In the previous chapter, we considered some of the pressures that criminal justice practitioners faced and the resultant negative impact on the criminal process. The chapter examined problems stemming from inadequate legal aid and the way that this undermined criminal legal practice. In this chapter, we consider how those pressures impact upon relationships – operating within the parameters imposed by underfunding – between different parties in the criminal process.
Within this chapter we examine the experiences of ‘others’ in the criminal process, specifically those accused of committing criminal offences, interrogating how various parties within the criminal process understood their own experiences and those of others. The roles of actors within the criminal justice system may have a bearing on the values within the system (McConville and Marsh, 2014). In particular, the shift between ‘due process’ to ‘criminal control’ has signalled an anti-accused ideology with increasing police corruption, decreasing evidential standards, lawyers’ antagonism towards clients, harsher sentences, and inducements for guilty pleas (McConville and Marsh, 2014). Indeed, previous research has pointed towards the need to investigate interactions between key actors in a holistic manner (Newman and Ugwudike, 2013).1 Through examining interactions and relationships, we can understand how the process is experienced and, crucially, how it operates.
A prominent subject emerging from our research is how important it is for good relations to be built between various actors. While individuals and parties to the process may hold different worldviews and possess varying responsibilities, it was evident that essential to the functioning of the criminal justice system was the establishment of some common ground.
Alge, D. (2013) Negotiated Plea Agreements in Cases of Serious and Complex Fraud in England and Wales: A New Conceptualisation of Plea Bargaining? European Journal of Current Legal Issues, 19(1), 1–18.
Allport, G. (1979) The Nature of Prejudice. New York, NY: Basic Books.
Ashworth, A. (1996) Legal Aid, Human Rights and Criminal Justice. In Young, R. and Wall, D. (eds.) Access to Criminal Justice. London: Blackstone Press Ltd, 55–69.
Ashworth, A. (2006) Four Threats to the Presumption of Innocence. International Journal of Evidence and Proof, 10(4), 241–78.
Ashworth, A. and Redmayne, M. (2010) The Criminal Process. 4th edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Baldwin, J. and McConville, M. (1977) Negotiated Justice. London: Martin Robertson.
Bar Council (2017) Barristers’ Working Lives 2017: Third survey of barristers’ attitudes towards their working lives. Available at: https://www.barcouncil.org.uk/uploads/assets/694001c1-7e81-4f21-8709602e7d9238ee/working-lives-2017.pdf. Accessed 06/08/2020.
Bar Council (2020) About Barristers. Available at: https://www.barcouncil.org.uk/about/about-the-bar/about-barristers.html. Accessed 01/08/2020.
Bar Standards Board (2016) Women at the Bar. London: Bar Standards Board.
Barton, A., Storey, D. and Palmer, C. (2011) A Trip in the Country? Policing Drug Use in Rural Settings. In Mawby, R. and Yarwood, R. (eds.) Rural Policing and Policing the Rural. Aldershot: Ashgate, 147–58.
BBC (2017) Student Liam Allan to sue after rape trial collapse. BBC Online, 18 December. Available at: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-london-42399802. Accessed 06/08/2020.
BBC (2019) Extra 300 police officers to be recruited by 2021. BBC Online, 9 October. Available at: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-49993027. Accessed 01/08/2020.
Beck, E., Blackwell, B., Leonard, P. and Mears, M. (2002–2003) Seeking Sanctuary: Interviews with Family Members of Capital Defendants. Cornell Law Review, 88(2), 382–418.
Becker, H. (1963) Outsiders: Studies in the Sociology of Deviance. London: Free Press of Glencoe.
Bell, E. (2011) Criminal Justice and Neoliberalism. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Bennett, L. and Layard, A. (2015) Legal Geography: Becoming Spatial Detectives. Geography Compass, 9(7), 406–22.
Best, D., Irving, J. and Albertson, K. (2017) Recovery and Desistance: What the Emerging Recovery Movement in the Alcohol and Drug Area Can Learn from Models of Desistance from Offending. Addiction Research and Theory, 25(1), 1–10.
Binder, A., Bergman, P., Price, S.C. and Tremblay, P.R. (2004) Lawyers as Counsellors: A Client-Centred Approach. St. Paul, MN: West.
Bird, J. (2021) Why it’s time for a law to protect our future generations. The Big Issue, 5 January. Available at: https://www.bigissue.com/opinion/why-its-time-for-a-law-to-protect-our-future-generations/. Accessed 02/06/2021.
Birmingham, L., Gray, J., Mason, D. and Grubin, D. (2000) Mental Illness at Reception into Prison. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 10(2), 77–87.
Blackstock, J., Cape, E., Hodgson, J., Ogorodova, A. and Spronken, T. (2014) Inside Police Custody: An Empirical Account of Suspects’ Rights in Four Jurisdictions. Cambridge: Intersentia.
Blaustone, B. (1990) To Be of Service: The Lawyer’s Aware Use of the Human Skills Associated with the Perceptive Self. Journal of the Legal Profession, 15, 241–84.
Blyth, M. (2013) Austerity: The History of a Dangerous Idea. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Blumer, H. (1969) Symbolic Interactionism: Perspective and Method. Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press.
Boni-Le Goff, I., Lépinard, E., Le Feuvre, N. and Mallard, G. (2020) A Case of Love and Hate: Four Faces of Alienation Among Young Lawyers in France and Switzerland. Law and Social Inquiry, 54(2), 279–303.
Boon, A. (2002) Ethics in Legal Education and Training: Four Reports, Three Jurisdictions and a Prospectus. Legal Ethics, 5(1), 34–67
Boon, A. (2005) From Public Service to Service Industry: The Impact of Socialisation and Work on the Motivation and Values of Lawyers. International Journal of the Legal Profession, 12(2), 229–60.
Booth, N. (2018) Family Matters: A Critical Examination of Family Visits for Imprisoned Mothers and Their Families. Prison Service Journal, 238, 10–15.
Booth, N. (2020) Maternal Imprisonment and Family Life: From the Caregiver’s Perspective. Bristol: Policy Press.
Bottoms, A. (1995) The Philosophy and Politics of Punishment and Sentencing. In Clarkson, C. and Morgan, R. (eds.) The Politics of Sentencing Reform. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 17–49.
Bowcott, O. (2015) Legal aid fees to be cut by 8.75%, confirms Ministry of Justice. The Guardian, 10 June. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/law/2015/jun/10/legal-aid-fees-to-be-cut-by-875-confirms-ministry-of-justice. Accessed 06/08/2020.
Bowcott, O. (2018) Legal aid: how has it changed in 70 years? The Guardian, 26 December. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/law/2018/dec/26/legal-aid-how-has-it-changed-in-70-years. Accessed 01/08/2020.
Bowcott, O. (2020) Legal profession hits back at Johnson over ‘lefty lawyers’ speech. The Guardian, 6 October. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/law/2020/oct/06/legal-profession-hits-back-at-boris-johnson-over-lefty-lawyers-speech. Accessed 20/10/2020.
Bowcott, O. and Duncan, P. (2019) Half of magistrates courts in England and Wales closed since 2010. The Guardian, 27 January. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/law/2019/jan/27/half-of-magistrates-courts-in-england-and-wales-closed-since-tories-elected. Accessed 04/11/2020.
Bowen, P. and Whitehead, S. (2013) Better Courts: Cutting Crime Through Court Innovation. London: Centre for Justice Innovation.
Bowling, B., Reiner, R. and Sheptycki, J. (2019) The Politics of the Police. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Boyum, K. (1979) A Perspective on Civil Delay in Trial Courts. Justice System Journal, 5(2), 170–85.
Braun, V. and Clarke, V. (2006) Using Thematic Analysis in Psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3, 77–101.
Braverman, I. (2014) Who’s Afraid of Methodology? Advocating a Methodological Turn in Legal Geography. In Bravermen, I., Blomley, N., Delaney, D. and Kedar, A. (eds.) The Expanding Spaces of Law: A Timely Legal Geography. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 120–41.
Brewster, D. and Jones, R. (2019) Distinctly Divergent or Hanging onto English Coat-tails? Drug Policy in Post-devolution Wales. Criminology and Criminal Justice, 19(3), 364–81.
Brogden, M. and Ellison, E. (2013) Policing in an Age of Austerity. A Postcolonial Perspective. Abingdon: Routledge.
Brooker, C. and Webster, R. (2017) Prison Mental Health In-reach teams, Serious Mental Illness and the Care Programme Approach in England. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, 50, 44–8.
Brown, K. (2015) Vulnerability and Young People: Care and Social Control in Policy and Practice. Bristol: Policy Press.
