Despite occupying a subordinate position in the urban context, displaced people influence how cities are evolving, and shape their morphologies and patterns of growth. Their agency here is embedded in a political economy of rent-seeking that is intertwined with international aid. This chapter outlines the multiple facets and ambiguities of the clientelistic networks that underpin these rent-seeking practices and demonstrates how urban newcomers act within and through these networks to secure their survival. The creation of settlements associated with displacement can increase the value ascribed to land. The chapter links these processes to wider insights on the development of real estate markets for domestic urban capital, which are often driven by local and diasporic investors, and which accompany the infrastructural focus of global capital penetration in contemporary African cities. Comparatively highlighting distinctive aspects of camp urbanization in Somali cities, the chapter shows how the combination of protracted violence, urban reconstruction and mass in-migration has been accompanied by cycles of forced evictions that initiate nascent forms of urban gentrification.
Abdi, A.A. (1998) ‘Education in Somalia: History, destruction, and calls for reconstruction’, Comparative Education, 34(3): 327–340.
Abourahme, N. (2015) ‘Assembling and spilling-over: Towards an “ethnography of cement” in a Palestinian refugee camp’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 39(2): 200–217.
Aceska, A., Heer, B. and Kaiser-Grolimund, A. (2019) ‘Doing the city from the margins: Critical perspectives on urban marginality’, Anthropological Forum, 29(1): 1–11.
Adam, H.M. (1995) ‘Somalia: A Terrible Beauty Being Born?’ in W. Zartman (ed) Collapsed States: The Disintegration and Restoration of Legitimate Authority, Boulder and London: Lynne Rienner, pp 69–90.
Ademolu, E. and Warrington, S. (2019) ‘Who gets to talk about NGO images of global poverty?’, Photography and Culture, 12(3): 365–376.
AFP (2016) ‘Somalia housing boom as Mogadishu emerges from ashes of war’, 3 January, Available from: https://english.alarabiya.net/features/2016/01/03/Somalia-housing-boom-as-Mogadishu-emerges-from-ashes-of-war [Accessed 14 April 2022].
Africa Watch (1990) ‘Somalia: A government at war with its own people’ January, Available from: https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/repomaliamalia_1990.pdf [Accessed 1 September 2021].
Agamben, G. (1998) Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life .Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Agier, M. (2002a) ‘Between war and city: Towards an urban anthropology of refugee camps’, translated by R. Nice and L. Wacquant, Ethnography, 3(3): 317–341.
Agier, M. (2002b) ‘Still stuck between war and city: A response to Bauman and Malkki’, translated by R. Nice and L. Wacquant, Ethnography, 3(3): 361–366.
Agier, M., and Lecadet, C. (2014) Un monde de camps .Paris: La Découverte.
Ahad, A.M. (2015) Somali Oral Poetry and the Failed She-Camel Nation State: A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Deelley Poetry Debate (1979–1980) .New York: Peter Lang.
Ahmad, A. (2015) ‘The security bazaar: business interests and Islamist power in civil war Somalia’, International Security, 39(3): 89–117.
Ahmed, A.J. (ed) (1995) The Invention of Somalia .Trenton: The Red Sea Press.
Ahmed, I.I. (2000) ‘Remittances and their economic impact in post-war Somaliland’, Disasters, 24(4): 380–389.
Aidid, S. (2015) ‘Can the Somali speak?’, Africa Is a Country, 30 March, Available from: https://africasacountry.com/2015/03/can-the-somali-speak-cadaanstudies [Accessed 20 May 2020].
Al-Bulushi, S. (2014) ‘“Peacekeeping” as occupation: Managing the market for violent labor in Somalia’, Transforming Anthropology, 22(1): 31–37.
Ali, N. (2016) ‘Parents in Somaliland are going to great lengths to stop their children from migrating to Europe’, Africa at LSE, 8 June, Available from: https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/africaatlse/2016/06/08/parents-in-somaliland-are-going-to-great-lengths-to-stop-their-children-from-migrating-to-europe/ [Accessed 1 June 2021].
Ali, N. and Rift Valley Institute (2016) ‘Going on Tahriib: The Causes and Consequences of Somali Youth Migration to Europe’, Nairobi: Rift Valley Institute.
Amis, P. (1984) ‘Squatters or tenants: The commercialization of unauthorized housing in Nairobi’, World Development, 12(1): 87–96.
Amnesty International (2017) ‘Not time to go home: unsustainable returns of refugees to Somalia’, 21 December, Available from: https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/afr52/7609/2017/en/ [Accessed 4 August 2021].
Andreucci, D., García-Lamarca, M., Wedekind, J. and Swyngedouw, E. (2017) ‘“Value grabbing”: A political ecology of rent’, Capitalism Nature Socialism, 28(3): 28–47. https://doi.org/10.1080/10455752.2016.1278027.
Appadurai, A. (1996) Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Appel H (2012) Offshore work: Oil, modularity, and the how of capitalism in Equatorial Guinea. American Ethnologist 39(4): 692–709.
Apthorpe, R. (2005) ‘Postcards from Aidland, Or: Love from Bubbleland’, Graduate seminar paper, IDS, University of Sussex (10) 2005.
Asaka, J.O. and Smucker, T.A. (2016) ‘Assessing the role of mobile phone communication in drought-related mobility patterns of Samburu pastoralists’, Journal of Arid Environments, 128: 12–16.
Atkinson, R. and Bridge, G. (eds) (2005) Gentrification in a Global Context, London: Routledge.
Awotwi, J., Ojo, A. and Janowski, T. (2011) ‘Mobile governance for development: Strategies for migrant head porters in Ghana’. 5th International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance (ICEGOV2011), Tallinn, ACM International Conference Proceeding Series: 175–184.
Baird, T.D. and Hartter, J. (2017) ‘Livelihood diversification, mobile phones and information diversity in Northern Tanzania’, Land Use Policy, 67: 460–471.
Bakewell, O. (2008a) ‘Research beyond the categories: The importance of policy irrelevant research into forced migration’, Journal of Refugee Studies, 21(4): 432–453.
Bakewell, O. (2008b) ‘“Keeping them in their place”: The ambivalent relationship between development and migration in Africa’, Third World Quarterly, 29(7): 1341–1358.
Bakewell, O. and Jónsson, G. (2011) ‘Migration, mobility and the African city’. Oxford: International Migration Institute.
