Resisting AI
An Anti-fascist Approach to Artificial Intelligence
Author: Dan McQuillan

Index

Author: Dan McQuillan

This book is call to resist AI. The operations of deep learning cause collateral damage in ways that can’t be fixed, and its takeup by institutions increases social precarity and structural violence. Instead of helping to address our current crises, AI produces states of exception that determine people’s life chances, becoming part of fascistic solutions to social problems. The book sets out an anti-fascist approach to AI that replaces computational exclusions with feminist matters of care. It proposes a programme of workers’ and people’s councils as a way to restructure AI according to principles of mutual aid and solidarity. By prioritising the commons over abstract optimisation, the book outlines a new apparatus that would help us to adapt to our changing times by supporting social autonomy.

A

abstraction 49
adversarial examples 3031
Agamben, Giorgio 75, 77, 86
AI Act (EU) 3839
Airbnb 7778
Alexa 24
AlexNet 18, 20, 22, 6970
algorithmic governance 1920
Alibaba Cloud 23
Alphabet 90
AlphaFold software 100
AlphaGo 22, 94
Amazon
driver surveillance 4142
marketing of AI 52
worker activism 123, 125
working conditions 25, 5354, 132
Amazon Mechanical Turk 13, 24
Amazon Web Services (AWS) 23
anti-fascist AI
overview 57, 135136
commoning 122, 142145
identifiable qualities 136140
people’s councils on AI 127129
preliminary description of new apparatus 146148
and structural renewal 140142
anti-fascist movements 133
Arendt, Hannah 6263
Argentina, social intervention 137138
Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) 8991, 93
asylum system see border regimes
auditing 45
Australia, robodebt program 5960
Austria, welfare system 57

B

Babbage, Charles 25
Babylon Health 44
backpropagation 2022
Barad, Karen 111114
Bayesian statistics 93
Bell Curve, The 89
Benjamin, Ruha 91
Benjamin, Walter 8081
Bergson, Henri 43
BERT algorithm 23
Bezos, Jeff 25
Binet, Alfred 88
Black-Scholes equation 55
Bohr, Neils 112
border regimes 3839, 77, 98, 123, 138
bureaucracy, AI use in 5760
see also welfare services
bureaucratic nature of AI 6064
Butler, Judith 111

C

capitalism 6465, 85
Capitalist Realism 4445
carbon emissions 23
carceral systems 3334, 7981
carcerality of AI 8182
care 115117
causal inference 19
causation 3940
cheating by AI 2930
CIA 23
citizens’ juries 128
Clearview AI 92
click-farms 13, 2325
climate crisis
ecological impact of AI 52, 100
and new apparatus for AI 146147
potential threat of AI 100102
cloud computing 22, 23
coloniality of AI 6465, 85
see also decolonial approach to AI
common sense 19
commoning 122, 142145
COMPAS algorithm 3334
connectionist AI 18
convivial technology 142
COP26 conference 146147
correlations 3940
COVID-19
and care work 117
and necropolitics 8284
and solving of problems 114115
and tech solutionism 44
and welfare services 58, 74
and worker activism 120, 125
critical pedagogy 114
Crowdflower 24
crowdsourcing 13, 2325

D

Darwin, Charles 86
data surveillance 1314
datafication 51
datasets
creation of 1314
inclusivity and representation 1213, 50
reductive nature of 14, 4950
see also training data
decolonial approach to AI 136137
deep learning
development 16, 18
energy demands 2223
fragilities 2731
technical fixes 3135
future potential 1819
meaning 16
method of operation 1617, 18, 19
opacity 3132
optimization 18, 2223, 2930
scale of operations 2022
universality 1718
DeepMind 90, 94, 100
Deleuze, Gilles 43
Deliveroo 5253, 61, 123
design decisions 3536
disabilities, and COVID-19 83
driver surveillance 4142, 53

E

ecofascism 101102
ecological impact of AI 52, 100
Eichmann, Adolf 63
8chan (message board) 95
energy consumption 2223
epistemic injustice 6062
ethics 3435
eugenics 8692
European Union 3839, 98

F

facial recognition 12, 18, 123
false positives and false negatives 36
Fanon, Frantz 65
fascism 63, 97100, 133
fascization of AI 57, 97100, 101102
see also anti-fascist AI ; necropolitical tendencies of AI
feature engineering 16
Feminist Anti-Fascism Assembly 138
feminist approach to AI 137139
feminist science 105107, 109114
feminist social structures 129
financial markets 42, 5456
Fisher, Mark 4445
Fisher, Ronald 8788
fossil fascism 101
fragilities in AI 2731
technical fixes 3135
Fricker, Miranda 6061
Funtowicz, Silvio 107109

G

Galton, Francis 70, 86, 87
Gamergate 95
gaming industry 18, 22
Gebru, Timnit 35
gender recognition systems 64, 77
gendered nature of AGI 9091
see also feminist approach to AI
genetic determinism 6669
Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) 6869
Gilmore, Ruth Wilson 85
Global North 51
Global South 24, 5152
Google 23, 35, 123
Gould, Stephen Jay 69
GPT-3 language model 23
Grant, Madison 8687
Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) 18
Green AI 52
ground truth 29