Brown, W. (2015) Undoing the Demos: Neoliberalism’s Stealth Revolution. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Buozis, M. (2017) Giving Voice to the Accused: Serial and the Critical Potential of True Crime. Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies, 14(3), 254–70.
Cain, M. (1983) The General Practice Layer and the Client: Towards a Radical Conception. In Dingwall, R. and Lewis, P. (eds.) The Sociology of the Professions. London: Macmillan, 106–30.
Campbell, J. (2020) Entanglements of Life with the Law: Precarity and Justice in London’s Magistrates’ Courts. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Cape, E. (2004) Overview: Is Reconciliation Possible? In Cape, E. (ed.) Reconcilable Rights? Analysing the Tension between Victims and Defendants. London: Legal Action Group/Oxford University Press.
Cape, E. (2013) Designing Out Defence Lawyers. In Robins, J. (ed.) No Defence: Lawyers and Miscarriages of Justice. London: Wilmington Publishing, 14–17.
Cape, E. and Moorhead, R. (2005) Demand Induced Supply? Identifying Cost Drivers in Criminal Defence Work. London: Legal Services Commission.
Carlen, P. (1976) Magistrates’ Justice. London: Martin Robertson and Co.
Chaney, P. (2009) Equal Opportunities and Human Rights: The First Decade of Devolution in Wales. Cardiff: Equality and Human Rights Commission. Available at: http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/wales/publication. Accessed 01/08/2020.
Choongh, S. (1997) Policing as Social Discipline. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Christie, N. (1986) The Ideal Victim. In Fattah, E. (ed.) From Crime Policy to Victim Policy. London: Macmillan, 17–30.
Church, T. (1982) Examining Local Legal Culture: Practitioner Attitudes in Four Criminal Courts. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice.
Clare, I., Gudjonsson, G.H. and Harari, P.M. (1998) Understanding of the Current Police Caution. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 8, 323–9.
Cloward, R. and Ohlin, L. (1960) Delinquency and Opportunity. New York, NY: The Free Press.
Coates, S. (2016) Unlocking Potential: A Review of Education in Prison Mental Health In-reach Teams, Serious Mental Illness and the Care Programme Approach in England. London: Ministry of Justice.
Cohen, A. (1955) Delinquent Boys: The Culture of the Gang. New York, NY: The Free Press.
Collier, R. (2005) ‘Be Smart, Be Successful, Be Yourself ...’?: Representations of the Training Contract and Trainee Solicitor in Advertising by Large Law Firms. International Journal of the Legal Profession, 12(1), 51–92.
Collier, R. (2020) Anxiety in the Legal Community – A Study of Junior Lawyers, Legal Practice, and Legal Education. In Davies, A. (ed.) Lawyer Health and Wellbeing: How the Legal Profession Is Tackling Stress and Creating Resiliency. London: Ark Publishing, 89–100.
Comfort, M. (2016) ‘A Twenty-Hour-a-Day Job’: The Impact of Frequent Low-Level Criminal Justice Involvement on Family Life. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 65(1), 63–79.
Commission on Justice in Wales (2019) Justice in Wales for the People in Wales. Cardiff: Welsh Government. Available at: https://gov.wales/sites/default/files/publications/2019-10/Justice%20Commission%20ENG%20DIGITAL_2.pdf. Accessed 06/08/20.
CONDEM (2014) State of the Nation Report: Poverty, Worklessness and Welfare Dependency in the UK. Available at: https://www.bristol.ac.uk/poverty/downloads/keyofficialdocuments/CONDEM%20-poverty-report.pdf. Accessed 03/ 08/ 2020.
Cooke, E. (2019) The Changing Occupational Terrain of the Legal Aid Lawyer in Times of Precariousness. PhD thesis. University of Kent.
Copson, L. (2014) Penal Populism and the Problem of Mass Incarceration: The Promise of Utopian Thinking. The Good Society, 23(1), 55–72.
Courts and Tribunals Judiciary (undated). Available at: https://www.judiciary.uk/you-and-the-judiciary/going-to-court/magistrates-court/#:~:text=Virtually%20all%20criminal%20court%20cases%20start%20in%20a,jury.%20Magistrates%20deal%20with%20three%20kinds%20of%20cases%3A. Accessed 01/08/2020.
Cram, F. (2020) The ‘Carrot’ and ‘Stick’ of Integrated Offender Management: Implications for Police Culture. Policing and Society, 30(4), 378–95.
Crockett, N. (2017) Cardiff Bay: What has 30 years of development achieved? BBC, 13 August. Available at: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-40681940. Accessed 02/12/2020.
Cullen, F.T., Jonson, C.L. and Nagin, D.S. (2011) Prisons Do Not Reduce Recidivism: The High Cost of Ignoring Science. The Prison Journal, 91(3), 48S–65S.
Currie, E. (1985) Confronting Crime: An American Challenge. New York, NY: Pantheon.
Darbyshire, P. (2000) The Mischief of Plea Bargaining and Sentencing Rewards. Criminal Law Review, November, 895–910.
Darbyshire, P. (2011) Sitting in Judgment: The Working Lives of Judges. Oxford: Hart Publishing.
Davies, J. (2007) Hanes Cymru. London: Penguin.
Davies, R., Jones, M., Parhi, M., Taylor, C., Drinkwater, S. et al. (2011) An Anatomy of Economic Inequality in Wales. Wales Institute of Social and Economic Research and Data. Available at: https://wiserd.ac.uk/research/research-projects/anatomy-economic-inequality-wales. Accessed 01/08/2020.
Daw, C. (2020) Justice on Trial: Radical Solutions for a System at Breaking Point. London: Bloomsbury.
Dearden, L. (2018) UK’s ‘creaking’ criminal justice system needs urgent funding increase, outgoing CPS head Alison Saunders says. The Independent, 28 October. Available at: https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/crime/crime-prosecutions-uk-police-cps-budget-cuts-criminal-justice-system-alison-saunders-a8605276.html. Accessed 01/08/2020.
Dehaghani, R. (2017) ‘Vulnerable by Law but Not by Nature’: Examining Child and Youth Vulnerability in the Context of Police Custody. Journal of Social Welfare and Family Law, 39(4), 454–72.
Dehaghani, R. (2019) Vulnerability in Police Custody: Police Decision-making and the Appropriate Adult Safeguard. Abingdon: Routledge.
Dehaghani, R. (2021) Interrogating Vulnerability: Reframing the Vulnerable Suspect in Police Custody. Social and Legal Studies, 24(4), 417–40.
Dehaghani, R. and Newman, D. (2017) ‘We’re Vulnerable Too’: An (Alternative) Analysis of Vulnerability within English Criminal Legal Aid and Police Custody. Oñati Socio-Legal Series, 7(6), 1199–228.
Dehaghani, R. and Newman, D. (2021a) The Crisis in Legally Aided Criminal Defence in Wales: Bringing Wales into Discussions of England and Wales. Legal Studies, 41(2), 234–51.
Dehaghani, R. and Newman, D. (2021b) Criminal Legal Aid and Access to Justice: An Empirical Account of a Reduction in Resilience, International Journal of the Legal Profession, DOI:
Dehaghani, R. and White, A. (2020) Police Outsourcing and Labour Force Vulnerability. In Phillips, J., Albertson, K. and Corcoran, M. (eds.) Marketisation and Privatisation in Criminal Justice. Bristol: Policy Press, 107–18.
Denscombe, M. (2002) Ground Rules for Good Research: A 10 Point Guide for Social Researchers. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Devereux, A., Tucker, J., Moorhead, R. and Cape, E. (2009) Quality Assurance for Advocates. London: Legal Services Commission.
Dickins, S. (2017) What happens next with Wales’ EU funding? BBC Online, 2 June. Available at: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-40105919. Accessed 20/07/2020.
Dixey, R. and Woodall, J. (2012) The Significance of ‘the Visit’ in an English Category-B Prison: Views from Prisoners, Prisoners’ Families and Prison Staff. Community, Work and Family, 15(1), 29–47.
Dixon, D. (1997) Law in Policing: Legal Regulation and Police Practices. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Dodd, V. (2017) Britain’s police budgets to lose £700m by 2020, amid rising crime. The Guardian, 9 November. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2017/nov/09/britains-police-budgets-to-lose-700m-by-2020-amid-rising. Accessed 01/08/2020.
Dodd, V. (2018) Policing at ‘tipping point’ over budget cuts, warns police chief. The Guardian, 10 October. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2018/oct/10/policing-at-tipping-point-over-budget-cuts-warns-police-chief. Accessed 01/08/2020.