Bakonyi, J. (2009) ‘Moral economies of mass violence: Somalia 1988–1991’, Civil Wars, 11(4): 434–454.
Bakonyi, J. (2011) Land ohne Staat. Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft im Krieg am Beispiel Somalias. Frankfurt am Main: Campus.
Bakonyi, J. (2013) ‘Authority and administration beyond the state: Local governance in southern Somalia, 1995–2006’, Journal of Eastern African Studies, 7(2): 272–290.
Bakonyi, J. (2018) ‘Seeing like bureaucracies: rearranging knowledge and ignorance in Somalia’, International Political Sociology, 12(3): 256–273.
Bakonyi, J. (2021) ‘The political economy of displacement: Rent seeking, dispossession and precarious mobility in Somali cities’, Global Policy, 12(S2): 10–22.
Bakonyi, J. (2022a) ‘Modular sovereignty and infrastructural Power: The elusive materiality of international statebuilding’, Security Dialogue, 53(3): 256–278.
Bakonyi, J. (2022b) ‘War’s Everyday: Normalizing Violence and Legitimizing Power’, Partecipazione & Conflitto, 15(1): 121–138.
Bakonyi, J. and Bliesemann de Guevara, B. (2009) ‘The mosaic of violence – An introduction’, Civil Wars, 11(4): 397–413.
Bakonyi, J. and Chonka, P. (2019) ‘Precarious labour – precarious lives: Photographic glimpses from displaced people in Somali cities’, Afrique contemporaine, 2019/1(269–270): 205–224.
Bakonyi, J., Chonka, P. and Stuvøy, K. (2019) ‘War and city-making in Somalia: Property, power and disposable lives’, Political Geography, 73: 82–91.
Bakonyi, J., Kappler, S, Nag E-M. and Opfermann, L. (2021) ‘Precarity, mobility and the City: Introduction to the Special Issue’, Global Policy, 12(S2): 5–9.
Balthasar, D. (2013) ‘Somaliland’s best kept secret: Shrewd politics and war projects as means of state-making’, Journal of Eastern African Studies, 7(2): 218–238.
Barnes, C. (2006) ‘U dhashay—Ku dhashay: Genealogical and territorial discourse in Somali history’, Social Identities, 12: 487–498.
Barnes, C. and Hassan, H. (2007) ‘The rise and fall of Mogadishu’s Islamic courts’, Journal of Eastern African Studies, 1(2): 151–160.
Barnes, J. and Alatout, S. (2012) ‘Water worlds: Introduction to the special issue of Social Studies of Science’, Social Studies of Science, 42(4): 483–488.
Barry, A. (2020) ‘The Material Politics of Infrastructure’ in S. Maasen, S. Dickel and C. Schneider (eds) TechnoScienceSociety: Technological Reconfigurations of Science and Society, Heidelberg: Springer, pp 91–109.
Bartlett, A., Alix-Garcia, J. and Saah, D. S. (2012) ‘City growth under conflict conditions: The view from Nyala, Darfur’, City and Community, 11(2): 151–170.
Bauman, Z. (2002) ‘In the lowly nowherevilles of liquid modernity: Comments on and around Agier’, Ethnography, 3(3): 343–349.
Bauman, Z. (2004) Wasted Lives: Modernity and its Outcasts. Cambridge: Polity.
Bayat, A. (2000) ‘From “dangerous classes” to “quiet rebels”: Politics of the urban subaltern in the global South’, International Sociology, 15(3): 533–557.
Bayat, A. (2010) Life as Politics: How Ordinary People Change the Middle East .Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
Bayart, J.F. (2000) ‘Africa in the world: a history of extraversion’, African Affairs, 99(395): 217–267.
Baxter, J., Gibson, D. and Lynch-Blosse, M. (1990) Double Take: The Links Between Paid and Unpaid Work. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.
BBC Somali (2018) ‘Nin loo gubay beeshiisa oo gabar ka guursatay beel ka mid ah kuwa ku xooggan Muqdisho’ [Man burned because girl from his clan married into one of the dominant clans in Mogadishu], 21 September, Available from: https://www.bbc.com/somali/war-45602063 [Accessed 25 August 2021].
Beall, J., Goodfellow, T. and Rodgers, D. (2011) ‘Cities, conflict and state fragility’, working paper 85, London: Crisis States Research Centre.
Berns-McGown, R. (2016) ‘Towards an academic praxis of integrity’, Journal of Somali Studies, 3(1): 85–106.
Besteman, C. (1996) ‘Representing violence and“ othering” Somalia’, Cultural Anthropology, 11(1): 120–133.
Besteman, C. (1998) ‘Primordialist blinders: A reply to I.M. Lewis’, Cultural Anthropology, 13(1): 109–120.
Besteman, C. (2017) ‘Experimenting in Somalia: The new security empire’, Anthropological Theory, 17(3): 404–420.
Besteman, C. and Cassanelli, L. (eds) (1996) The Struggle for Land in Southern Somalia: The War Behind the War. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Betts A., Bloom, L. and Weaver, N. (2015) Refugee innovation: Humanitarian innovation that starts with communities. Oxford: University of Oxford, Refugee Studies Centre.
Beveridge, R. and Koch, P. (2018) ‘Urban everyday politics: Politicising practices and the transformation of the here and now’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 37(1): 142–157.
Bhabha, H.K. (2012) The Location of Culture, London: Routledge.
Bierschenk, T, Chauveau, J. P. and de Sardan, O. (2002) ‘Local Development Brokers in Africa: The rise of a new category’, Institut fuer Ethnology and Africa Studies, Working Papers 13.
Bjarnesen, J. and Turner, S. (eds) (2020) Invisibility in African Displacements: From Structural Marginalization to Strategies of Avoidance .London: Zed Books.
Blanchard, J-M.F. and Flint, C. (2017) ‘The geopolitics of China’s Maritime Silk Road initiative’, Geopolitics, 22(2): 223–245.
Bliesemann de Guevara, B. and Bøås, M. (eds) (2020) Doing Fieldwork in Areas of International Intervention: A Guide to Research in Violent and Closed Contexts. Bristol: Bristol University Press.
Blomley, N. (2003) ‘Law, property, and the geography of violence: The frontier, the survey, and the grid’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 93(1): 121–141.
