The Manhattan Project in post-Cold War New Mexico, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Masterson, V. (2020) ‘As Canada bans bags and more, this is what’s happening with single-use plastics around the world’, World Economic Forum, [online], 26 October, Available from: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/10/canada-bans-single-use-plastics/ [Accessed 5 January 2021].
Mazar, N. and Zhong, C-B. (2010) ‘Do green products make us better people?’, Psychological Science, 21(4): 494–8.
Meadows, D.H., Randers, J. and Meadows, D.L. (2004) The Limits to Growth: The 30-Year Update, White River Junction: Chelsea Green Publishing Co.
Meikle, J. (1995) American Plastic: A Cultural History, Chicago: Rutgers University Press.
Melosi, M.V. (2005) Garbage in the Cities: Refuse, Reform, and the Environment, rev edn, Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
Mills, M.F. (2018) ‘Preparing for the unknown ... unknowns: “doomsday” prepping and disaster risk anxiety in the United States’, Journal of Risk Research, 22(10): 1267–79.
Monbiot, G. (2009) ‘We cannot change the world by changing our buying habits’, Guardian, [online], 6 November, Available from: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/georgemonbiot/2009/nov/06/green-consumerism [Accessed 18 May 2021].
Mothiba, M., Moja, S. and Loans, C. (2017) ‘A review of the working conditions and health status of waste pickers at some landfill sites in the city of Tshwane metropolitan municipality, South Africa’, Advances in Applied Science Research, 8(3): 90–7.
Muralidhar, R.V. and Panda, T. (1999) ‘Useful products from human placenta’, Bioprocess Engineering, 20: 23–5.
Muralidhar, R.V. and Panda, T. (2000) ‘Value based products from human placenta’, Bioprocess Engineering, 22: 145–8.
Murphy, L. (2017) ‘Sweden’s strange problem: not enough trash’, Earth911, [online], 3 January, Available from: https://earth911.com/business-policy/sweden-trash-problem/ [Accessed 6 May 2021].
Murphy, T. (2013) ‘Preppers are getting ready for the Barackalypse’, Mother Jones News, [online], January/February issue, Available from: https://www.motherjones.com/politics/2012/12/preppers-survivalist-doomsday-obama/ [Accessed 6 May 2021].
Murray, A. (2019) ‘The incinerator and the ski slope tackling waste’, BBC News, [online], 4 October, Available from: https://www.bbc.com/news/business-49877318 [Accessed 10 May 2021].
National Geographic (2019) ‘Great Pacific garbage patch’, [online], 5 July, Available from: https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/great-pacific-garbage-patch/ [Accessed 2 January 2021].
Nelson, R.R. (1991) ‘Diffusion of development: post-World War II convergence among advanced industrial nations’, American Economic Review, 81(2): 271–5.
Nielsen, F. (2004) ‘The vacant “we”: remarks on public sociology’, Social Forces, 82(4): 1619–27.
Nixon, R. (2011) Slow Violence and the Environmentalism of the Poor, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
NPR (2019) ‘The litter myth’, [online], 5 September, Available from: https://www.npr.org/2019/09/04/757539617/the-litter-myth [Accessed 14 May 2021].
Nuclear Energy Agency (2010) Radioactive Waste in Perspective, Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Ober, W.B. (1979) ‘Notes on placentophagy’, Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 55: 591–9.
Olmer, N., Comer, B., Roy, B., Mao, X. and Rutherford, D. (2017) ‘Greenhouse gas emissions from global shipping, 2013–2015’, International Council on Clean Transportation, [online], 17 October, Available from: https://theicct.org/publications/GHG-emissions-global-shipping-2013-2015 [Accessed 14 May 2021].
O’Neill, K. (2000) Waste Trading among Rich Nations: Building a New Theory of Environmental Regulation, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
O’Neill, K. (2019) Waste, Oxford: Polity Press.
Ontario Waste Management Association (OMWA) (2016) ‘State of waste in Ontario: landfill report’, First Annual Landfill Report, Brampton: Ontario Waste Management Association.
Oxfam (2016) ‘Poultry companies are denying their workers bathroom breaks: tell Tyson to #GiveThemABreak’, [online], Available from: https://www.oxfamamerica.org/explore/stories/no-relief-for-poultry-workers/ [Accessed 18 December 2020].
Oxfam International (2021) ‘5 shocking facts about extreme global inequality and how to even it up’, [online], Available from: https://www.oxfam.org/en/5-shocking-facts-about-extreme-global-inequality-and-how-even-it [Accessed 17 May 2021].
