Webster (2007) argues that black offenders, who end up in the criminal justice system and prison, are disproportionately represented compared to their numbers in the population. Patel and Tyrer (2011) express the view that when race enters the ‘othering’ process, particularly within the context of crime and deviancy, it is important to consider the roots of racially charged concepts that disproportionately target minority groups such as black people. Similarly, Gabbidon and Taylor-Greene (2012) argue that the disenfranchisement of black people involved in crime is ideologically driven as a way of bolstering the carceral estate. Tonry (2011) proposes that these ‘racial disparities’ are unjustifiable and are more about the maintenance of political dominance over blacks. Tonry concludes by arguing that the visualization of black people through the media, film, and TV has created a culture that views black people as criminals and as being predisposed to anti-social behaviour. Marable (1995) also suggests that inequality for black people involved in crime is based on black male stereotypes that white society imposes via institutions, and says the wider social structure generates the type of inequality that produces subordination for black people within the criminal justice system. If the picture painted of black criminality as aggressive, nihilistic, and purely criminal enterprise embeds itself in the consciousness of society and constructs racialized typographies of people as ‘criminal’, what are the consequences for the way black offenders achieve parity? Valdes et al (2002) argue that academics, activists, and artists must enable the subordinated person through a critical examination of black offenders’ own understandings so that their redemptive aspirations can be appropriately identified and understood.
Adams, T.E., Ellis, C. and Jones, S.H. (2017) The International Encyclopedia of Communication Research Methods (1–10), Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.
Agnew, R. (2006) Storylines As a Neglected Cause of Crime, Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 43(2): 119–47.
Agozino, B. (2010) What is Criminology? A Control-Freak Discipline!, African Journal of Criminology of Criminal Justice Studies, 4(1): 1–20.
Akbar, N. (1991) Visions for Black Men, Tallahassee, FL: Mind Productions.
Akom, A. (2008) Black Metropolis and Mental Life: Beyond the Burden of ‘Acting White’ – Toward a Third Wave of Critical Racial Studies, Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 39(3): 247–65.
Alexander, M. (2010) The New Jim Crow – Mass incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness, New York, NY: The New Press.
Allen, R. (2001) The Concept of Self – A Study of Black Identity and Self-esteem, Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press.
Allison, H. (1948) Corollary, Ellery Queen Mystery Magazine, 12(56): 84–101.
Alvesson, M. and Skoldberg, K. (2009) Reflexive Methodology: New Vistas for Qualitative Research, London: Sage.
Anderson, E. (1990) Streetwise: Race, Class, and Change in an Urban Community, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Anderson, E. (1999) Code of the Street: Decency, Violence, and the Moral Life of the Inner City, New York, NY: Norton.
Anderson, E. (2015) The White Space, Sociology of Race and Ethnicity, 1(1): 10–21.
Asante, M.K. (1987) The Africentric Idea, Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
Banton, M. (1987) Racial Theories, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Barak, G. (1991) Cultural Literacy and a Multi-Cultural Inquiry into the Study of Crime and Justice, Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 2(2): 173–92.
Baraka, A. (2011) The Black Arts Movement, Its Meaning and Purpose, Journal of Contemporary African Art, 29: 23–31.
Barnes S.L., Robinson, Z.F. and Wright, E. (2014) Repositioning Race: Prophetic Research in a Post Racial Obama Age, New York, NY: SUNY Press.
Becker, H. (1963) Outsiders: Studies in Sociology and Deviance, New York, NY: Free Press.
Bell, D. (1992) Faces at the Bottom of the Well: The Permanence of Racism, New York, NY: Basic Books.
Bell, D. (1995) Critical Race Theory: The Key Writings that Formed the Movement, New York, NY: The New Press.
Boal, A. (2000) Theatre of the Oppressed, London: Pluto.
Bobo, J., Hudley, C. and Michel, C. (2004) The Black Studies Reader, New York, NY: Routledge.