Donnermeyer, J., Barclay, E. and Mears, D. (2011) Policing Agricultural Crime. In Mawby, R. and Yarwood, R. (eds.) Rural Policing and Policing the Rural. Aldershot: Ashgate, 193–204.
Donnermeyer, J., Scott, J. and Barclay, E. (2013) How Rural Criminology Informs Critical Thinking in Criminology. International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy, 2(3), 69–91.
Dugan, E (2019) This Leaked Report Says Moving Justice Online Might Lead to Innocent People Pleading Guilty. BuzzFeed, 18 January. Available at: https://www.buzzfeed.com/emilydugan/leaked-report-says-moving-justice-online-could-lead-to. Accessed 01/08/2020.
Duggan, M. (2018) Victim Hierarchies in the Domestic Violence Disclosure Scheme. International Review of Victimology, 24, 199–217.
Duggan, M. and Grace, J. (2018) Assessing Vulnerabilities in the Domestic Violence Disclosure Scheme. Child and Family Law Quarterly, 30, 145–66.
Durkheim, E. (1964) The Division of Labour in Society. Glencoe: The Free Press.
Economides, K., Blacksell, M. and Watkins, C. (1986) The Spatial Analysis of Legal Systems: Towards a Geography of Law? Journal of Law and Society, 13(2), 161–81.
Edmondson, C. (1996) Rural Courts, the Rural Community and the Challenge of Change. In McDonald, T., Wood, R. and Pflug, M. (eds.) Rural Criminal Justice: Conditions, Constraints and Challenges. Salem, WI: Sheffield Publishing Company, 93–111.
Eisenstein, J. (1982) Research on Rural Criminal Justice: A Summary. In Green, R., Jankovic, J. and Cronk, S. (eds.) Criminal Justice in Rural America. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, 105–43.
Elliott-Davies, M., Donnelly, J., Boag-Munroe, F. and Van Mechelen, D. (2016) ‘Getting a Battering’: The Perceived Impact of Demand and Capacity Imbalance within the Police Service of England and Wales: A Qualitative Review. The Police Journal, 89(2), 93–116.
Equality and Human Rights Commission (2011) How Fair is Wales? Equality, Human Rights and Good Relations. Available at: https://www.equalityhumanrights.com/en/publication-download/how-fair-wales-2011-equality-human-rights-and-good-relations. Accessed 01/08/2020.
Evans, J., Jones, R. and Haines, K. (2017) The Criminal Justice System in Wales. In Case, S., Johnson, P., Manlow, D., Smith, R. and Williams, K. (eds.) Criminology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2–19.
Evans, J., Jones, R. and Musgrove, N. (2021) ‘Dragonisation’ Revisited: A Progressive Criminal Justice Policy in Wales? Criminology and Criminal Justice, forthcoming, 1–18.
Fabian Society (2017) The Right to Justice: The Final Report of the Bach Commission. London: Fabian Society.
Fahnestock, K. and Geiger, M. (1993) We All Get Along Here: Caseflow in Rural Courts. Judicature, 76(5), 258–63.
Farnsworth, K. and Irving, Z. (2015) Introduction: Social Policy in the Age of Austerity. In Farnsworth, K. and Irving, Z. (eds.) Social Policy in Times of Austerity: Global Economic Crisis and the New Politics of Welfare. Bristol: Policy Press, 1–8.
Farnsworth, K. and Irving, Z. (2018) Austerity: Neoliberal Dreams Come True? Critical Social Policy, 38(3), 461–81.
Farrington, D. (1995) The Development of Offending and Antisocial Behaviour from Childhood: Key Findings from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 36(6), 929–64.
Feeley, M.M. (1979) The Process Is the Punishment: Handling Cases in a Lower Criminal Court. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.
Fenn, P., Gray, A. and Rickman, N. (2007) Standard Fees for Legal Aid: An Empirical Analysis of Incentives and Contracts. Oxford Economic Papers, 12 June.
Field, S. and Brants, C. (2016) Truth-finding, Procedural Traditions and Cultural Trust in the Netherlands and England and Wales: When Strengths Become Weaknesses. International Journal of Evidence and Proof, 20(4), 266–88.
Findley, K.A. and Scott, M.S. (2006) The Multiple Dimensions of Tunnel Vision in Criminal Cases. Wisconsin Law Review, 2, 291–397.
Fineman, M.A. (2008) The Vulnerable Subject: Anchoring Equality in the Human Condition. Yale Journal of Law and Feminism, 20(1), 1–24.
Fineman, M.A. (2010) The Vulnerable Subject and the Responsive State. Emory Law Journal, 60, 1–41.
Fineman, M.A. (2013) Equality, Autonomy, and the Vulnerable Subject in Law and Politics. In Fineman, M.A. and Grear, A. (eds.) Vulnerability: Reflections on a New Ethical Foundation for Law and Politics. Farnham: Ashgate, 12–28.
Fineman, M.A. (2017) Vulnerability and Inevitable Inequality. Oslo Law Review, 4(3), 133–49.
Finkelstein, R. (2011) The Adversarial System and the Search for Truth. Monash University Law Review, 37(1), 135–43.
Flower, L. (2018) Doing Loyalty: Defense Lawyers’ Subtle Dramas in the Courtroom. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 47(2), 226–54.
Flower, L. (2019) Interactional Justice: The Role of Emotions in the Performance of Loyalty. Abingdon: Routledge.
Flynn, A. and Freiberg, A. (2018) Plea Negotiations: Pragmatic Justice in an Imperfect World. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Forrester, A., Till, A., Simpson, A. and Shaw, J. (2018) Mental Illness and the Provision of Mental Health Services in Prisons. British Medical Bulletin, 127(1), 101–9.
Forstenlechner, I. and Lettice, F. (2008) Well Paid but Undervalued and Overworked: The High and Lows of Being a Junior Lawyer in a Leading Law Firm. Employee Relations, 30(6), 640–52.
Fouzder, M. (2019) Falconer: my ‘regret’ over Labour’s effort to curb legal aid budget. Law Society Gazette, 31 May. Available at: https://www.lawgazette.co.uk/news/falconer-my-regret-over-labours-effort-to-curb-legal-aid-budget/5070458.article. Accessed 20/07/2020.
Fouzder, M. (2020) ‘Woefully inadequate’: profession reacts to £50m criminal legal aid offer. Law Society Gazette, 28 February. Available at: https://www.lawgazette.co.uk/news/woefully-inadequate-profession-reacts-to-50m-criminal-legal-aid-offer/5103273.article. Accessed 20/10/2020.
Francis, A. and Sommerlad, H. (2009) Access to Legal Work Experience and Its Role in the (Re)production of Legal Professional Identity. International Journal of the Legal Profession, 16(1), 63–86.
Francis, R. and Fleck, J. (2021) Vicarious Trauma in the Legal Profession: A Practical Guide to Trauma, Burnout and Collective Care. London: Legal Action Group.
Franklin, A. and Lee, R. (2007) The Embedded Nature of Rural Legal Services: Sustaining Service Provision in Wales. Journal of Law and Society, 34(2), 218–43.
Fyfe, N. and Reeves, A. (2011) The Thin Green Line? Police Perceptions of the Challenges of Policing Wildlife Crime in Scotland. In Mawby, R. and Yarwood, R. (eds.) Rural Policing and Policing the Rural. Aldershot: Ashgate, 169–82.
Garland, D. (2001) The Culture of Control: Crime and Social Order in Contemporary Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Geertz, C. (1973) The Interpretation of Culture. New York, NY: Basic Books.
Gibbs, P. (2016) Justice Denied? The Experience of Unrepresented Defendants in the Criminal Courts. London: Transform Justice.
Gibbs, P. (2017) Defendants on Video: Conveyor Belt Justice or a Revolution in Access? London: Transform Justice.
Gibbs, P. and Ratcliffe, F. (2019) Criminal Defence in an Age of Austerity: Zealous Advocate or Cog in a Machine? London: Transform Justice.
Gilboy, J. and Schmidt, J. (1979) Replacing Lawyers: A Case Study of Sequential Representation of Criminal Defendants. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 70, 1–26.
Goffman, E. (1990) The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. London: Penguin.
Goffman, E. (1991) Asylums. London: Penguin Books.
Gordon, F. (2018) Children, Young People and the Press in a Transitioning Society: Representations, Reactions and Criminalisation. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Gordon-Bouvier, E. (2020) Relational Vulnerability: Theory, Law and the Private Family. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Goriely, T. (1996) The Development of Criminal Legal Aid in England and Wales. In Young, R. and Wall, D. (eds.) Access to Criminal Justice. London: Blackstone Press Ltd, 26–54.