Paltrow, G. (2020) Instagram Post. Instagram gwynethpaltrow.
Pantano, E., Pizzi, G., Scarpi, D. and Dennis, C. (2020) ‘Competing during a pandemic? Retailers’ ups and downs during the COVID-19 outbreak’, Journal of Business Research, 116: 209–13.
Parizeau, K. (2006) ‘A world of trash: from Canada to Cambodia, waste is a common problem with common solutions’, Alternatives Journal, 32(1), 16–19.
Parolini, O. (2011) ‘From fetal development and beyond: a continued role for placenta in sustaining life?’, Placenta, 32: S283–S284.
Pellow, D.N. (2009) ‘Electronic waste: the “clean industry” exports its trash’, in C. Gossart (ed) Resisting Global Toxics: Transnational Movement for Environmental Justice, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp 185–224.
Pennington, J. (2016) ‘Every minute, one garbage truck of plastic is dumped into our oceans: this has to stop’, World Economic Forum, [online], 27 October, Available from: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/10/every-minute-one-garbage-truck-of-plastic-is-dumped-into-our-oceans/ [Accessed 18 December 2020].
Pennington, T. and Luther, D. (2014) The Prepper’s Blueprint, np: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.
Pereira, C. (2017) ‘Get ready for zero waste week with these books’, Book Riot, [online], Available from: https://bookriot.com/zero-waste-week-books/ [Accessed 18 May 2021].
Perkins, R., Berton, L. and Borulev, A. (2020) ‘BP sells petrochemicals business to Ineos for $5 billion’, S&P Global, [online], 29 June, Available from: https://www.spglobal.com/platts/en/market-insights/latest-news/petrochemicals/062920-bp-sells-petrochemicals-business-to-ineos-for-5-billion [Accessed 14 May 2021].
Petts, J. (1998) ‘Trust and waste management information expectation versus observation’, Journal of Risk Research, 1(4): 307–20.
Petts, J. (2001) ‘Evaluating the effectiveness of deliberative processes: waste management case studies’, Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 44(2): 207–26.
Pijnenborg, R. and Vercruysse, L. (2008) ‘Shifting concepts of the fetal–maternal interface: a historical perspective’, Placenta, 22: S20–S25.
Pizzi, M., Fassan, M., Cimino, M., Zanardo, V. and Chiarelli, S. (2012) ‘Realdo Colombo’s De Re Anatomica: the renaissance origin of the term “placenta” and its historical background’, Placenta, 33: 655–7.
Plastics Europe (2018) ‘Plastics: the facts 2018; an analysis of European plastics production, demand and waste data’, [online], Available from: https://www.plasticseurope.org/en/resources/publications/619-plastics-facts-2018 [Accessed 7 December 2020].
Pollans, L.B. (2017) ‘Trapped in trash: “modes of governing” and barriers to transitioning to sustainable waste management’, Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space, 49(10): 2300–23.
Popken, B. (2020) ‘From disaster bunkers to dried food, survival supply sales are spiking’, NBC News Web, [online], 13 March, Available from: https://www.nbcnews.com/business/consumer/disaster-bunkers-dried-food-survival-supply-sales-are-spiking-n1156921 [Accessed 7 December 2020].
Princen, T., Maniates, M. and Conca, K. (eds) (2002) Confronting Consumption, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Rapoza, K. (2021) ‘With Russia’s help, China becomes plastics making power in pandemic’, Forbes, [online], 28 January, Available from: https://www.forbes.com/sites/kenrapoza/2021/01/18/with-russias-help-china-becomes-plastics-making-power-in-pandemic/?sh=2a19299735a8 [Accessed 20 February 2021].
Reeves, H. (2001) ‘A trail of refuse’, New York Times Magazine, 18 February.
Reno, J. (2019) Military Waste: The Unexpected Consequences of Permanent War Readiness, Oakland: University of California Press.
Reuters, T. (2021) ‘Biden ready to rejoin Paris Agreement, put the U.S. back on track with climate goals’, CBC/Radio-Canada, [online], 20 January, Available from: https://www.cbc.ca/news/technology/biden-paris-agreement-climate-1.5880235 [Accessed 5 March 2021].
Robbins, P. and Moore, S.A. (2013) ‘Ecological anxiety disorder: diagnosing the politics of the Anthropocene’, Cultural Geographies, 20(1): 3–19.
Rocher, L. (2020) ‘Waste, a matter of energy: a diachronic analysis (1992–2017) of waste-to-energy rationales’, in N. Johansson and R. Ek (eds), Perspectives on waste from the social sciences and humanities:Opening the Bin, Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Press, pp 98–117.