Bochner, A. (2014) Coming to Narrative – A Personal History of Paradigm Changes in the Human Sciences, Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press.
Bonner, A. and Tolhurst, G. (2002) Insider/Outsider Perspectives of Participant Observation, Nurse Researcher, 9(4): 7–19.
Bosworth, M., Bowling , B. and Lee, M. (2008) Globalization, Ethnicity and Racism: An Introduction, Theoretical Criminology, 12(3): 263–73.
Bowling, B. and Phillips, C. (2002) Racism, Crime, and Justice, London: Longman.
Brown, L. and Strega, S. (2005) Research as Resistance: Critical, Indigenous, and Anti-Oppressive Approaches, Toronto: Canadian Scholars Press.
Brown, W. (2013) An Intersectional Approach to Criminological Theory: Incorporating the Intersectionality of Race and Gender into Agnew’s General Strain Theory, Supreme Court’s Adjudication on Section IV of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, 4(1): 1–15.
Browning, S. and Cao, L. (1992) The Impact of Race and Criminal Justice Ideology, Justice Quarterly, 9(4): 685–701.
Bruce, J.E. (1908) The Black Sleuth, Boston, MA: North Eastern University Press.
Carbado D.W. and Roithmayr D. (2014) Critical Race Theory Meets Social Science, Annual Review of Law and Social Science, 10: 149–67.
Carr, W. and Kemmis, S. (1986) Becoming Critical: Education, Knowledge and Action Research, Lewes: Falmer Press.
Carrabine E. (2016) Changing Fortunes: Criminology and the Sociological Condition, Sociology, 50(5): 847–62.
Carrington, K., Hog, R. and Sozzo, M. (2016) Southern Criminology, The British Journal of Criminology, 56(1): 1–20.
Cashmore, E. (1997) The Black Cultural Industry, London: Routledge.
Chang, H. (2008) Auto Ethnography as Method, Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press .
Chilisa, B. (2012) Indigenous Research Methodologies, London: Sage.
Choo, H. and Ferree, M. (2010) Practising Intersectionality in Sociological Research: A Critical Analysis of Inclusions, Interactions, and Institutions in the Study of Inequalities, Sociological Theory, 28(2): 129–49.
Clark, K. (1965) Dark Ghetto – Dilemmas in Social Power, New York, NY: Harper and Row.
Colvin, S. (2015) Why Should Criminology Care About Literary Fiction? Literature, Life Narratives and Telling Untellable Stories, Punishment & Society, 17(2): 211–29.
Connell, R.W. (2003) Masculinities, Cambridge: Polity Press.
Conquergood, D. (2013) Cultural Struggles: Performance, Ethnography , Praxis, Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Counsell, C. and Wolf, L. (2001) Performance Analysis: An Introductory Coursebook, London: Routledge.
Covington, J. (1995) Racial Classification in Criminology: The Reproduction of Racialised Crime, Sociological Forum, 10(4): 547–68.
Crawford, M.N. (2017 )Black Post Blackness: The Black Arts Movement and Twenty First Century Aesthetics, Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press.
Crenshaw, K. (1999) Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence Against Women of Color, Stanford Law Review, 43(6): 1241–99.
Cruse, H. (1967) The Crisis of the Negro Intellectual, New York, NY: Quill.
Cunneen, C. (2011) Postcolonial Perspectives for Criminology. In: Bosworth M. and Hoyle C. (eds) What Is Criminology?, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp 249–66.
Cunneen, C. and Tauri, J. (2016) Indigenous Criminology, Bristol: Policy Press.
Curry, T. (2017) The Man-Not: Race, Class, Genre, and the Dilemma’s of Black Manhood, Philadelphia, PN: Philadelphia Press.
Dean, J. (2017) Doing Reflexivity: An Introduction, Bristol: Policy Press.