Grant, H. (2020) Home secretary’s ‘dangerous’ rhetoric ‘putting lawyers at risk’. The Guardian, 6 October. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2020/oct/06/home-secretarys-dangerous-rhetoric-putting-lawyers-at-risk. Accessed 20/10/2020.
Gray, A., Fenn, P. and Rickman, N. (1996) Controlling Lawyers’ Costs through Standard Fees: An Economic Analysis. In Young, R. and Wall, D. (eds.) Access to Criminal Justice. London: Blackstone Press Ltd, 192–216.
Griffiths, J. (1970) Ideology in Criminal Procedure or A Third ‘Model’ of the Criminal Process. Yale Law Journal, 79, 359–417.
Haines, K. and Case, S. (2008) The Rhetoric and Reality of the ‘Risk Factor Prevention Paradigm’ Approach to Preventing and Reducing Youth Offending. Youth Justice, 8(1), 5–20.
Hall, S. (2011) ‘The Neo-Liberal Revolution’. Cultural Studies, 25(6), 705–28.
Hanlon, G. and Jackson, J. (1999) Last Orders at the Bar? Competition, Choice and Justice for All – The Impact of Solicitor-Advocacy. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies, 19(4), 555–82.
Harris, N., Dehaghani, R. and Newman, D. (2021) Vulnerability, the Future of the Criminal Defence Profession, and the Implications for Teaching and Learning. The Law Teacher, 55(1), 57–67.
Harvey, D. (2006) A Brief History of Neoliberalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Helm, R.K. (2019) Constrained Waiver of Trial Rights? Incentives to Plead Guilty and the Right to a Fair Trial. Journal of Law and Society, 46(3), 423–47.
Henham, R. (1998) Human Rights, Due Process and Sentencing. British Journal of Criminology, 38(4), 592–610.
Hester, R. (1999) Policing New Age Travellers: Conflict and Control in the Countryside. In Dingwall, G. and Moody, S. (eds.) Crime and Conflict in the Countryside. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 130–45.
Heumann, M. (1978) Plea Bargaining. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Hillyard, P., Pantazis, C., Tombs, S. and Gordon, D. (eds.) (2004) Beyond Criminology: Taking Harm Seriously. London: Pluto Press.
Hillyard, P., Sim, J., Tombs, S. and Whyte, D. (2004) Leaving a ‘Stain Upon the Silence’: Contemporary Criminology and the Politics of Dissent. British Journal of Criminology, 44(3), 369–90.
Hodgetts, C. and MacPartholán, C. (2021) An Evolution in Devolution? Welsh Criminal Justice and the Commission on Justice in Wales. Criminal Law Review, 1, 34–55.
Hodgson, J. (1994) Adding Injury to Injustice: The Suspect at the Police Station. Journal of Law and Society, 21, 85–101.
Hoggett, P. (1996) New Modes of Control in the Public Service. Public Administration, 74(1), 9–32.
Holder, J. and Harrison, C. (2003) Law and Geography. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Holmberg, U. and Christianson, S. (2002) Murderers’ and Sexual Offenders’ Experiences of Police Interviews and Their Inclination to Admit or Deny Crimes. Behavioural Sciences and the Law, 20(1–2), 31–45.
Home Office (2019) Home Office announces first wave of 20,000 police officer uplift. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/news/home-office-announces-first-wave-of-20000-police-officer-uplift. Accessed 01/08/2020.
Hough, M. (2013) Procedural Justice and Professional Policing in Times of Austerity. Criminology & Criminal Justice, 13(2), 181–97.
Hough, M., Jackson, J., Bradford, B., Myhill, A. and Quinton, P. (2010) Procedural Justice, Trust and Institutional Legitimacy. Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, 4(3), 203–10.
Howard League (2019) Revealed: The Scale of Prison Overcrowding in England and Wales. Available at: https://howardleague.org/news/revealed-the-scale-of-prison-overcrowding-in-england-and-wales/. Accessed 05/08/2020.
Howells, C. (2019) Cyfraith Howell (The Laws of Hywel Dda), c. 940. In Rackley, E. and Auchmuty, R. (eds.) Women’s Legal Landmarks: Celebrating the History of Women and Law in the UK and Ireland. Oxford: Hart Publishing, 25–32.
Hoyle, C. (1998) Negotiating Domestic Violence. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hunter, G., Jacobson, J. and Kirby, A. (2018) Judicial Perceptions of the Quality of Criminal Advocacy. London: Institute for Criminal Policy Research.
Hynes, J., Gill, N. and Tomlinson, J. (2020) In Defence of the Hearing? Emerging Geographies of Publicness, Materiality, Access and Communication in Court Settings. Geography Compass, 14(9), e12499.
Hynes, S. and Robins, J. (2009) The Justice Gap. London: Legal Action Group.
Inman, P. (2019) Number of Europe’s poorest regions in UK ‘more than doubles’. The Guardian, 10 December. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/business/2019/dec/10/number-of-europes-poorest-regions-in-uk-more-than-doubles. Accessed 30/07/2020.
Inspector Gadget (2008) Perverting the Course of Justice: The Hilarious and Shocking Inside Story of British Policing. Cheltenham: Monday Books.
Ipsos MORI (2017) Veracity Index 2017. Available at: https://www.ipsos.com/sites/default/files/ct/news/documents/2017-11/trust-in-professions-veracity-index-2017-slides.pdf. Accessed 06/08/20.
Ipsos MORI (2018) Veracity Index 2018. Available at: https://www.ipsos.com/sites/default/files/ct/news/documents/2018-11/veracity_index_2018_v1_161118_public.pdf. Accessed 06/08/20.
Jackson, J. (2016) Responses to Salduz: Procedural Tradition, Change and the Need for Effective Defence. Modern Law Review, 79(6), 987–1018.
Jackson, J., Bradford, B., Stanko, B. and Hohl, K. (2013) Just Authority? Trust in the Police in England and Wales. Abingdon: Routledge.
Jacobson, J., Hunter, G. and Kirby, A. (2016) Inside Crown Court: Personal Experiences and Questions of Legitimacy. Bristol: Policy Press.
Jardine, C. (2019) Families, Imprisonment and Legitimacy: The Cost of Custodial Penalties. Abingdon: Routledge.
Johnson, E. (1980) Lawyer’s Choice: A Theoretical Appraisal of Litigation Investment Decisions. Law and Society Review, 15(3), 567–610.
Johnston, E. (2020) The Adversarial Defence Lawyer: Myths, Disclosure and Efficiency – A Contemporary Analysis of the Role in the Era of the Criminal Procedure Rules. The International Journal of Evidence & Proof, 24(1), 35–58.
Johnston, E. and Smith, T. (2017) The Early Guilty Plea Scheme and the Rising Wave of Managerialism. Criminal Law and Justice Weekly, 181, 210–12.
Johnson, J. and Heaney, P. (2015) Miscarriage of justice warning over CPS funding cuts. BBC Online, 5 February. Available at: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-35496012. Accessed 01/08/2020.
Jones, E., Graffin, N., Samra, R. and Lucassen, M. (2020) Mental Health and Wellbeing in the Legal Profession. Bristol: Bristol University Press.
Jones, R. (2013) A Welsh Criminological Imaginary: The State of Criminology in Wales. Contemporary Wales, 26, 99–120.
Jones, R. (2017) The Hybrid System: Imprisonment and Devolution in Wales. PhD thesis. Cardiff University.
Jones, R. (2018) Imprisonment in Wales: A Factfile. Project Report. Cardiff: Wales Governance Centre at Cardiff University.
Jones, R., Series, L. and Dehaghani, R. (2019) International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights: Conditions of Detention in Wales. Technical Report. Cardiff: Cardiff University.
Jones, R. and Wyn Jones, R. (2019) Justice at the Jagged Edge in Wales. Cardiff: Cardiff University.
Jones-Evans, S. and Barry, S. (2019) Wales is no longer the poorest part of the UK. Business Live, 23 December. Available at: https://www.business-live.co.uk/opinion-analysis/wales-no-longer-poorest-part-17465667. Accessed 30/07/2020.
Joseph Rowntree Foundation (2020) Briefing: Poverty in Wales 2020. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Available at: file:///Users/dannewman/Downloads/poverty_in_wales_2020_0.pdf. Accessed 02/11/2020.
Junior Lawyers Division (2019) Resilience and Wellbeing Survey 2019: Survey Report. London: Law Society.
Kemp, V. (2018) Effective Police Station Legal Advice: Country Report 2: England and Wales. Nottingham: University of Nottingham.
Kemp, V. and Hodgson, J. (2016) England and Wales: Empirical Findings. In Vanderhallen M., van Oosterhout M., Panzavolta M. and de Vocht, D. (eds.) Interrogating Young Suspects II: Procedural Safeguards from an Empirical Perspective. Antwerp: Intersentia, 127–81.