Blundo, G. and Le Meur, P-Y. (2008) ‘Introduction: An Anthropology of Everyday Governance: Collective Service Delivery and Subject-Making’ in G. Blundo and P-Y. Le Meur (eds) The Governance of Daily Life in Africa: Ethnographic Explorations of Public and Collective Services, Leiden: Brill, pp 1–37.
Boas, I. (2020) ‘Social networking in a digital and mobile world: The case of environmentally-related migration in Bangladesh’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 46(7): 1330–1347.
Boltanski, L. (1999) Distant Suffering: Morality, Media and Politics .Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Borkert, M., Fisher, K.E. and Yafi, E. (2018) ‘The best, the worst, and the hardest to find: How people, mobiles, and social media connect migrants in(to) Europe’, Social Media + Society, 4(1): 1–11.
Bourdieu, P. (2001) Meditationen. Zur Kritik der scholastischen Vernunft, Frankfurt: Suhrkamp.
Bowker, G.C. and Star, S.L. (2000) Sorting Things Out: Classification and Its Consequences. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Bradbury, M. (2008) Becoming Somaliland. London: James Currey.
Brankamp, H. (2020) ‘Refugees in uniform: Community policing as a technology of government in Kakuma refugee camp, Kenya’, Journal of Eastern African Studies, 14(2): 270–290.
Brenner, N. (ed) (2014) Implosions/Explosions: Towards a Study of Planetary Urbanization. Berlin: Jovis.
Brenner, N. and Schmid, C. (2012) ‘Planetary Urbanization’ in M. Gandy (ed) Urban Constellations. Berlin: Jovis, pp 10–13.
Brenner, N. and Schmid, C. (2015) ‘Towards a new epistemology of the urban?’, City, 19(2–3): 151–182.
Brenner, N., Peck, J. and Theodore, N. (2010) ‘Variegated neoliberalization: Geographies, modalities, pathways’, Global Networks, 10(2): 182–222.
Brinkerhoff, J.M. (2009) Digital Diasporas: Identity and Transnational Engagement. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Brinkman, I., Both, J. and De Bruijn, M. (2017) ‘The mobile phone and society in South Sudan: A critical historical-anthropological approach’, Journal of African Media Studies, 9(2): 323–337.
Brun, C. (2010) ‘Hospitality: Becoming ‘IDPs’ and ‘Hosts’ in Protracted Displacement’, Journal of Refugees Studies, 23(3): 337–355.
Brun, C. (2016) ‘Dwelling in the Temporary: The involuntary mobility of displaced Georgians in rented accommodation’, Cultural Studies, 30(3): 421–440.
Burton, J. (2020) ‘“Doing no harm” in the digital age: What the digitalization of cash means for humanitarian action’, International Review of the Red Cross, 102(913): 43–73.
Büscher, K. (2018) ‘African cities and violent conflict: The urban dimension of conflict and post conflict dynamics in Central and Eastern Africa’, Journal of Eastern African Studies, 12(2): 193–210.
Büscher, K., and Vlassenroot, K. (2010) ‘Humanitarian presence and urban development: New opportunities and contrasts in Goma, DRC’, Disasters, 34(2): 256–273.
Büscher, K., Komujuni, S. and Ashaba, I. (2018) ‘Humanitarian urbanism in a post-conflict aid town: Aid agencies and urbanization in Gulu, Northern Uganda’, Journal of Eastern African Studies: 12(2): 348–366.
Butler, J. (1990) Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity .New York: Routledge.
Butler, J. (2006) Precarious Life: The Powers of Mourning and Violence .New York: Verso.
Butler, J. (2009) ‘Performativity, precarity and sexual politics’, AIBR, Revista de Antropolog ía Iberoamericana, 4(3): i–xiii.
Butt, B. (2015) ‘Herding by mobile phone: Technology, social networks and the “transformation” of pastoral herding in East Africa’, Human Ecology, 43(1): 1–14.
Butz, D. and Cook, N. (2017) ‘The epistemological and ethical value of autophotography for mobilities research in transcultural contexts’, Studies in Social Justice, 11(2): 238–274.
Cadman, L. (2009) ‘Nonrepresentational theory/Nonrepresentational geographies’ in R. Kitchin and N. Thrift (eds) International Encyclopedia of Human Geography (1st ed), Oxford: Elsevier, pp 456–463.
Carrier, N. (2016) Little Mogadishu: Eastleigh, Nairobi’s Global Somali Hub. London: Hurst.
Carrier, N., and Scharrer, T. (eds) (2019) Mobile Urbanity: Somali Presence in Urban East Africa. Oxford: Berghahn Books.
Cassanelli, L. (2015) Hosts and guests: A historical interpretation of land conflicts in southern and central Somalia. Nairobi: Rift Valley Institute.
Cassanelli, L., and Abdikadir, F.S. (2008) ‘Somalia: Education in transition’, Bildhaan: An International Journal of Somali Studies, 7(1): 91–125.
Castleden, H., and Garvin, T. (2008) ‘Modifying photovoice for community-based participatory Indigenous research’, Social Science & Medicine, 66(6): 1393–1405.
Cartier, C., Castells, M. and Qiu, J.L. (2005) ‘The information have-less: Inequality, mobility, and translocal networks in Chinese cities’, Studies in Comparative International Development, 40: 9–34.
Chandler, D. and Reid, J. (2016) The Neoliberal Subject: Resilience, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield.
Chant, S. and McIlwaine, C. (2016) Cities, Slums and Gender in the Global South: Towards a Feminised Urban Future, London and New York: Routledge.
Charmarkeh, H. (2013) ‘Social media usage, tahriib (migration), and settlement among Somali refugees in France’, Refuge: Canada’s Journal on Refugees, 29(1): 43–52.
Chonka, P. (2018) ‘New media, performative violence, and state reconstruction in Mogadishu’, African Affairs, 117(468): 392–414.
Chonka, P. (2019a) ‘#Bookfairs: New ‘old’ media and the digital politics of Somali literary promotion’, New Media and Society, 21(11–12): 2628–2647.
Chonka, P. (2019b) ‘The Empire tweets back? #HumanitarianStarWars and memetic self-critique in the aid industry’, Social Media + Society, 5(4): 1–13.
Chonka, P. (2019c) ‘News media and political contestation in the Somali territories: defining the parameters of a transnational digital public’, Journal of Eastern African Studies, 13(1): 140–157.