Defranz, T.F. and Gonzalez, A. (2014) Black Performance Theory, Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Delgado, R. and Stefancic, J. (2000) Critical Race Theory: The Cutting Edge, Philadephia, PA: Temple University Press.
Delgado, R. and Stefancic, J. (2005) The Role of Critical Race Theory in Understanding Race, Crime, and Justice Issues , New York, NY: John Jay College.
Denzin, N.K. (2003a) Performance Ethnography: Critical Pedagogy and the Politics of Culture, London: Sage.
Denzin, N.K. (2003b) Performing [Auto] Ethnography Politically , The Review of Education, Pedagogy and Cultural Studies, 25: 257–78.
Denzin, N.K. (2010) The Qualitative Manifesto – A Call to Arms, Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press.
Denzin, N.K. (2014) Interpretative Autoethnography, London: Sage.
Denzin, N.K. and Lincoln, Y. (1999) The Handbook of Qualitative Research, London: Sage .
Denzin, N. and Giardina, M.D. (2017) Qualitative Inquiry in Neoliberal Times, London: Routledge.
Drake, D. and Walters, R. (2017) Deviant Knoweldge. In: Brisman, A., Caribbine, E. and South, N. (eds) The Routledge Companion to Criminological Theory and Concepts, Abingdon: Routledge , pp 267–9.
Dubois, W.E.B. (1938) The Souls of Black Folk ,New York, NY: Norton.
Dunbar, P. (1892) Lyrics of a Lowly Life, New York, NY: Citadel Press.
Duneier, M. and Back, L. (2006) Voices From the Sidewalk: Ethnography and Writing Race, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 29(3): 543–65.
Ellingson, L. (2017) Embodiment in Qualitative Research, Abingdon: Routledge.
Ellison, R. (1947) Invisible Man, London: Penguin.
Emirbayer, M. and Desmond, M. (2012) Race and Reflexivity, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 35(4): 574–99.
Erikson, E.H. (1950) Childhood And Society, London: Vintage.
Fanon, F. (1952) Black Skin, White Masks, London: Pluto.
Ferell, J. (2014) Manifesto for a Criminology Beyond Method. In: Jacobsen, M.H. (ed) The Poetics of Crime: Understanding and Researching Crime and Deviance Through Creative Means, Abingdon: Routledge, pp 285–302.
Ferell, J., Hayward, K. and Young, J. (2008) Cultural Criminology, London: Sage.
Fisher, M. (2012) The Land Still Lies: Handsworth Songs and the English Riots, Sight and Sound, London: BFI. https://www.bfi-staging.org.uk/news-opinion/sight-sound-magazine/comment/land-still-lies-handsworth-songs-and-english-riots
Fisher, R. (1932) The Conjure-Man Dies: A Mystery Tale of Dark Harlem, New York, NY: Ayer Company Publishers, Inc.
Ford, C. (1999) The Hero With an African Face, New York, NY: Bantam Books.
Franklin, A. (2004) From Brotherhood to Manhood – How Black Men Rescue Their Relationships and Dreams from the Invisibility Syndrome, New York, NY: Wiley.
Freire, P. (1970) Pedagogy of the Oppressed, London: Penguin.
Gabbidon, S. (2007) Criminological Perspectives on Race and Crime, New York, NY: Routledge.
Gabbidon, S. and Taylor Greene, H. (2012) Race and Crime, London: Sage.
Gabbidon, S., Greene, H. and Wilder, K. (2004) Still Excluded? An Update on the Status of African American Scholars in the Discipline of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 41(4): 384–405.
Gabbidon, S., Greene, H. and Young, V. (2002) African American Classics in Criminology and Criminal Justice, New York, NY: Sage.
Garner, S. (2009) Racisms: An Introduction, London: Sage.
Gifford, J. (2013) Pimping Fictions: African American Crime Literature and the Untold Story of Black Pulp, Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
Gillespie, M.B. (2006) Film Blackness: American Cinema and the Idea of Black Film, Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Gilroy, P. (1987) There Ain’t No Black in the Union Jack, London: Routledge.