Kendall, J. (2018) Regulating Police Detention: Voices from Behind Closed Doors. Bristol: Policy Press.
Kinghan, J. (2021) Lawyers, Networks and Progressive Social Change: Lawyers Changing Lives. Oxford: Hart Publishing.
Koffman, L. (1999) Crime in Rural Wales. In Dingwall, G. and Moody, S. (eds.) Crime and Conflict in the Countryside. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 60–75.
Kohn, N. (2014) Vulnerability Theory and the Role of Government. Yale Journal of Law and Feminism, 26, 1–27.
Lacey, N. (1994) Introduction: Making Sense of Criminal Justice. In Lacey, N. (ed.) A Reader on Criminal Justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 28–34.
Law Society (2018) Criminal Duty Solicitors: A Looming Crisis. London: Law Society.
Law Society (2019) Justice on Trial 2019: Fixing our Criminal Justice system. London: Law Society.
Lawthom, J. (2018) Law Society warns duty solicitors could become extinct. BBC Online, 17 November. Available at: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-46127118. Accessed 05/08/2020.
Lea, J. and Young, J. (1984) What Is to Be Done about Law and Order. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Leering, M. (2014) Conceptualizing Reflective Practice for Legal Professionals. Journal of Law and Social Policy, 23, 83–106.
Legal Aid Agency (2018) Crown Court Fee Guidance. Available at: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/745068/Crown_Court_Fee_Guidance_-_v.1.7A_.pdf. Accessed 01/08/2020.
Legal Aid Agency (2020) Guidance: Criminal Legal Aid: Means Testing. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/guidance/criminal-legal-aid-means-testing. Accessed 01/08/2020.
Leo, J. and Reuss-Ianni, E. (2017) Two Cultures of Policing: Street Cops and Management Cops. New York, NY: Routledge.
Leverick, F. (2004) Tensions and Balances, Costs and Rewards: The Sentence Discount in Scotland. Edinburgh Law Review, 8(3), 360–88.
Leveson, B. (2015) Review of Efficiency in Criminal Proceedings. Judiciary of England and Wales.
Lord Chancellor’s Department (1998) Modernising Justice. London: Martin Pearce Associates.
Mant, J. (2017) Neoliberalism, Family Law and the Cost of Access to Justice. Journal of Social Welfare and Family Law, 39(2), 246–58.
Maras, K., Crane, L., Mulcahy, S., Hawken, T., Cooper, P., Wurtzel, D. and Memon, A. (2017) Autism in the Courtroom: Experiences of Legal Professionals and the Autism Community. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 47(8), 2610–20.
Marsden, T.K. and Franklin, A. (2013) Replacing Neoliberalism: Theoretical Implications of the Rise of Local Food Movements. Local Environment, 18(5), 636–41.
Massey, D. (2005) For Space. London: Sage.
May, T. (2016) Theresa May’s keynote speech at Tory conference in full. The Independent, 5 October. Available at: https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/theresa-may-speech-tory-conference-2016-in-full-transcript-a7346171.html. Accessed 06/08/2020.
McAra, L. and McVie, S. (2010) Youth Crime and Justice: Key Messages from the Edinburgh Study of Youth Transitions and Crime. Criminology and Criminal Justice, 10(2), 179–209.
McBarnet, D.J. (1981) Conviction: The Law, the State and the Construction of Justice. London: Macmillan.
McConville, M., Hodgson, J., Bridges, L. and Pavlovic, A. (1994) Standing Accused: The Organization and Practices of Criminal Defence Lawyers in Britain. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
McConville, M. and Marsh, L. (2014) Criminal Judges: Legitimacy, Courts and State-induced Guilty Pleas in Britain. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
McConville, M. and Mirsky, C. (2005) Jury Trials and Plea Bargaining: A True History. Oxford: Hart Publishing.
McConville, M., Sanders, A. and Leng, R. (1991) The Case for the Prosecution: Police Suspects and the Construction of Criminality. London: Routledge.
McKay, C. (2015) Video Links from Prison: Court ‘Appearance’ within Carceral Space. Law, Culture and the Humanities, 14(2), 242–62.
McKay, C. (2017) Video Links from Prison: Permeability and the Carceral World. International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy, 5(1), 21–37.
McKenzie, L. (2013) The Stigmatised and De-valued Working Class: The State of a Council Estate Class Inequality. In Atkinson, W., Roberts, S. and Savage, M. (eds.) Austerity Britain. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 128–44.
Mégret, F. (2014) Practices of Stigmatization. Law and Contemporary Problems, 76, 287–318.
Melville, A. and Laing, K. (2007) ‘I Just Drifted into It’: Constraints Faced by Publicly Funded Family Lawyers. International Journal of the Legal Profession, 14(3), 281–300.
Miller, J. and Glassner, B. (2011) The ‘Inside’ and the ‘Outside’: Finding Realities in Interviews. In Silverman, D. (ed.) Qualitative Research: Theory, Method and Practice. London: Sage, 99–112.
Ministry of Justice (2012) Swift and Sure Justice: The Government’s Plans for Reform of the Criminal Justice System. Available at: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/217328/swift-and-sure-justice.pdf. Accessed 06/08/2020.
Ministry of Justice (2018) Government Announces Changes to Court Estate. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/news/government-announces-changes-to-court-estate. Accessed 01/08/2020.
Misztal, B. (2011) The Challenges of Vulnerability: In Search of Strategies for a Less Vulnerable Social Life. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Mitchell, D. (2019) Oral Histories and Enlightened Witnessing. In Moruzi, K., Musgrove, N. and Pascoe Leahy, C. (eds.) Children’s Voices from the Past: New Historical and Interdisciplinary Perspectives. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 211–31.
Moody, S. (1999) Rural Neglect: The Case Against Criminology. In Dingwall, G. and Moody, S. (eds.) Crime and Conflict in the Countryside. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 8–28.
Moorhead, R. (2004) Legal Aid and the Decline of Private Practice: Blue Murder or Toxic Job? International Journal of the Legal Profession, 11(3), 160–90.
Morgan, R. (2002) Clear Red Water. Speech at National Centre for Public Policy, Swansea, 11 December. Available at: https://www.sochealth.co.uk/the-socialist-health-association/sha-country-and-branch-organization/sha-wales/clear-red-water/. Accessed 06/08/20.
Morris, N. (2008) More than 3,600 new offences under Labour. The Independent, 4 September. Available at: https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/more-than-3600-new-offences-under-labour-918053.html. Accessed 05/08/2020.
Morrison, J. and Leith, P. (1992) The Barristers World and the Nature of Law. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Mueller, B. (2019) What Is Austerity and How Has It Effected British Society? New York Times, 24 February. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2019/02/24/world/europe/britain-austerity-may-budget.html. Accessed 09/12/2020.
Mulcahy, A. (1994) The Justifications of Justice. British Journal of Criminology, 34(4), 411–30.
Mulcahy, L. (2007) Architects of Justice: The Politics of Courtroom Design. Social and Legal Studies, 16(3), 383–403.
Mulcahy, L. (2013) Putting the Defendant in Their Place: Why Do We Still Use the Dock in Criminal Proceedings? The British Journal of Criminology, 53(6), 1139–56.
Muncie, J. (2006) Governing Young People: Coherence and Contradiction in Contemporary Youth Justice. Critical Social Policy, 26(4), 770–93.
Mungham, G. and Thomas, P. (1979) Advocacy and the Solicitor-Advocate in Magistrates’ Courts in England and Wales. International Journal of the Sociology of Law, 7(2), 169–96.
Munro, V.E. and Scoular J. (2012) Abusing Vulnerability? Contemporary Law and Policy Responses to Sex Work in the UK. Feminist Legal Studies, 20(3), 189–206.
Nason, S. and Pritchard, H. (2020) Administrative Justice in Wales. Journal of Law and Society, 47(S2), S262–S281.
National Audit Office (2009) The Procurement of Criminal Legal Aid in England and Wales by the Legal Services Commission. London: The Stationary Office. Available at: https://www.nao.org.uk/report/the-procurement-of-criminal-legal-aid-in-england-and-wales-by-the-legal-services-commission/. Accessed 06/08/2020.
National Audit Office (2015) Financial Sustainability of Police Forces in England and Wales. Home Office. London: National Audit Office. Available at: https://www.nao.org.uk/report/financial-sustainability-of-police-forces-in-england-and-wales/. Accessed 06/08/2020.