Chonka, P. and Bakonyi, J. (2021) ‘Precarious technoscapes: forced mobility and mobile connections at the urban margins’, Journal of the British Academy 9 (S11): 67–91.
Chonka, P., Edle, A. and Stuvøy, K. (2022) ‘Eyes on the ground and eyes in the sky: Security narratives, participatory visual methods, and knowledge production in “danger zones’, Security Dialogue :1–22.
Chouliaraki, L. (2010) ‘Post-humanitarianism: Humanitarian communication beyond a politics of pity’, International Journal of Cultural Studies, 13(2): 107–126.
Chua, C., Danyluk, M., Cowen, D. and Khalili, L. (2018) ‘Introduction: Turbulent circulation: Building a critical engagement with logistics’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 36(4): 617–629.
Coetzee, C. (2019) ‘Ethical⁈ Collaboration⁈ Keywords for our contradictory times’, Journal of African Cultural Studies, 31(3): 257–264.
Collier, S. and Lakoff, A. (2005) ‘On Regimes of Living’ in A. Ong and S. Collier (eds), Global Assemblages: Technology, Politics, and Ethics in Anthropological Problems, Malden: Blackwell, pp 22–39.
Collins, G. (2009). ‘Connected: Exploring the extraordinary demand for telecoms services in post-collapse Somalia’, Mobilities, 4(2): 203–223.
Compagnon, D. (1998) ‘Somali armed units: The interplay of political entrepreneurship and clan-based factions’ in C. Clapham (ed) African Guerrillas, London: James Currey, pp 73–90.
Cowen, D. (2014) The Deadly Life of Logistics: Mapping Violence in Global Trade, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Crawley, H. and Skleparis, D. (2018) ‘Refugees, migrants, neither, both: Categorical fetishism and the politics of bounding in Europe’s “migration crisis”’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 44(1): 48–64.
Crisp, J. (2015) ‘Zaatari: A camp and not a city’, Urban Refugees, 13 October, Available from: http://www.urban-refugees.org/debate/zaatari-camp-city/ [Accessed 25 March 2019].
Cronin-Furman K. and Lake M. (2018) ‘Ethics abroad: Fieldwork in fragile and violent contexts’, PS: Political Science and Politics, 51(3): 607–614.
Dahir, A.L. and Kazeem, Y. (2017) ‘Homegrown technology is being used to help millions at risk from a devastating famine in Africa’, Quartz Africa, 23 March, Available from: https://qz.com/938093/homegrown-technology-is-being-used-to-help-millions-at-risk-from-a-devastating-famine-in-africa/ [Accessed 25 March 2019].
Dahya, N. and Dryden-Peterson, S. (2017) ‘Tracing pathways to higher education for refugees: The role of virtual support networks and mobile phones for women in refugee camps’, Comparative Education, 53(2): 284–301.
Dalal, A. (2015) ‘A socio-economic perspective on the urbanization of Zaatari Camp in Jordan’, Migration Letters, 12(3): 263–278.
Danielak, S. (2020) ‘Conflict urbanism: Reflections on the role of conflict and peacebuilding in post-apartheid Johannesburg’, Peacebuilding, 8(4): 447–459.
Danyluk, M. (2017) ‘Capital’s logistical fix: Accumulation, globalization, and the survival of capitalism’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 36(4): 630–647.
Darling, J. (2017) ‘Forced migration and the city: Irregularity, informality, and the politics of presence’, Progress in Human Geography, 41(2): 178–198.
de Bruijn, M., Nyamnjoh, F. and Angwafo, T. (2010) ‘Mobile interconnections: Reinterpreting distance, relating and difference in the Cameroonian Grassfields’, Journal of African Media Studies, 2(3): 267–285.
de Certeau, M. (1984) The Practice of Everyday Life. Berkeley, Los Angeles: University of California Press.
de Haas, H. (2007) ‘Remittances, migration and social development’, Social Policy and Development Programme Paper Number 34, United Nations Research Institute for Social Development.
de Waal, A. (1997) Famine Crimes: Politics and the Disaster Relief Industry in Africa. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Debsu, D.N., Little, P.D., Tiki, W., Guagliardo, S.A.J. and Kitron, U. (2016) ‘Mobile phones for mobile people: The role of information and communication technology (ICT) among livestock traders and Borana pastoralists of Southern Ethiopia’, Nomadic Peoples, 20(1): 35–61.
Declich, F. (1995) ‘Identity, dance and Islam among people with Bantu origins in riverine areas of Somalia’, in A.J. Ahmed (ed) The Invention of Somalia. Trenton: The Red Sea Press.
Dekker, R. and Engbersen, G. (2014) ‘How social media transform migrant networks and facilitate migration’, Global Networks, 14(4): 401–418.
Del Ministro, T. (2021) ‘Unraveling spaces of exceptions through durable solutions’, Global Policy, 12(2): 23–27.
Denov, M., Doucet, D. and Kamara, A. (2012) ‘Engaging war affected youth through photography: Photovoice with former child soldiers in Sierra Leone’, Intervention: International Journal of Mental Health, Psychosocial Work and Counselling in Areas of Armed Conflict, 10(2): 117–133.
Desai, R., McFarlane, C. and Graham, S. (2015) ‘The politics of open defecation: Informality, body, and infrastructure in Mumbai’, Antipode, 47(1): 98–120.
Diken, B. (2004) ‘From refugee camps to gated communities: Biopolitics and the end of the city’, Citizenship Studies, 8(1): 83–106.
Dillon, M. (2004) ‘The security of governance’ in W. Larner and W. Walters (eds) Global Governmentality: Governing International Spaces, London: Routledge, pp 76–94.
Diminescu, D. (2008) ‘The connected migrant: An epistemological manifesto’, Social Science Information, 47(4): 565–579.
Djohy, G., Edja, H. and Schareika, N. (2017) ‘Mobile phones and socioeconomic transformation among Fulani pastoralists in Northern Benin’, Nomadic Peoples, 21(1): 111–135.
Dodsworth, S. and Cheeseman N. (2018) ‘The potential and pitfalls of collaborating with development organizations and policy makers in Africa’, African Affairs, 117(466): 130–145.
Douglas, M. (1970) Purity and Danger: An Analysis of Concepts of Pollution and Taboo, London: Penguin.
Duale, A. (2011) ‘How displaced communities use technology to access financial services’, Forced Migration Review, 38: 28–29.