H

Hampton, Fred 136
Haraway, Donna 109110
Harding, Sandra 107
Hassabis, Demis 100
healthcare services
and AI solutionism 44
and COVID-19 8284
and false conclusions of AI 3132
and necropolitics 85
and proxy measures 29
and punitive redlining 77, 7879
Heidegger, Martin 4950
hermeneutical injustice 61
High Level Expert Group on AI 38
Hollerith punch card machines 99
homophily 66
‘human in the loop’ 3738
hyperparameters 23

I

Illich, Ivan 141142
ImageNet challenge 13, 14
immigation see border regimes
Indonesia, mutual aid 120
insurance industry 54, 77
IQ 8889
Italy, asylum seekers 77

J

Jünger, Ernst 9899

K

Kafka, Franz, The Trial 5657
Kuhn, Thomas 48

L

labour practices 13, 2325, 5254, 123
Land, Nick 94, 96
Landauer, Gustav 120, 124
language models 23
language translation 18, 44
legal regulation 3839
LessWrong (blog) 93
LGBT-free zones 7677
Linnaeus, Carl 70
Lombroso, Cesare 70
loss function 15
Lucas Aerospace 125126
Lucas Plan 126, 141
Luddite movement 129133

M

MacDougald, Park 96
machine learning 1012, 1416
see also deep learning
Martin, Randy 55
matters of care 115117
Mbembe, Achille 85, 86
Meituan 5253
Microsoft 23, 52, 137
Musk, Elon 94
mutual aid 119121

N

NarxCare database 7879
necropolitical tendencies of AI 8286
see also fascization of AI
necropolitics 85
neoliberalism 5152, 64
neoreaction 9497
Netherlands, welfare system 58
Netradyne camera 4142
neural architecture search 23
neural networks
development 16, 18
energy demands 2223
fragilities 2731
technical fixes 3135
future potential 1819
method of operation 1617, 18, 19
opacity 3132
optimization 18, 2223, 2930
scale of operations 2022
universality 1718
new materialism 110114
no-fly lists 76
Northpointe 33

O

ojol collectives (Jakarta) 120
OpenAI 8990, 94
optimization 1416, 18, 2223, 2930
Ostrom, Elinor 144

P

Palantir 92
paradigms 48
paranoia 5657
Partnership on AI 35
Pearson, Karl 87
people’s councils on AI 127129
Perceptron algorithm 16
performativity 4243
Plataforma Tecnológica de Intervención Social (Argentina) 137138
Poland, LGBT-free zones 7677
policing systems 7981
population optimization 8485
post-normal science 107110
precaritization 5157
Predpol 80
prison systems 3334, 7981
proxies 2829
psychosocial consequences 5657

Q

quantum mechanics 112114

R

race science 6971
racial bias
and COVID-19 8384
predictive policing 7980
and proxies for health 29
redlining 7779
and statistical balancing 3334
racialization
and AGI 9091
AI as technology of 6566
and capitalism 6465
and genetic determinism 6669
and IQ 89
and necropolitics 85
Ravetz, Jerry 107109
redlining 7779
reductionism 14, 4950
refugees see border regimes
regulation of AI 3839
representations in AI 1213, 50
research funding 16
robodebt program 5960
Rojava 129
Rosenblatt, Frank 16

S

Sandifer, Elizabeth 9394
Schaffer, Simon 24
Schmidt, Eric 95
Schmitt, Carl 75, 98
Schroedinger, Erwin 60
scientism 4751
securitization 79
self-driving cars 18, 24, 28, 54
shortcuts, use of 2930
ShotSpotter 7980
Siri 24
Slate Star Codex (blog) 93
smart homes 18
Social Darwinism 86
social media 24, 56, 77
social services see welfare services
sociogenomics 6869
solidarity 121122
solidarity economies 143144
solutionism 4045
Spain, electricity subsidies 57
Spearman, Charles 88
speech recognition 18
Spencer, Herbert 86
standpoint theory 105107, 109110
states of exception 7479
Stengers, Isabelle 102, 115
stochastic gradient descent 18, 21
surveillance see data surveillance ; driver surveillance
Sweden, welfare system 57
symbolic AI 18
symbolic manipulation 19
SyRI (System Risk Indication) 58
system risk 5760

T

tech solutionism 4344
tensors 19
testimonial injustice 61
Thatcher, Margaret 74
Thiel, Peter 92, 94, 95
Toledo, Adam 80
training data 1112, 15, 18, 2223, 28
trans community 6364
Transformation Strategy (UK) 73
Troubled Families programme 4041, 61
Trump, Donald 122123

U

Uber 28, 52, 5354, 123
ultrarationalism 9294, 97
United Kingdom
asylum system 77
Biobank 68
healthcare system 44, 8384
and procedural nature of law 39
welfare system 4041, 58, 61, 63, 7374
United States 3334, 76, 89, 91, 92, 122123

V

vectors 19, 3233
Venezuela, crowdsourcing 24

W

Weber, Max 60
welfare services 4041, 5760, 63, 7274, 8586
White supremacy 65, 90, 94, 97
Whitehead, Alfred North 49
Winner, Langdon 141
word embeddings 3233
worker activism 122123
workers’ councils 124127
working conditions 13, 2325, 5254, 123

Y

Yarvin, Curtis 96
Yudkowsky, Eliezer 93, 94
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