National Audit Office (2018a) Financial Sustainability of Police Forces in England and Wales 2018. Home Office. London: National Audit Office. Available at: https://www.nao.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/Financial-sustainability-of-police-forces-in-England-and-Wales-2018.pdf#page=9. Accessed 30/07/2020.
National Audit Office (2018b) Early Progress in Transforming Courts and Tribunals. HM Courts & Tribunals Service. London: National Audit Office. Available at: https://www.nao.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/Early-progess-in-transforming-courts-and-tribunals.pdf. Accessed 30/07/2020.
Naughton, M. (2013) The Innocent and the Criminal Justice System: A Sociological Analysis of Miscarriages of Justice. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Newman, D. (2012) Still Standing Accused: Addressing the Gap Between Work and Talk in Firms of Criminal Defence Lawyers. International Journal of the Legal Profession, (19)1, 3–27.
Newman, D. (2013a) Legal Aid Lawyers and the Quest for Justice. Oxford: Hart Publishing.
Newman, D. (2013b) More than Money. In Robins, J. (ed.) No Defence: Lawyers and Miscarriages of Justice. London: Wilmington Publishing, 40–3.
Newman, D. (2016a) Attitudes to Justice in a Rural Community. Legal Studies, 36(4), 591–612.
Newman, D. (2016b) Are Lawyers Alienated Workers? European Journal of Current Legal Issues, 22(3).
Newman, D. (2018) Are Lawyers Neurotic? International Journal of the Legal Profession, 25(1), 3–29.
Newman, D. and Ugwudike, P. (2013) Defence Lawyers and Probation Officers: Offenders’ Allies or Adversaries? International Journal of the Legal Profession, 20(2), 183–207.
Newman, D. and Welsh, L. (2019) The Practices of Modern Criminal Defence Lawyers: Alienation and Its Implications for Access to Justice. Common Law World Review, 48(1–2), 64–89.
New Statesman (2015) From the archive: Tony Blair is tough on crime, tough on the causes of crime. New Statesman, 28 December. Available at: https://www.newstatesman.com/2015/12/archive-tony-blair-tough-crime-tough-causes-crime. Accessed 30/07/2020.
Nicklas-Carter, C. (2019) Efficiency of The English Criminal Courts in a Time of Austerity. Exploring Courtroom Lawyers’ Assessment of Government Policy (2010–2017). PhD thesis. Keele University.
Nicolson, D. and Webb, J. (1999) Professional Legal Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Oakley, E. and Vaughan, S. (2019) In Dependence: The Paradox of Professional Independence and Taking Seriously the Vulnerabilities of Lawyers in Large Corporate Law Firms. Journal of Law and Society, 46(1), 83–111.
Office for National Statistics (2015) Nearly one in five people had some form of disability in England and Wales. Available at: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/disability/articles/nearlyoneinfivepeoplehadsomeformofdisabilityinenglandandwales/2015-07-13. Accessed 06/08/2020.
Office for National Statistics (2019) Population estimates for the UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland: mid-2018. Available at: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/populationandmigration/populationestimates/bulletins/annualmidyearpopulationestimates/mid2018. Accessed 29/07/2020.
Organ, J. and Sigafoos, J. (2018) The Impact of LASPO on routes to Justice. Equality and Human Rights Commission Report 118. Available at: https://www.equalityhumanrights.com/en/publication-download/impact-laspo-routes-justice. Accessed 06/08/2020.
Owens, A. (2020) Access to Justice: Does the Legal Problem and Resolution Survey 2014–15 Accurately Depict Accessibility Levels for Wales? MA dissertation. Cardiff University.
Owusu-Bempah, A. (2017) Defendant Participation in the Criminal Process. Abingdon: Routledge.
Packer, H.L. (1968) The Limits of the Criminal Sanction. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Palmer, E., Cornford, T., Guinchard, A. and Marique, Y. (eds.) (2016) Access to Justice: Beyond the Policies and Politics of Austerity. Oxford: Hart Publishing.
Papp, J., Campbell, C., Onifade, E., Anderson, V., Davidson, W. and Foster, D. (2016) Youth Drug Offenders: An Examination of Criminogenic Risk and Juvenile Recidivism. Policy, Practice and Research, 1(4), 229–45.
Peay, J. and Player, E. (2018) Pleading Guilty: Why Vulnerability Matters. Modern Law Review, 81(6), 929–57.
Phelps, C.S. (2019) ‘They look at us like we’re foreigners’: the stories of gentrification in Cardiff. Nation Cymru, 13 June. Available at: https://nation.cymru/news/they-look-at-us-like-were-foreigners-the-stories-of-gentrification-in-cardiff/. Accessed 03/12/2020.
Phillips, J., Albertson, K. and Corcoran, M. (eds.) (2020) Privatisation and Criminal Justice: Recent Experience in England and Wales. Bristol: Policy Press.
Phoenix, J. and Kelly, L. (2013) ‘You Have to Do It for Yourself’: Responsibilization in Youth Justice and Young People’s Situated Knowledge of Youth Justice Practice. British Journal of Criminology, 53(3), 419–37.
Pickett, J., Mancini, C., Mears, D. and Gertz, M. (2015) Public (Mis)Understanding of Crime Policy: The Effects of Criminal Justice Experience and Media Reliance. Criminal Justice Police Review, 26(5), 500–22.
Pivaty, A. (2020) Criminal Defence at Police Stations: A Comparative and Empirical Study. Abingdon: Routledge.
Pleasence, P., Balmer, N. and Sandefur, R. (2013) Paths to Justice – Past, Present and Future Roadmap. UCL Centre for Empirical Legal Studies. Available at: http://www.nuffieldfoundation.org/sites/default/files/files/PTJ%20Roadmap%20NUFFIELD%20Published.pdf. Accessed 06/08/2020.
Plehwe, D., Walpen, B. and Neunhoffer, G. (2006) Introduction. In Plehwe, D., Walpen, B. and Neunhoffer, G. (eds.) Neoliberal Hegemony: A Global Critique. Abingdon: Routledge, 1–24.
Pollock, I. (2019) Child poverty: Wales is the only UK nation to see increase. BBC Online, 15 May. Available at: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-48259327. Accessed 29/07/20.
Pratt, A. (2019) Police Stations: Are They a Thing of the Past? London: House of Commons Library. Available at: https://commonslibrary.parliament.uk/home-affairs/communities/police-stations-are-they-a-thing-of-the-past/. Accessed 01/08/2020.
Pratt, J. (2007) Penal Populism. Abingdon: Routledge.
Quirk, H. (2006) The Significance of Culture in Criminal Procedure Reform: Why the Revised Disclosure Scheme Cannot Work. Journal of Evidence and Proof, 10(1), 42–59.
Quirk, H. (2017) The Rise and Fall of the Right of Silence. Abingdon: Routledge.
Rees, A., Staples, E. and Maxwell, N. (2017) Final report June 2017: Evaluation of Visiting Mum Scheme. Cardiff: CASCADE at Cardiff University. Available at: https://sites.cardiff.ac.uk/cascade/files/2017/09/Final-PACT-report-Final-version.-12.7.17.pdf. Accessed 06/08/20.
Rethinking Crime and Punishment (2005) Victims and Defendants’ Rights: Can They Be Reconciled? London: Esmee Fairbairn Foundation.
Rhoades, K., Leve, L., Eddy, M. and Chamberlain, P. (2016) Predicting the Transition From Juvenile Delinquency to Adult Criminality: Gender Specific Influences in Two High-risk Samples. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 26(5), 336–51.
Rhode, D. (2004) Access to Justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Rickard, D. (2016) Sex Offenders, Stigma, and Social Control. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Robins, J. (2019) Justice gap: the towns where there’s no access to free legal advice. The Guardian, 27 March. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/society/2019/mar/27/justice-gap-towns-no-access-to-legal-aid-wales-england. Accessed 30/07/2020.
Robins, J. and Newman, D. (2021) Justice in a Time of Austerity: Stories From a System in Crisis. Bristol: Bristol University Press.
Robson, J. (2016) Gove’s Nonsense: Barristers vs Solicitor Advocates. Solicitors Journal, December.
Rock, F. (2007) Communicating Rights: The Language of Arrest and Detention. Basingstoke: Palgrave.
Ruthston, P. and Donovan, C. (2018) Introduction. In Rushton, P. and Donovan, C. (eds.) Austerity Policies: Bad Ideas in Practice. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Ryan, F. (2015) Conservatives promised to protect the ‘most vulnerable’. How’s that going? The Guardian, 10 August. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/aug/10/conservatives-most-vulnerable-iain-duncan-smith-george-osborne-reforms. Accessed 06/08/2020.
Sandefur, R. (2001) Work and Honor in the Law: Prestige and the Division of Lawyers’ Labor. American Sociological Review, 66(3), 382–403.