Duffield M. (2013) ‘Disaster-resilience in the network age: Access-denial and the rise of cyber-humanitarianism’, DIIS Working Paper 2013/23, Copenhagen: Danish Institute for International Studies.
Duffield, M. (2018) Post-Humanitarianism: Governing Precarity in the Digital World. Cambridge: Polity Press.
El-Bushra, J. and Gardner, J. (2016) ‘The impact of war on Somali men: Feminist analysis of masculinities and gender relations in a fragile context’, Gender and Development, 24(3): 443–458.).
Engle Merry, S. (2006) ‘Transnational human rights and local activism: Mapping the middle’, American Anthropologist, 108(1): 38–51.
Eno, M.A., and Kusow, A.M. (2014) ‘Racial and caste prejudice in Somalia’, Journal of Somali Studies 1(2): 91–118.
Eno, M.A., Dammak, A. and Eno, O.A. (2016) ‘From linguistic imperialism to language domination: “Linguicism” and ethno-linguistic politics in Somalia’, Journal of Somali Studies, 3(1): 9–52.
Eno, O.A., Eno, M.A. and Van Lehman, D.J. (2010) ‘Defining the problem in Somalia: Perspectives from the southern minorities’, Journal of the Anglo-Somali Society, 47: 19–30.
Enns, C., and Bersaglio, B. (2020) ‘On the coloniality of “new” mega-infrastructure projects in East Africa’, Antipode, 52(1): 101-123.
Eriksson Baaz, M., and Verweijen, J. (2018) ‘Confronting the colonial: The (re)production of “African” exceptionalism in critical security and military studies’, Security Dialogue, 49(1–2): 57–69.
Ettlinger, N. (2007) ‘Precarity unbound’, Alternatives, 32(3): 319–340.
Ettlinger, N. and Bose, D. (2020) ‘The ordinariness of struggle and exclusion: A view from across the north–south urban “divide”’, Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 13(3): 509–526.
Evans-Agnew, R.A. and Rosemberg, M-A.S. (2016) ‘Questioning photovoice research: Whose voice?’, Qualitative Health Research, 26(8): 1019–1030.
Ezeh, A., Oyebode, O., Satterthwaite, D., Chen, Y-F., Ndugwa, R., Sartori, J., Mberu, B., Melendez-Torres, G.J., Haregu, T., Watson, S.I., Caiaffa, W., Capon, A. and Lilford, R. (2017) ‘The history, geography, and sociology of slums and the health problems of people who live in slums’, The Lancet, 389(10068): 547–558.
Fahim, K. (2021) ‘In Syria’s war without end, refugee tent camps harden into concrete cities’, Washington Post [online], 19 July, Available from: https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/middle_east/idlib-syria-war-refugees/2021/07/19/db8d514e-e0e2-11eb-a27f-8b294930e95b_story.html [Accessed 26 July 2021].
Federal Government of Somalia (FGS), (2021) ‘Somalia: The National Durable Solutions Strategy 2020–2024’, Available from: https://data.unhcr.org/en/documents/details/85880 [Accessed 13 August 2021].
Feldman, B. (2007) ‘Somalia: Amidst the rubble, a vibrant telecommunications infrastructure’, Review of African Political Economy, 34(113): 565–572.
Foucault, M. (1998) ‘Polemics, politics and problematizations: An interview by Paul Rabinow, May 1984’, in Ethics: Subjectivity and Truth, (Essential Works of Michel Foucault, 1954–1984, Vol. 1). New York: The New Press, pp 381–390.
Frouws, B., Phillips, M., Hassan, A. and Twigt, M. (2016) ‘Getting to Europe the “WhatsApp” way: The use of ICT in contemporary mixed migration flows to Europe’, Briefing Paper 2, Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat.
Fukui, R. and Arderne, C.J. (2018) ‘Mogadishu’s first tech hub’, World Bank Blogs, 25 June, Available from: https://blogs.worldbank.org/digital-development/mogadishu-s-first-tech-hub [Accessed 24 August 2021].
Furlong, K. (2014) ‘STS beyond the “modern infrastructure ideal”: Extending theory by engaging with infrastructure challenges in the South’, Technology in Society, 38: 139–147.
Gandy, M. (2004) ‘Rethinking urban metabolism: Water, space and the modern city’, City, 8(3): 363–379.
Gebresenbet, F. and Wondemagegnehu, D.Y. (2021) ‘New dimensions in the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam negotiations: Ontological security in Egypt and Ethiopia’, African Security 14(1): 80–106.
Gillespie, M., Ampofo, L., Cheesman, M., Faith, B., Iliadou, E., Issa, A., Osseiran, S. and Skleparis, D. (2016) ‘Mapping Refugee Media Journeys: Smartphones and Social Media Networks’, Milton Keynes: Open University/France Médias Monde.
Gilroy, P. (2001) Against Race: Imagining Political Culture beyond the Color Line. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Goodfellow, T. (2020) ‘Finance, infrastructure and urban capital: The political economy of African “gap-filling”’, Review of African Political Economy, 47(164): 256–274.
Graham, S. (ed) (2010) Disrupted Cities: When Infrastructure Fails. London: Routledge.
Green, E. and Kloos, B. (2009) ‘Facilitating youth participation in a context of forced migration: A photovoice project in northern Uganda’, Journal of Refugee Studies, 22(4): 460–482.
Gregory, D. (2011) ‘From a view to a kill: Drones and late modern war’, Theory, Culture & Society, 28(7–8): 188–215.
Gupta, A. and Ferguson, J. (1997) ‘Discipline and Practice: “The Field” as Site, Method, and Location in Anthropology’ in A. Gupta and J. Ferguson (eds) Anthropological Locations: Boundaries and Grounds of a Field Science. Berkeley: University of California Press, pp 1–46.
Hagmann, T. (2016) Stabilization, extraversion and political settlements in Somalia. Nairobi: Rift Valley Institute.
Hagmann, T. and Stepputat, F. (2016) ‘Corridors of trade and power: Economy and state formation in Somali East Africa’, DIIS-GOVSEA Working Paper 2016/8, Copenhagen: Danish Institute for International Studies.
Hagmann, T., et al. (2022) Commodified Cities – Urbanization and public goods in Somalia. Nairobi: Rift Valley Institute.
Hahn, H.P. (2010) ‘Urban life-worlds in motion: In Africa and beyond’, Africa Spectrum, 45(3): 115–129.