Gilroy, P. (2008) The Myth of Black Criminality. In: Spasek, B. (ed) Ethnicity and Crime, Berkshire: McGraw-Hill Education, pp 113–27.
Glasgow, D. (1980) The Black Underclass: Poverty, Unemployment and Entrapment in Ghetto Youth, New York, NY: Vintage Books.
Glynn, M. (2010) Breaking the Fourth Wall, London: Winston Churchill Trust.
Glynn, M. (2014) Black Men, Invisibility, and Desistance from Crime: Towards a Critical Race Theory of Desistance, London: Routledge .
Glynn, M. (2016) Towards an Intersectional Model of Desistance for Black Offenders, Safer Communities, 15(1): 24–32.
Glynn, M. (2019) Speaking Data and Telling Stories: Data Verbalization for Researchers, Abingdon: Routledge.
Glynn, M. (2020a) Dunbar was Right. In: Farmer, V.L. and Farmer, E.S.W. (eds) Critical Race Theory in the Academy, Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing, Inc, pp 535–47.
Glynn, M. (2020b) Midnight Spiral: A Franklin Mystery, Birmingham: Algorhythm.
Goffman, E. (1959) The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life, London: Penguin.
Green, L. (2010) The Sound of Silence: A Framework for Researching Sensitive Issue or Marginalised Perspectives in Health, Journal of Research in Nursing, 16(4): 347–60.
Gunaratham, Y. (2003) Researching Race and Ethnicity: Methods, Knowledge, and Power, London: Sage.
Hall, S. (1978) Policing the Crisis, London: Macmillan.
Hall, S. (1993) What is the ‘Black’ in Black Popular Culture? Social Justice, 20(1–2): 104–14.
Hare, N. (1973) The Challenge of the Black Scholar. In: Ladner, J. (ed) The Death of White Sociology, Baltimore, MD: Black Classic Press , pp 67–77.
Harris, T. (1991) The Selected Works of Ida B. Wella-Barnett, New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Harrison, P.C. (2014) Toward a Critical Vocabulary for African Diaspora Expressivity, The Journal of African Diaspora Drama, Theatre and Performance, 1(1): 1–14.
Hartney, C. and Vuong, L. (2009) Created Equal: Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the US Criminal Justice System, US: National Council on Crime and Delinquency.
Hill-Collins, P. (2000) Black Feminist Thought , New York, NY: Routledge.
Hill-Collins, P. (2005) Black Sexual Politics: African Americans, Gender and the New Racism, New York, NY: Routledge.
Himes, C. (1975) Black on Black: Baby Sister and Selected Writings, London: Michael Joseph Ltd.
Home Office (2006) Young Black People and the Criminal Justice System, London: Blackwell Systems.
hooks, b. (1991) Yearning – Race, Gender, and Cultural Politics, Boston, MA: South End Press.
hooks, b (2004) We Real Cool: Black Men and Masculinity, New York, NY: Routledge.
Hopkins, P. (1901) Hagar’s Daughter: A Story of Southern Caste Prejudice, Boston, MA: Colored American Magazine.
Hutchinson, E.O. (1994) The Association of Black Male Image, New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.
Jacobsen, M.H. (2014) The Poetics of Crime: Understanding and Researching Crime and Deviance Through Creative Means, Abingdon: Routledge.
Jones, L. (1963) Blues People: Negro Music in White America, New York, NY: William Morrow and Company.
Kitwana, B. (2002) The Hip-Hop Generation: Young Blacks and the Crisis in African American Culture, New York, NY: Perseus Books.
Kodwo, E. (2003) Further Considerations on Afrofuturism, CR: The New Centennial Review, 3(2): 287–302.
Kutner, R. (1967) Race and Modern Science, New York, NY: Social Science Press.