Sanders, A., Young, R. and Burton, M. (2010) Criminal Justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Sandland, R. (1995) Review of Criminal Process: An Evaluative Study. Criminal Law Review, 42, 679–80.
Satchwell, G. (2016) An Inspector Recalls. Cheltenham: The History Press.
Save the Children (2012) Child Poverty Snapshots: The Local Picture in Wales. Cardiff: Save the Children. Available at: https://www.savethechildren.org.uk/content/dam/global/reports/hunger-and-livelihoods/Child-Poverty-Snapshots-English.pdf. Accessed 29/07/20.
Scoular, J. and O’Neill, M. (2007) Regulating Prostitution: Social Inclusion, Responsibilization and the Politics of Prostitution Reform. British Journal of Criminology, 47(5), 764–78.
Scraton, P. (2007) Power, Conflict and Criminalisation. London: Routledge.
The Secret Barrister (2018) Stories of the Law and How It’s Broken. Basingstoke: Pan Macmillan.
The Secret Barrister (2020) Fake Law: The Truth About Justice in an Age of Lies. Basingstoke: Pan Macmillan.
Secretary of State for Justice (2019) Companies: Written question – 227146. UK Parliament. Available at: https://www.parliament.uk/business/publications/written-questions-answers-statements/written-question/Commons/2019-02-28/227146/. Accessed 01/06/2020.
Sentencing Council Guidelines (2017) Reduction in sentence for a guilty plea - first hearing on or after 1 June 2017. Sentencing Council. Available at: https://www.sentencingcouncil.org.uk/overarching-guides/magistrates-court/item/reduction-in-sentence-for-a-guilty-plea-first-hearing-on-or-after-1-june-2017/. Accessed 06/08/2020.
Sherr, A. (2000) The Value of Experience in Legal Competence. International Journal of the Legal Profession, 7(2), 95–124.
Shiner, M. (2010) Post-Lawrence Policing in England and Wales: Guilty, Innocence and the Defence of Organizational Ego. British Journal of Criminology, 50(5), 935–53.
Silk Commission (2014) Empowerment and Responsibility: Legislative Powers to Strengthen Wales. Second Report of Commission on Devolution in Wales. Available at: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/310571/CDW-Wales_Report-final_Full_WEB_310114.pdf. Accessed 06/08/2020.
Simson Caird, J. (2016) Court and tribunal closures: Briefing Paper CBP 7346 21 March 2016. London: House of Commons Library. Available at: https://researchbriefings.files.parliament.uk/documents/CBP-7346/CBP-7346.pdf. Accessed 30/07/2020.
Skinns, L. (2009) ‘Let’s Get It Over With’: Early Findings on the Factors Affecting Detainees’ Access to Custodial Legal Advice. Policing and Society, 19(1), 58–78.
Skinns, L. (2011) Police Custody: Governance, Legitimacy and Reform in the Criminal Justice Process. Oxford: Willan.
Skinns, L., Sorsby, A. and Rice, L. (2020) ‘Treat Them as a Human Being’: Dignity in Police Detention and Its Implications for ‘Good’ Police Custody. British Journal of Criminology, 60(6), 1667–88,
Skinns, L., Sprawson, A., Sorsby, A., Smith, R. and Wooff, A. (2017) Police Custody Delivery in the Twenty-first Century in England and Wales: Current Arrangements and Their Implications for Patterns of Policing. European Journal of Policing Studies, 4(3), 325–48.
Skinns, L., Wooff, A. and Sprawson, A. (2017) Preliminary Findings on Police Custody Delivery in the Twenty-first Century: Is It ‘Good’ Enough? Policing and Society, 27(4), 358–71.
Smith, T. (2013) The ‘Quiet Revolution’ in Criminal Defence: How the Zealous Advocate Slipped into the Shadow’. International Journal of the Legal Profession, 20(1), 111–37.
Smith, T. (2018) The ‘Near Miss’ of Liam Allan: Critical Problems in Police Disclosure, Investigation Culture and the Resourcing of Criminal Justice. Criminal Law Review, 9, 711–31.
Smith, T. (2020) ‘Rushing Remand’? Pretrial Detention and Bail Decision Making in England and Wales. The Howard Journal of Crime and Justice, 60(1) 46–74.
Smith, T. and Cape, E. (2017) The Rise and Decline of Criminal Legal Aid in England and Wales. In Flynn, A. and Hodgson, J. (eds.) Access to Justice and Legal Aid: Comparative Perspectives on Unmet Legal Need. Oxford: Hart Publishing, 63–86.
Social Mobility Commission (2019) State of the Nation 2018–19: Social Mobility in Great Britain. Available at: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/798404/SMC_State_of_the_Nation_Report_2018-19.pdf. Accessed 06/08/2020.
Solnit, R. (2020) ‘The way we get through this is together’: the rise of mutual aid under coronavirus. The Guardian, 14 May. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/may/14/mutual-aid-coronavirus-pandemic-rebecca-solnit. Accessed 06/08/2020.
Sommerlad, H. (1995) Managerialism and the Legal Profession: A New Professional Paradigm. International Journal of the Legal Profession, 2(2–3), 159–85.
Sommerlad, H. (1996) Criminal Legal Aid Reforms and the Restructuring of Legal Professionalism. In Young, R. and Wall, D. (eds.) Access to Criminal Legal Aid: Legal Aid, Lawyers and the Defence of Liberty. London: Blackstone Press Ltd, 282–312.
Sommerlad, H. (1999) The Implementation of Quality Initiatives and the New Public Management in the Legal Aid Sector in England and Wales: Bureaucratisation, Stratification and Surveillance. International Journal of the Legal Profession, 6(3), 311–43.
Sommerlad, H. (2001) ‘I’ve Lost the Plot’: An Everyday Story of Legal Aid Lawyers. Journal of Law and Society, 28(3), 335–60.
Sommerlad, H. (2012) Minorities, Merit and Misrecognition in the Globalized Legal Profession. Fordham Law Review, 80(6), 2418–512.
Sommerlad, H. and Wall, D. (1999) Legally Aided Clients and their Solicitors: Qualitative Perspectives on Quality and Legal Aid. London: Law Society.
Soubise, L. (2017) Prosecuting in the Magistrates’ Courts in a Time of Austerity. Criminal Law Review, 11, 847–59.
South Wales Police (2015) Freedom of Information Request 508/15: Response date 6th July 2015. Available at: http://swplive.blob.core.windows.net/wordpress-uploads/Response-508_15.pdf. Accessed 06/08/2020.
Squire, G. and Gill, A. (2011) ‘It’s Not All Heartbeat You Know’: Policing Domestic Violence in Rural Areas. In Mawby, R. and Yarwood, R. (eds.) Rural Policing and Policing the Rural. Aldershot: Ashgate, 159–67.
Stahl, G. (2017) The Practice of ‘Othering’ in Reaffirming White Working-class Boys’ Conceptions of Normative Identities. Journal of Youth Studies, 20(3), 283–300.
Statistics for Wales (2019) Welsh Index of Multiple Deprivation (WIMD) 2019 Results report. Available at: https://gov.wales/sites/default/files/statistics-and-research/2019-11/welsh-index-multiple-deprivation-2019-results-report-024.pdf. Accessed 06/08/2020.
Stephen, F. and Tata, C. (2006) Impact of the Introduction of Fixed Payments into Summary Legal Aid: Report of an Independent Study. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
Sugarman, D. (2015) From Legal Biography to Legal Life Writing: Broadening Conceptions of Legal History and Socio-legal Scholarship. Journal of Law and Society, 42(1), 7–33.
Sunshine, S. and Tyler, T. (2003) The Role of Procedural Justice and Legitimacy in Shaping Public Support for Policing. Law and Society Review, 37(3), 513–48.
Tague, P. (2007) Guilty Pleas and Barristers’ Incentives: Lessons from England. Georgetown Journal of Legal Ethics, 20, 287–320.
Tata, C. (2007) In the Interests of Clients or Commerce? Legal Aid, Supply, Demand and ‘Ethical Indeterminacy’ in Criminal Defence Work. Journal of Law and Society, 34(4), 489–519.
Tata, C., Goriely, T., McCrone, P., Duff, P., Knapp, M., Henry, A., Lancaster, B. and Sherr, A. (2004) Does Mode of Delivery Make a Difference to Criminal Case Outcomes and Clients’ Satisfaction? The Public Defence Solicitor Experiment. Criminal Law Review, February, 120–36.