Hahn, H.P. and Kibora, L. (2008) ‘The domestication of the mobile phone: Oral society and new ICT in Burkina Faso’, The Journal of Modern African Studies, 46(1): 87–109.
Haji, A. (2019) ‘Somalia—Data Protection Overview’, Data Guidance, 24 August 2020, Available from: https://www.dataguidance.com/notes/somalia-data-protection-overview [Accessed 24 August 2021].
Hammar, A. (2014) ‘Displacement economies: paradoxes of crisis and creativity in Africa’, in A. Hammar (ed) Displacement Economies in Africa: Paradoxes of Crisis and Creativity. London and New York: Zed Books, pp 3–32.
Hammond, L. (2013) ‘Somalia rising: things are starting to change for the world’s longest failed state’, Journal of Eastern African Studies, 7(1): 183-193.
Hanlon, T.M., Richmond, A.K., Shelzi, J. and Myers, G. (2019) ‘Cultural identity in the peri-urban African landscape: A case study from Pikine, Senegal’, African Geographical Review, 38(2): 157–171.
Hansen, P. (2007) ‘Revolving returnees: Meanings and practices of transnational return among Somalilanders’, PhD thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Copenhagen.
Hansen, S.J. (2013) Al-Shabaab in Somalia: The History and Ideology of a Militant Islamist Group. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Harley A. (2012) ‘Picturing reality: Power, ethics, and politics in using photovoice’, International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 11(4): 320–339.
Harvey, D. (1982) The Limits to Capital. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Hasdell, P. (2016) ‘Liminal urbanism: The emergence of new urban “states”’, Contested Cities Working Paper Series, IV-1A(1-0003): 1–12.
Hatayama, M. (2018) ‘ICTs and livelihood supports of refugees and IDPs’. K4D helpdesk report, Department for International Development, Available from: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/5c6c01dd40f0b61a20f90f3f/504_ICTs_and_Livehoods_of_Refugees_and_IDPs.pdf [Accessed 28 September 2020].
Helander, B. (1997) ‘Clanship, Kinship and Community Among the Rahanweyn: A Model for Other Somalis’ in H.M. Adam and R. Ford (eds) Mending Rips in the Sky: Options for Somali Communities in the 21st Century. Trenton: Red Sea Press.
Hendriks, S. (2019) ‘The role of financial inclusion in driving women’s economic empowerment’, Development in Practice, 29(8): 1029–1038.
Herz, M. (ed) (2012) From Camp to City: Refugee Camps of the Western Sahara. Zurich: Lars Müller.
Hiiraan (2021) ‘Mudug governor condemns Somaliland’s deportation of people from southwestern Somalia’, Hiiraan Online, 3 October, Available from: https://www.hiiraan.com/news4/2021/Oct/184121/mudug_governor_condemns_somaliland_s_deportation_of_people_from_southwestern_somalia.aspx [Accessed 25 April 2022].
Hill, M. (2010) ‘No redress: Somalia’s forgotten minorities’, Minority Rights Group International report, London: Minority Rights Group International.
Hiller, H.H. and Franz, T.M. (2004) ‘New ties, old ties and lost ties: The use of the internet in diaspora’, New Media and Society, 6(6): 731–752.
Ho, S. (2020) ‘Infrastructure and Chinese power’, International Affairs, 96(6): 1461–1485.
Hoehne, M. V. (2013) ‘Limits of hybrid political orders: The case of Somaliland’, Journal of Eastern African Studies, 7(2): 199–217.
Hoehne, M.V. (2016) ‘The rupture of territoriality and the diminishing relevance of cross-cutting ties in Somalia after 1990’, Development and Change, 47(6): 1379–1411.
Holston, J. and Appadurai, A. (1996) ‘Cities and citizenship’, Public Culture, 8: 187–204.
Horst, C. (2007) Transnational Nomads: How Somalis Cope with Refugee Life in the Dadaab Camps of Kenya. New York: Berghahn Books.
Horst, C. and Nur, A.I. (2016) ‘Governing mobility through humanitarianism in Somalia: Compromising protection for the sake of return’, Development and Change, 47(3): 542–562.
Horst, H.A. (2006) ‘The blessings and burdens of communication: Cell phones in Jamaican transnational social fields’, Global Networks, 6(2): 143–159.
Hounsell, B. and Owuor, J. (2018) ‘Innovating mobile solutions for refugees in East Africa’, Available from https://www.samuelhall.org/s/Innovating_mobile_soultions_report_2018.pdf [Accessed 16 July 2020].
Howe, P. (2019) ‘The triple nexus: A potential approach to supporting the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals?’, World Development, 124 (article 104629).
Hughes, N. and Lonie, S. (2007) ‘M-PESA: Mobile money for the “unbanked”: Turning cellphones into 24-hour tellers in Kenya’, Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization, 2(1–2): 63–81.
Hujale, M. (2021) ‘Displaced Somalis and refugees struggle to recover as climate change brings new threats’, 17 August, Available from: https://www.unhcr.org/news/stories/2021/8/611a2bca4/displaced-somalis-refugees-struggle-recover-climate-change-brings-new-threats.html [Accessed 22 April 2022].
Human Rights Watch (HRW) (2020) ‘Letter to Somalia Authorities on Gololey Investigations’, 5 October, Available from: https://www.hrw.org/news/2020/11/20/letter-somalia-authorities-gololey-investigations [Accessed 31 July 2021].
Huq, E. and Miraftab, F. (2020) ‘“We are all refugees”: Camps and informal settlements as converging spaces of global displacements’, Planning Theory & Practice, 21(3): 351–370.
Hutcheon, L. (1993) ‘Beginning to theorize postmodernism’, in J.P. Natoli and L. Hutcheon (eds) A Postmodern Reader. Albany: SUNY Press, pp 243–272.
Iazzolino, G. (2015) Following Mobile Money in Somaliland. Nairobi: Rift Valley Institute.
Idris Haji, H. (2012) ‘Economic Migrants or Internal Displaced Persons? An Empirical Analysis of Urban IDPs in Bosaso City’, MA thesis, Aarlborg University, Denmark.
Ikanda, F.N. (2019) ‘Forging associations across multiple spaces: How Somali kinship practices sustain the existence of the Dadaab Camps in Kenya’ in J.D. Schmidt, L. Kimathi and M.O. Owiso (eds) Refugees and Forced Migration in the Horn and Eastern Africa: Trends, Challenges and Opportunities. Springer International Publishing, pp 287–304.