Ladner, J.A. (1973) The Death of White Sociology, Essays on Race and Culture, Baltimore, MD: Black Classic Press.
Lammy, D. (2017) The Lammy Review: An Independent Review into the Treatment of, and Outcomes for, Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic Individuals in the Criminal Justice System, London: Home Office.
Lawrence, K.O. (2011) Race, Crime and Punishment in America: Breaking the Connection in America, Washington, DC: The Aspen Institute.
Liamputtong, P. (2010) Performing Qualitative Cross-Cultural Research, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lombardo, R. (2002) The Black Mafia: African-American Organized Crime in Chicago 1890–1960, Crime, Law & Social Change, 38: 33–65.
Lorde, A. (1984) Sister Outsider, London: Penguin Classics.
Lynch, M.J. (2000) The Power of Oppression: Understanding the History of Criminology as a Science of Oppression, Critical Criminology, 9(1): 144–52.
Lynn, M. (2005) Critical Race Theory, Afrocentricity, and Their Relation to Critical Pedagogy. In: Leonardo, Z. (ed) Critical Pedagogy and Race, Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, pp 127–40.
Mann, C.R. (1984) Female Crime and Delinquency, Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press.
Marable, M. (1995) Beyond Black and White: Transforming African American Politics, London: Verso.
Marable, M. (2001) Black Studies and the Racial Mountain, Souls, 2(3): 17–36.
Marriot, D. (2005) On Black Men, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Maruna, S. (2001) Making Good – How Ex-convicts Reform and Rebuild Their Lives, Washington, DC: APA.
Maruna, S. (2010) Reentry as a Rite of Passage, Punishment and Society, 1: 1–26.
Maruna, S. and Immarigeon, R. (2004) After Crime and Punishment, Cullompton: Willan Publishing.
Maruna, S. and Roy, K. (2006) Amputation or Reconstruction? Notes on the Concept of ‘Knifing Off’ and ‘Desistance’, Crime Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 22 (2): 1–21.
Mauer, M. (1999) Race To Incarcerate, New York, NY: The New Press.
Mauthner, N.S. and Doucet A. (2003) Reflexive Accounts and Accounts of Reflexivity in Qualitative Data Analysis, Sociology, 37(3): 413–31.
McAdams, D.P. (1985) Power, Intimacy, and the Life Story, London: Guildford Press.
McCoy, M.P. (1999) Black Picket Fences: Privilege and Peril Among the Black Middle Class, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
McGregor, R. (2020) Criminological Fiction: What Is It Good For? Journal of Theoretical & Philosophical Criminology, 12 (January): 18–36.
Mills, C.W. (1959) The Sociological Imagination, New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Ministry of Justice (2020) Tackling Racial Disparity in the Criminal Justice System: 2020 Update, London: Ministry of Justice.
Monroe N.W. (1900) Crime Among the Negroes of Chicago: A Social Study, American Journal of Sociology, 6(2): 204–23.
Mordhorst, M. (2008) From Counterfactual History to Counternarrative History, Management and Organisational History, 3(1): 5–26.
Moses, E.R. (1936) Community Factors in Negro Delinquency, The Journal of Negro Education, 5(2): 220–27.
Motley, W. (1947) Knock on Any Door, Chicago, IL: Northern Illinois University Press.
Neal, L. (1968) The Making of African American Identity, The Black Arts Movement, National Humanities Center Resource Toolbox, III: 1–2.
O’Brien, E.L. (2008) Crime in Verse: The Poetics of Murder in the Victorian Era, Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press.
Oliver, W. (1989) Black Males and Social Problems: Prevention through Afrocentric Socialization , Journal of Black Studies, 20(1): 15–39.
Olusoga, D. (2016) Black and British: A Forgotten History, London: MacMillan.
Neuman, M. (1996) Collecting Ourselves at the End of the Century. In: Ellis C. and Bochner A. (eds) Composing Ethnography: Alternative Forms of Qualitative Writing, London: Alta Mira Press, pp 172–98.