Tata, C. and Gormley, J. (2016) Sentencing and Plea Bargaining: Guilty Pleas Versus Trial Verdicts. In Tonry, M. (ed.) Criminology & Criminal Justice. Oxford: Oxford Handbooks Online. Available at: https://www.oxfordhandbooks.com/view/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199935383.001.0001/oxfordhb-9780199935383-e-40. Accessed 06/08/2020.
Tata, C. and Stephen, F. (2006) ‘Swings and Roundabouts’: Do Changes to the Structure of Legal Aid Remuneration Make a Real Difference to Criminal Case Managements and Case Outcomes? Criminal Law Review, 8, 722–41.
Thomson, M.A. (2018) Bioethics and Vulnerability: Recasting the Objects of Ethical Concern. Emory Law Journal, 67(6), 1207–33.
Thornton, J. (2019) The Way in Which Fee Reductions Influence Legal Aid Criminal Defence Lawyer Work: Insights from a Qualitative Study. Journal of Law and Society, 46(4), 559–85.
Thornton, J. (2020) Is Publicly Funded Criminal Defence Sustainable? Legal Aid Cuts, Morale, Retention and Recruitment in the English Criminal Law Professions. Legal Studies, 40(2), 230–51.
Travers, M. (1997a) Preaching to the Converted? Improving the Persuasiveness of Criminal Justice Research. British Journal of Criminology, 37(3), 359–77.
Travers, M. (1997b) The Reality of Law: Work and Talk in a Firm of Criminal Lawyers. Aldershot: Dartmouth.
Travis, A. (2017) Public services face real-terms spending cuts of up to 40% in decade to 2020. The Guardian, 22 November. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2017/nov/22/public-services-face-real-terms-spending-cuts-of-up-to-40-in-decade-to-2020. Accessed 06/08/2020.
Tyler, I. (2013) The Riots of the Underclass? Stigmatisation, Mediation and the Government of Poverty and Disadvantage in Neoliberal Britain. Sociological Research Online, 18(4), 25–35.
Tyler, T. (1990) Why People Obey the Law. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Ungoed-Thomas, J., Harper, T. and Shveda, K. (2018) 600 police stations shut in eight years. The Times, 2 September. Available at: https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/600-police-stations-shut-in-eight-years-nvjdjwmwj. Accessed 01/08/2020.
UNISON (2017) Policing by Numbers. 8 May. Available at: https://www.unison.org.uk/news/article/2017/05/policing-by-numbers/. Accessed 01/08/2020.
United Nations (2019) Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice. United Nations University Module Series. Available at: https://www.unodc.org/e4j/en/tertiary/criminal-justice.html. Accessed 06/08/2020.
van Brunt, A. (2015) Poor people rely on public defenders who are too overworked to defend them. The Guardian, 17 June. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/jun/17/poor-rely-public-defenders-too-overworked. Accessed 05/08/2020.
Vitale, A. (2017) The End of Policing. London: Verso.
Wacquant, L. (2009) Prisons of Poverty. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
Watson, G. (2020) Respect and Criminal Justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Weis, L. (2004) Class Reunion: The Remaking of the American White Working Class. New York, NY: Routledge/Falmer.
Welsh, L. (2013) Does Tendering Create Travesties of Justice? Criminal Justice Matters, 93(1), 28–9.
Welsh, L. (2016) Magistrates, Managerialism and Marginalisation: Neoliberalism and Access to Justice. PhD thesis. University of Kent.
Welsh, L. (2017) The Effects of Changes to Legal Aid on Lawyers’ Professional Identity and Behaviour in Summary Criminal Cases: A Case Study. Journal of Law and Society, 44(4), 559–85.
Welsh, L. (2022) Access to Justice in Magistrates’ Courts: A Study of Defendant Marginalisation. Oxford: Hart Publishing (forthcoming).
Welsh, L. and Howard, M. (2018) Standardization and the Production of Justice in Summary Criminal Courts: A Post-Human Analysis. Social and Legal Studies, 28(6), 774–93.
Welsh Government (2013) Advice Services Review: Final Research Report. Available at: https://gov.wales/sites/default/files/statistics-and-research/2019-08/130515-advice-services-review-en.pdf. Accessed 06/08/2020.
Welsh Government (2018a) Commission on Justice in Wales comes to Butetown. Available at: https://gov.wales/commission-justice-wales-comes-butetown. Accessed 06/08/2020.
Welsh Government (2018b) Equality: Annual Report 2017 to 2018 and Welsh Ministers’ Report. Available at: https://gov.wales/equality-annual-report-2017-2018-and-welsh-ministers-report-2018. Accessed 06/08/2020.
Welsh Government (2019a) Summary statistics for Welsh economic regions: North Wales. Available at: https://gov.wales/sites/default/files/statistics-and-research/2019-08/summary-statistics-for-welsh-economic-regions-wales-north-wales.pdf. Accessed 06/08/2020.
Welsh Government (2019b) Summary statistics for Welsh economic regions: Mid and South West Wales. Available at: https://gov.wales/sites/default/files/statistics-and-research/2019-08/summary-statistics-for-welsh-economic-regions-mid-and-south-west-wales.pdf. Accessed 06/08/2020.
Welsh Government (2019c) Summary statistics for Welsh economic regions: South East Wales. Available at: https://gov.wales/sites/default/files/statistics-and-research/2019-08/summary-statistics-for-welsh-economic-regions-wales-south-east-wales.pdf. Accessed 06/08/2020.
Welsh Government (2019d) Statistical Bulletin: Welsh language results: Annual Population Survey, 2001–2018. Available at: https://gov.wales/sites/default/files/statistics-and-research/2019-05/welsh-language-results-annual-population-survey-2001-to-2018.pdf. Accessed 06/08/2020.
Welsh Government (2020) A More Equal Wales – Commencing the Socio-Economic Duty: Factsheet. Cardiff: Welsh Government. Available at: https://gov.wales/sites/default/files/consultations/2019-11/a-more-equal-wales-commencing-the-socio-economic-duty.pdf. Accessed 06/08/2020.
Westmarland, L. (2008) Police Cultures. Cullompton: Willan.
White, A. (2014a) Post-crisis Policing and Public–Private Partnerships: The Case of Lincolnshire Police and G4S. British Journal of Criminology, 54(6), 1002–22.
White, A. (2014b) The Politics of Police ‘Privatization’: A Multiple Streams Approach. Criminology and Criminal Justice, 15(3), 283–99.
White, M.D., Cooper, J.A., Saunders, J. and Raganella, A.J. (2010) Motivations for Becoming a Police Officer: Re-assessing Officer Attitudes and Job Satisfaction After Six Years on the Street. Journal of Criminal Justice, 38(4), 520–30.
Winckler, V. (2009) Equality Issues in Wales: A Research Review. Tredegar: Bevan Foundation/Equality and Human Rights Commission for Wales. Available at: https://www.bevanfoundation.org/publications/equality-issues-in-wales-a-research-review/. Accessed 06/08/2020.
Wooff, A. and Skinns, L. (2018) The Role of Emotion, Space and Place in Police Custody in England: Towards a Geography of Police Custody. Punishment and Society, 20(5), 562–79.
Worrall, A. and Mawby, R. (2014) Probation Worker Cultures and Relationships with Offenders. Probation Journal, 61(4), 346–57.
Wyn Jones, R. and Learner, J. (2020) Progressive Home Rule? Progressive Review, 27(3), 235–245.
Young, R. (2013) Exploring the Boundaries of the Criminal Courtroom Workgroup. Common Law World Review, 42(3), 203–39.
Young Legal Aid Lawyers (2018) Young Legal Aid Lawyers: Social Mobility in a Time of Austerity. Available at: http://www.younglegalaidlawyers.org/sites/default/files/Soc%20Mob%20Report%20-%20edited.pdf. Accessed 06/08/2020.
Young, R. and Sanders, A. (2004) The Ethics of Prosecution Lawyers. Legal Ethics, 7(2), 190–209.
Yow, V. (2018) What Can Oral Historians Learn from Psychotherapists? Oral History, 46, 33–41.
Access to Justice Act 1999.
Crime and Disorder Act 1998.
Criminal Defence Service Act 2006.
Criminal Justice Act 2003.
Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994.
Equality Act 2010 (Specific Duties) Regulations 2011.
European Convention on Human Rights.
Human Rights Act 1998.
Legal Aid Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders Act 2012.
Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984.
Social Services and Well-being (Wales) Act 2014.
Well-being of Future Generations (Wales) Act 2015.
Welsh Language Act 1993.
Salduz v Turkey 49 EHRR 19 (2009).
Teixeira de Castro v Portugal 28 EHRR 101 (1998).
|May 2022 onwards||Past Year||Past 30 Days|
|Full Text Views||0||0||0|