Rogers, H. (2006) Gone Tomorrow: The Hidden Life of Garbage, New York: New Press; Signature Book Services.
Rollinson, A. and Oladejo, J. (2020) ‘Chemical recycling: status, sustainability, and environmental impacts’, Global Alliance for Incinerator Alternatives.
Rosenfeld, J. (2013) ‘Statistics on truck accident fatalities’, [online], Available from: https://www.rosenfeldinjurylawyers.com/news/commercial-truck-fatality-statistics/ [Accessed 22 March 2017].
Roth, W.M. and Désautels, J. (2004) ‘Educating for citizenship: reappraising the role of science education’, Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education, 4(2): 149–68.
Roush, W. (2019) ‘Wait, plastic can be good for the environment?’, Scientific American, [online], 1 December, Available from: https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/wait-plastic-can-be-good-for-the-environment/ [Accessed 21 December 2020].
Rowe, R.K. (2012) ‘Third Indian Geotechnical Society: Ferroco Terzaghi oration design and construction of barrier systems to minimize environmental impacts due to municipal solid waste leachate and gas’, Indian Geotechnical Journal, 42(4): 223–56.
Royer, S-J., Ferrón, S., Wilson, S.T. and Karl, D.M. (2018) ‘Production of methane and ethylene from plastic in the environment’, PLoS ONE, 13(8): e0200574.
Salafia, C.M. and Vintzileos, A.M. (1990) ‘Why all placentas should be examined by a pathologist in 1990’, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 163: 1282–93.
Samuel, G., Kerridge, I. and O’Brien, T. (2011) ‘Ethical issues surrounding umbilical cord blood donation and banking’, in N. Bhattacharya and P. Stubblefield (eds) Regenerative Medicine Using Pregnancy-Specific Biological Substances, London: Springer, pp 443–52.
Sarkodie, S.A. and Owusu, P.A. (2020) ‘Impact of meteorological factors on COVID-19 pandemic: evidence from top 20 countries with confirmed cases’, Environmental Research, 191: 1–7.
Saul, G. (2018) ‘Environmentalists, what are we fighting for?’, George Cedric Metcalf Charitable Foundation, October, pp 1–56.
Scalinci, S.Z., Scorolli, L., Corradetti, G., Domanico, D., Vingolo, E.M., Meduri, A., Bifani, M. and Siravo, D. (2011) ‘Potential role of intravitreal human placental stem cell implants in inhibiting progression of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes: neuroprotective growth factors in the vitreous’, Clinical Ophthalmology, 5: 691–6.
Schliesmann, P. (2011a) ‘Reduce, reuse, revamp?’, Kingston Whig-Standard, [online], 19 July, Available from: http://www.thewhig.com/2011/07/19/reduce-reuse-revamp [Accessed 3 September 2013].
Schliesmann, P. (2011b) ‘Roots of mass recycling can be traced to Kitchener man’, Kingston Whig-Standard, 18 July, 104.
Schliesmann, P. (2012) ‘Special report: green challenge’, Kingston Whig-Standard, [online], 12 March, Available from: http://www.thewhig.com/2012/03/12/special-report-green-challenge [Accessed 3 September 2013].
Schneider-Mayerson, M. (2013) ‘Disaster movies and the “peak oil” movement: does popular culture encourage eco-apocalyptic beliefs in the United States?’, Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture, 7(3): 289–314.
Shell (nd) ‘Pennsylvania petrochemical complex’, [online], Available from: https://www.shell.com/about-us/major-projects/pennsylvania-petrochemicals-complex.html [Accessed 9 March 2021].
Sheu, J. and Kuo, H. (2020) ‘Dual speculative hoarding: a wholesaler–retailer channel behavioural phenomenon behind potential natural hazard threats’, International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 44: 1–10.
Silva, A.L.P., Prata, J.C., Walker, T.R., Duarte, A.C., Ouyang, W., Barcelo, D. and Rocha-Santos, T. (2020) ‘Increased plastic pollution due to COVID-19 pandemic: challenges and recommendations’, Chemical Engineering Journal, 405: 1–9.
Simpson, A. (2014) Mohawk Interruptus: Political Life across the Borders of Settler States, Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Skill, K. (2008) ‘(Re)Creating ecological action space: householders’ activities for sustainable development in Swedent’. PhD thesis, Linköping University, Sweden.
Smil, V. (2016) Energy Transitions: Global and National Perspectives, Second Edition. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Smith, R.J. (1982) ‘The risks of living near Love Canal’, Science, 217: 808–9, 811.