Parham, T. (1989) Cycles of Psychological Nigrescence, The Counseling Psychologist, 17(2): 187–226.
Park-Fuller, L. (2000) Performing Absence: The Staged Personal Narrative as Testimony, Text and Performance Quarterly, 20: 20–42.
Parmar A. (2016) Race, Ethnicity and Criminal Justice: Refocussing the Criminological Gaze. In: Bosworth M., Hoyle C. and Zedner L. (eds) Changing Contours of Criminal Justice, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp 55–69.
Patel, T. and Tyrer, D. (2011) Race, Crime, and Resistance, London: Sage.
Paternoster, R. and Bushbay, S. (2009) Desistance and the ‘Feared Self’: Toward an Identity Theory of Criminal Desistance, Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 99(4): 1103–56.
Peaker, A. (1998)Nuff Respect: The Creative and Rehabilitative Needs of Black Offenders, Loughborough: The Unit for Arts and Offenders.
Penzler, O. (2009) Black Noir: Mystery, Crime and Suspense Fiction by African American Writers, New York, NY: Pegasus Press.
Petersilia, J. (2001) Prisoner Re-entry: Public Safety and Reintegration Challenges, The Prison Journal, 81(3): 360–75.
Petry, A. (1946) The Street, New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Phillips, C. and Bowling, B. (2003) Racism, Ethnicity, and Criminology: Developing Minority Perspectives, British Journal of Criminology, 43(2): 269–90.
Phillips, C. and Webster, C. (2014) New Directions in Race, Ethnicity and Crime, London: Routledge.
Phillips, C., Earle, R., Parmar, A. and Smith, D. (2020) Dear British Criminology: Where Has All the Race and Racism Gone?, Theoretical Criminology, 24(3): 427–44.
Pietila, A. (2010) Not in My Neighbourhood, Chicago, IL: Ivan R. Dee.
Pinnock, D. (1997) Gang Rituals and Rites Of Passage, South Africa: Africa Sun Press.
Polk, K. (1999) Males and Honor Contest Violence, Homicide Studies, 2(1): 6–29.
Presser, L. and Sandberg, S. (2015) Narrative Criminology: Understanding Stories of Crime, New York, NY: NYU Press.
Pryce, K. (1979) Endless Pressure, London: Penguin.
Ramdarshan, M. (2019) Representation of People of Colour Among Children’s Book Authors and Illustrators, London: BookTrust.
Rich, J. (2009) Wrong Place, Wrong Time: Trauma and Violence in the Lives of Young Black Men, Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Richey-Mann, C. (1984) Female Crime and Delinquency, Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press.
Robinson, G. (1919) Music and Crime, The Journal of Education, 89(18): 485–6.
Russell, K. (2002) Development of a Black Criminology: The Role of the Black Criminologist. In: Gabbidon, S., Greene, H. and Young, V. (eds) African American Classics in Criminology and Criminal Justice, New York: Sage, pp 667–83.
Russell-Brown, K. (2002) The Colour of Crime, New York, NY: Sage .
Russell-Brown, K. (2019) Black Criminology in the 21st Century. In: Unnever, J.D., Gabbidon, S.L. and Chouy, C. (eds) Building a Black Criminology, New York, NY: Routledge, pp 101–23.
Saldana, J. (2005) Ethno-Drama – An Anthology of Reality Theatre, New York, NY: Rowman and Littlefield.
Saldana, J. (2009) The Coding Manual for Qualitative Researchers, London: Sage.
Saldana, J. (2011) Ethnotheatre: From Page to Stage, Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press.
Saleh-Hanna, V. (2010) Crime, Resistance and Song: Black Musicianship’s Black Criminology, Sociology of Crime, Law and Deviance, 14: 145–71.
Sampson, R.J. and Lauritsen, J.L. (1997) Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Crime and Criminal Justice in the United States, Crime and Justice, 21: 311–74.