Ingiriis, M.H. (2020) ‘The anthropology of Al-Shabaab: The salient factors for the insurgency movement’s recruitment project’, Small Wars & Insurgencies, 31(2): 359–380.
Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) (2010) ‘IASC Framework on Durable Solutions for Internally Displaced Persons’, Available from: https://www.unhcr.org/50f94cd49.pdf [Accessed 26 August 2021].
Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (2018) ‘City of Flight: New and secondary displacements in Mogadishu, Somalia’, Available from https://www.internal-displacement.org/sites/default/files/inline-files/201811-urban-displacement-mogadishu.pdf [Accessed 31 July 2021].
International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) (2018) ‘ICRC staff member abducted in Somalia’, 2 May, Available from: https://www.icrc.org/en/document/icrc-staff-member-abducted-somalia [Accessed 31 July 2021].
International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and Privacy International (2018) ‘The Humanitarian Metadata Problem – Doing No Harm in the Digital Era’, 11 December, Available from: http://privacyinternational.org/report/2509/humanitarian-metadata-problem-doing-no-harm-digital-era [Accessed: 16 July 2020].
International Organization for Migration (IOM) (2021) ‘IOM Somalia Relocates Nearly 7,000 Internally Displaced Families Facing Eviction’, 9 March, Available from: https://reliefweb.int/report/somalia/iom-somalia-relocates-nearly-7000-internally-displaced-families-facing-eviction [Accessed 4 August 2021].
Jacobs, J.M. (1996) Edge of Empire: Postcolonialism and the City. London: Routledge.
Jaji, R. (2012) ‘Social technology and refugee encampment in Kenya’, Journal of Refugee Studies, 25(2): 221–238.
Jansen, B.J. (2016) ‘The protracted refugee camp and the consolidation of a “humanitarian urbanism”’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Available from: https://www.ijurr.org/spotlight-on/the-urban-refugee-crisis-reflections-on-cities-citizenship-and-the-displaced/the-protracted-refugee-camp-and-the-consolidation-of-a-humanitarian-urbanism/.
Jansen, B.J. (2018) Kakuma Refugee Camp: Humanitarian Urbanism in Kenya’s Accidental City. London: Zed Books.
Jaspars, S., Adan, G.M. and Majid, N. (2019) ‘Food and power in Somalia: Business as usual? A scoping study on the political economy of food following shifts in food assistance and in governance’, Conflict Research Programme, London: London School of Economics.
Jewitt, S. (2011) ‘Geographies of shit: Spatial and temporal variations in attitudes towards human waste’, Progress in Human Geography, 35(5): 608–626.
Johnsen S., May J. and Cloke P. (2008) ‘Imag(in)ing “homeless places”: Using auto-photography to (re)examine the geographies of homelessness’, Area, 40(2): 194–207.
Joyce, P. (2003) The Rule of Freedom: Liberalism and the Modern City. London: Verso.
Kahiye, M. (2015) ‘Mogadishu International Book Fair deemed a huge success’, 31 August, Available from: http://www.warscapes.com/blog/mogadishu-international-book-fair-deemed-huge-success [Accessed 31 July 2021].
Kälin, W. (2019) ‘Somalia: Displaced populations and urban poor no longer left behind’, Available from: https://unsom.unmissions.org/sites/default/files/un_somalia_dsi_dis_pop.pdf [Accessed 8 August 2021].
Kalyvas, S.N. (2003) ‘The ontology of “political violence”: Action and identity in civil wars’, Perspectives on Politics, 1(3): 475–494.
Kapteijns, L. (2012) Clan Cleansing in Somalia: The Ruinous Legacy of 1991 .Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Kessi, S., Marks, Z. and Ramugondo, E. (2020) ‘Decolonizing African Studies’, Critical African Studies, 12(3): 271–282.
Komito, L. (2011) ‘Social media and migration: Virtual community 2.0.’, Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 62(6): 1075–1086.
Komunte, M. (2015) ‘Usage of mobile technology in women entrepreneurs: A case study of Uganda’, The African Journal of Information Systems, 7(3): 52–74.
Koshin, S.A. (2022) Galkayo’s khat economy: The role of women traders in Puntland, Somalia. Nairobi: Rift Valley Institute.
Kundu, R. and Chatterjee, S. (2020) ‘Pipe dreams? Practices of everyday governance of heterogeneous configurations of water supply in Baruipur, a small town in India’, Environment and Planning C: Politics and Space, 39(2): 318–335.
Kusimba, S., Yang, Y. and Chawla, N. (2015) ‘Family Networks of Mobile Money in Kenya’, Information Technologies and International Development, 11(3): 1–21.
Kusow, A.M. (ed) (2004) Putting the Cart before the Horse: Contested Nationalism and the Crisis of the Nation-state in Somalia. Trenton: Red Sea Press.
Kusow, A.M., Eno, M.A. (2015) ‘Formula narratives and the making of social stratification and inequality’, Sociology of Race and Ethnicity, 1(3): 409–423.
Lawhon, M., Ernstson, H. and Silver, J. (2014) ‘Provincializing urban political ecology: Towards a situated UPE through African urbanism’, Antipode, 46(2): 497–516.
Lawhon, M., Nilsson, D., Silver, J., Ernstson, H. and Lwasa, S. (2017) ‘Thinking through heterogeneous infrastructure configurations’, Urban Studies, 55(4): 720–732.
Lefebvre, H. (1996) Writings on Cities. Oxford: Blackwell.
Lehman, D.V. and Eno, O. (2003) ‘The Somali Bantu: Their History and Culture’, Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics, Cultural Orientation Resource Center, Available from: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED482784.pdf [Accessed 4 August 2021].
Lemke, T. (2005) ‘A zone of indistinction: A critique of Giorgio Agamben’s concept of biopolitics’ Outlines. Critical Practice Studies, 7(1): 3-13.
Lennon, K. (2019) ‘Feminist perspectives on the body ‘ in E.N. Zalta (ed) The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2019 edn), Available from: https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2019/entries/feminist-body/ [Accessed 28 March 2021].
Lesutis, G. (2018) ‘The politics of narrative: Methodological reflections on analysing voices of the marginalized in Africa’, African Affairs, 117(468): 509–521.