Sohrabi, C., Alsafi Z., O’Neill, N., Khan, M., Kerwan, A., Al-Jabir, A., Iosifidis, C. and Agha, R. (2020) ‘World Heath Organization declares global emergency: a review of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19)’, International Journal of Surgery, 76: 71–6.
Solomon, B.D., Andrén, M. and Strandberg, U. (2012) ‘Three decades of social science research on high-level nuclear waste: achievements and future challenges’, Risk, Hazard, and Crisis in Public Policy, 1(4): 13–47.
Statistics Canada (2012) ‘Human activity and the environment’, [online], Available from: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/16-201-x/16-201-x2012000-eng.htm [Accessed 14 May 2021].
Statistics Canada (2020) ‘Canadian consumers prepare for COVID-19’, [online], Available from: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/en/pub/62f0014m/62f0014m2020004-eng.pdf?st=tk2_Wyh_ [Accessed 9 March 2021].
Staub, C. (2021) ‘Surprise rise: paper and plastic exports up to start 2021’, Resource Recycling, [online], 9 March, Available from: https://resource-recycling.com/recycling/2021/03/09/surprise-rise-paper-and-plastic-exports-up-to-start-2021/ [Accessed 9 March 2021].
Stein, M. (2008) When Technology Fails: A Manual for Self-Reliance, Sustainability and Surviving the Long Emergency, White River Junction: Chelsea Green Publishing.
Stengers, I. (2005) ‘The cosmopolitical proposal’, in B. Latour and P. Weibel (eds), Making Things Public, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp 994–1003.
Stopline3.org (nd) ‘Stop the Line 3 pipeline’, [online], Available from: https://www.stopline3.org/ [Accessed 18 May 2021].
Stow, J.P., Sova, J. and Reimer, K.J. (2005) ‘The relative influence of distant and local (DEW-line) PCB sources in the Canadian Arctic’, Science of the Total Environment, 342(1–3): 107–18.
Strasser, S. (1999) Waste and Want: A Social History of Trash, New York: Henry Holt and Company.
Sullivan, P. (2020) ‘Wealthy fliers worried about coronavirus turn to private jet service’, New York Times, [online], 30 May, Available from: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/30/your-money/coronavirus-private-jets.html [Accessed 9 March 2021].
Supran, G. and Oreskes, N. (2020) Reply to Comment on ‘Assessing ExxonMobil’s climate change communications (1977–2014)’ Supran and Oreskes (2017) Environment Research Letters, 15(11): 118002.
Switzer, J. (2008) ‘Having a little enviro-guilt can be a good thing’, Kingston Whig-Standard, 16 July, 1–2.
Szasz, A. (2007) Shopping Our Way to Safety: How We Changed from Protecting the Environment to Protecting Ourselves, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Tactical.com (nd) ‘A complete beginner’s guide to prepping’, [online], Available from: https://www.tactical.com/complete-beginners-guide-to-prepping/ [Accessed 26 October 2020].
Takai, Y., Tsutsumi, O., Ikezuki, Y., Hiroi, H., Osuga, Y., Momoeda, M., Yano, T. and Taketani, Y. (2000) ‘Estrogen recipient-mediated effects of a Xenoestrogen, Bisphenol A on preimplantation mouse embryos’, Biochemistry and Biophysical Research Communications, 270(3): 918–21.
Tellefsen, C.H. and Vogt, C. (2011) ‘How important is placental examination in cases of perinatal deaths?’, Pediatric and Developmental Pathology, 14: 99–104.
Thompson, E.P. (1966) The Making of the English Working Class, New York: Vintage Books.
Thompson, J. and Anthony, H. (2008) ‘The health effects of waste incineration’, Fourth Report of the British Society for Ecological Medicine (2nd edn), [online], Available at: http://www.ecomed.org.uk/content/IncineratorReport_v3.pdf [Accessed 2 October 2012].
Thomson, V.E. (2009) Garbage in, Garbage Out: Solving the Problems with Long-Distance Trash Transport, Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press.
Tibbetts, J. (2013) ‘Garbage collection is “one of the most hazardous jobs”’, CMAJ, 185(7): E284.
Todd, Z. (2016) ‘An indigenous feminist’s take on the ontological turn: “ontology” is just another word for colonialism’, Journal of Historical Sociology, 29(1): 4–22.
Toh, M. (2020) ‘“It’s crazy”: panic buying forces stores to limit purchases of toilet paper and masks’, CNN, [online], 6 March, Available from: https://www.cnn.com/2020/03/06/business/coronavirus-global-panic-buying-toilet-paper/index.html [Accessed 26 October 2020].