Sampson, R.J. and Wilson, J. (1995) Toward a Theory of Race, Crime, and Urban Inequality, Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.
Sampson, R., Wilson, W. and Katz, H. (2018) Reassessing ‘Toward a Theory of Race, Crime, and Urban Inequality’: Enduring and New Challenges in 21st Century America, Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race, 15(1): 13–34. doi:10.1017/S1742058X18000140.
Sentencing Project (2008) Reducing Racial Disparity in the Criminal Justice System: A Manual for Practitioners and Policymakers, Washington, DC: The Sentencing Project.
Serrant-Green, L. (2010) The Sound of Silence: A Framework for Researching Sensitive Issue or Marginalised Perspectives in Health, Journal of Research in Nursing, 16(4): 347–60.
Siegal, L. and Zalmon, M. (1991) Cultural Literacy in Criminal Justice: A Preliminary Assessment, Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 2(1): 15–44.
Solorzano, D. and Yosso, T. (2002) Critical Race Methodology: Counterstorytelling as an Analytical Framework, Qualitative Inquiry, 8(1): 23–44.
Spence, L. (2010) White Space, Black Space, The Urbanite, 68: 43–5.
Spry, T. (2001) Performing Autoethnography: An Embodied Methodological Praxis, Qualitative Inquiry, 7(6): 706–32.
Staples, R. (1960) White Racism, Black Crime, and American Justice: An Application of the Colonial Model to Explain Crime and Race, Phylon, 36(1): 14–22.
Thompson, J. (1998) Prison Theatre: Perspectives and Practices, London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
Thornberry, T. (1990) Cultural Literacy in Criminology, Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 1(1): 33–49.
Tierra, A. de la and Henne, K. (2017) Southern Theory. In: Brisman, A., Caribbine, E. and South, N. (eds) The Routledge Companion to Criminological Theory and Concepts, Abingdon: Routledge, pp 381–5.
Tonry, M. (2011) Punishing Race: A Continuing American Dilemma, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Travis, J., McBride, E. and Solomon, A. (2005) Families Left Behind: The Hidden Costs of Incarceration and Re-entry, Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
Turner, V. (1969) The Ritual Process: Structure and Anti-Structure, New York, NY: De Gruyter.
Ugwu, C. (1995) Let’s Get It On: The Politics of Black Performance, Seattle, WA: Bay Press.
United Nations (1997) Caribbean Social Structures and the Changing World of Men, CDCC, United Nations.
Unnever, J.D. and Gabbidon, S.L. (2011) A Theory of African American Offending – Race, Racism, and Crime, New York, NY: Routledge.
Unnever, J.D., Gabbidon, S.L. and Chouy, C. (2019) Building a Black Criminology :Race, Theory, and Crime, New York, NY: Routledge.
Valdes, F., Culp, J. and Harris, A. (2002) Crossroads, Directions and a New Critical Race Theory, Philadelphia, PA: Temple Press.
Webster, C. (2007) Understanding Race and Crime, Maidenhead: Open University Press.
West, C. (1993) Race Matters, Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
Wilson, A. (1994) Black on Black Violence, New York, NY: Afrikan World Info Systems.
Woods, P.L. (1996) Spooks, Spies, and Private Eyes: An Anthology of Black Mystery, Crime and Suspense Fiction of the 20th Century, Edinburgh: Payback Press.
Young, J. (2011) The Criminological Imagination, Cambridge: Polity Press.
Zamudo, M., Russell, C., Rios, F. and Bridgeman, J. (2011) Critical Race Theory Matters: Education and Ideology, London: Routledge.
Zinn, H. (1959) Race, New York, NY: Seven Stories Press.
Zoboi, I. and Salaam, Y. (2020) Punching the Air, London: Harper Collins.
|May 2022 onwards||Past Year||Past 30 Days|
|Full Text Views||0||0||0|