Tompkins, J. (2019) ‘Just one word: plasticurious’, Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, Available from: https://monitormag.ca/articles/just-one-word-plasticurious/ [Accessed 5 January 2020].
Toomey, C. (2008) ‘It’s easier than you think to put a lid on coffee cup waste’, Kingston Whig-Standard, 17 November, 1–2.
Tourism Montréal (nd) [online], Available from: https://www.mtl.org/en/what-to-do/activities/frederic-back-park-montreal [Accessed 11 May 2021].
Tuhiwai Smith, L. (2012) Decolonizing Methodologies: Research and Indigenous Peoples, 2nd edn, London: Zed Books.
UNCTAD (2020) ‘Growing plastic pollution in wake of COVID-19: how trade policy can help’, [online], 27 July, Available from: https://unctad.org/news/growing-plastic-pollution-wake-covid-19-how-trade-policy-can-help [Accessed 6 May 2021].
UNESCO International School of Science for Peace (1998) ‘Nuclear disarmament, safe disposal of nuclear materials or new weapons developments? Where are the national laboratories going?’, Edited by P.C. Ramusino, G. Gherardi, A. Lantieri V. Kouzminov, M. Martellini and R. Santesso, Venice: UNESCO Venice Office.
UNHCR (2016) ‘UNHCR: Global Trends, Forced Displacement in 2016’, [online], Available from: http://www.unhcr.org/5943e8a34.pdf
US Chamber of Commerce (2020) ‘Multi-association letter to Minister Mary Ng on CEPA plastics issue’, [online], Available from: https://www.uschamber.com/comment/multi-association-letter-minister-mary-ng-cepa-plastics-issue [Accessed 24 May 2021].
US Department of Energy (2006) ‘Recycling paper and glass’, [online], Available from: http://www.eia.doe.gov/kids/energyfacts/saving/recycling/solidwaste/paperandglass.html [Accessed 15 September 2012].
US Energy Information Administration (2020) ‘Frequently Asked Questions’, [online], Available from: https://www.eia.gov/tools/faqs/faq.php?id=34&t=6
Van Ewijk, S. and Stegemann, J. (2014) ‘Limitations of the waste hierarchy for achieving absolute reductions in material throughput’, Journal of Cleaner Production, 132: 122–8.
Van Oostdam, J., Donaldson, S.G., Feeley, M., Arnold, D., Ayotte, P., Bondy, G., Chan, L, Dewaily, É., Furgal, C.M., Kuhnlein, H., Loring, E., Muckle, G., Myles, E., Receveur, O., Tracy, B., Gill, U. and Kalhok, S. (2005) ‘Human health implications of environmental contaminants in Arctic Canada: a review’, Science of the Total Environment, 351–2: 165–246.
Van de Poel, I. (2008) ‘The bugs eat the waste: what else is there to know? Changing professional hegemony in the design of sewage treatment plants’, Social Studies of Science, 38(4): 605–34.
van Wyck, P. (2005) Signs of Danger: Waste, Trauma, and Nuclear Threat, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Vendries, J., Sauer, B., Hawkins, T., Allaway, D., Canepa, P., Rivin, J. and Mistry, M. (2020) ‘The significance of environmental attributes as indicators of the life cycle environmental impacts of packaging and food service ware’, Environmental Science and Technology, 54: 5356–64.
Vigdor, N. (2020) ‘A hoarder’s huge stockpile of masks and gloves will now go to doctors and nurses, F.B.I. says’, New York Times, 2 April, Available from: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/02/nyregion/brooklyn-coronavirus-price-gouging.html [Accessed 24 May 2021].
Villareal, D. (2020) ‘Ukrainian church leader who blamed COVID-19 on gay marriage tests positive for virus’, NBC News, [online], 8 September, Available from: https://www.nbcnews.com/feature/nbc-out/ukrainian-church-leader-who-blamed-covid-19-gay-marriage-tests-n1239528 [Accessed 6 May 2021].
Wagner, S. (2019) ‘Can you own a private jet if you care about climate change?’, BNN Bloomberg, [online], 22 December, Available from: https://www.bnnbloomberg.ca/can-you-own-a-private-jet-if-you-care-about-climate-change-1.1365986 [Accessed 6 May 2021].
Wang, M., Yang, Y., Yang, D., Luo, F., Liang, W., Guo, S. and Xu, J. (2008) ‘The immunomodulatory activity of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro’, Immunology, 126: 220–32.
Wapner, P. (1996) ‘Toward a meaningful ecological politics’, Tikkun, 11(3): 21–2.