Lewis, I.M. (1994) Blood and Bone: The Call of Kinship in Somali Society. Trenton: The Red Sea Press.
Lewis, I.M. (1998) ‘Doing violence to ethnography: A response to Catherine Besteman’s “Representing violence and ‘othering’ Somalia”’, Cultural Anthropology, 13(1): 100–108.
Lindley, A. (2009a) ‘The early-morning phonecall: Remittances from a refugee diaspora perspective’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 35(8): 1315–1334.
Lindley, A. (2009b) ‘Seeking refuge in an unrecognized state: Oromos in Somaliland’, Refuge: Canada’s Journal on Refugees, 26(1): 187–189.
Little, P.D. (2021) ‘Trusting in Somalia’s stateless money: The persistence of the Somali shilling’, African Affairs, 120(478): 103–122.
Lochery, E. (2015) ‘Generating power: Electricity provision and state formation in Somaliland’, PhD thesis, Oxford University.
Long, K. (2012) ‘Rethinking durable solutions for refugees’ in G.K. Brown and A. Langer (eds) Elgar Handbook of Civil War and Fragile States, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, pp 153–175.
Lubkemann, S.C. (2008) ‘Involuntary immobility: On a theoretical invisibility in forced migration studies’, Journal of Refugee Studies, 21(4): 454–475.
Luling, V. (1984) ‘The other Somali: Minority groups in traditional Somali society’, in Proceedings of the Second International Congress of Somali Studies, Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag, pp 39–55.
Luther, W.J. (2012) ‘The monetary mechanism of stateless Somalia’, SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 2047494. Social Science Research Network.
MacGinty, R., Brett, R. and Vogel, B. (eds) (2020) The Companion to Peace and Conflict Fieldwork. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Maclean, K., and Woodward, E. (2013) ‘Photovoice evaluated: An appropriate visual methodology for Aboriginal water resource research’, Geographical Research, 51(1): 94–105.
Madianou, M. (2019) ‘Technocolonialism: Digital innovation and data practices in the humanitarian response to refugee crises’, Social Media + Society, 5(3): 1–13.
Madianou, M. and Miller, D. (2012) Migration and New Media: Transnational Families and Polymedia. London: Routledge.
Majid, N., Abdirahman, K. and Hassan S. (2018) ‘Remittances and vulnerability in Somalia’, Nairobi: Rift Valley Institute, Available from: https://riftvalley.net/publication/remittances-and-vulnerability-somalia [Accessed14 May 2020].
Malkki, L. (2002) ‘News from nowhere: Mass displacement and globalized “problems of organization”’, Ethnography, 3(3): 351–360.
Manzo, K. (2008) ‘Imaging humanitarianism: NGO identity and the iconography of childhood’, Antipode, 40(4): 632–657.
Marchais, G. (2020) ‘Contemporary research must stop relying on racial inequalities’, Africa at LSE, 30 January, Available from https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/africaatlse/2020/01/30/research-must-stop-racial-inequalities-colonialism/ [Accessed 25 April 2020].
Marchal, R. (2002) A Survey of Mogadishu’s Economy. Nairobi: European Commission/Somali Unit.
Marchal, R. (2010) ‘The Puntland state of Somalia. A tentative social analysis’, Paris: HaL Sciences Po, CERI: Centre d’études et de recherches internationales.
Martin, D (2015) ‘From spaces of exception to “campscapes”: Palestinian refugee camps and informal settlements in Beirut’, Political Geography, 44: 9–18.
Massey, D. (1983) ‘Industrial restructuring as class restructuring: Production decentralization and local uniqueness’, Regional Studies, 17(2): 73–89.
Massey, D. (1991) ‘A global sense of place’, Marxism Today, June: 24–29.
Massey, D. (1996) ‘Space/power, identity/difference: Tensions in the city’ in A. Merrifield, and E. Swyngedouw (eds) The Urbanization of Injustice .London: Lawrence & Wishart, pp 100–117.
Massey, D. (2005) For Space. London: Sage.
Massy-Beresford, H. (2015) ‘Where is the fastest growing city in the world?’, The Guardian [online], 18 November, Available from: https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2015/nov/18/where-is-the-worlds-fastest-growing-city-batam-niamey-xiamen [Accessed 31 July 2021].
Mateja, P. and Strazzari, F. (2017) ‘Securitization of research: Fieldwork under new restrictions in Darfur and Mali’, Third World Quarterly, 38(7): 1531–1550.
Mayer-Schönberger, V. and Cukier, K. (2013) Big Data: A Revolution That Will Transform How We Live, Work, and Think, London: John Murray.
Mbatha, S. and Mchunu, K. (2016) ‘Tracking peri-urban changes in eThekwini Municipality – beyond the “poor–rich” dichotomy’, Urban Research & Practice, 9(3): 275–289.
Mbembe, A. (2000) ‘At the edge of the world: Boundaries, territoriality, and sovereignty in Africa’, Public Culture, 12(1): 259–284.
Mbembe, A. and Nuttall, S. (2004) ‘Writing the world from an African metropolis’, Public Culture 16(23): 347–372.
McCann, E., Roy, A. and Ward, K. (2013) ‘Assembling/worlding cities’, Urban Geography, 34(5): 581–589.
McFarlane, C. (2011) Learning the City: Knowledge and Translocal Assemblage. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
McFarlane, C. (2018) ‘Fragment urbanism: Politics at the margins of the city’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 36(6): 1007–1025.
McFarlane, C. (2019) ‘The urbanization of the sanitation crisis: Placing waste in the city’, Development and Change, 50(5): 1239–1262.
Meier, L. and Frank, S. (2016) ‘Dwelling in mobile times: Places, practices and contestations’, Cultural Studies, 30(3): 362–375.
Menkhaus, K. (2010) ‘The question of ethnicity in Somali studies: The case of Somali Bantu identity’, in M.V. Hoehne and V. Luling (eds) Milk and Peace, Drought and War: Somali Culture, Society and Politics. London: Hurst and Co., pp 87–104.
Mignolo, W.D. and Walsh, C.E. (2018) On Decoloniality: Concepts, Analytics, Praxis .Durham: Duke University Press.
Milko, V. and Hammond, C. (2019) ‘The World’s Largest Refugee Camp Is Becoming a Real City’, Bloomberg UK, 27 September, Available from: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-09-27/how-the-rohingya-refugee-camp-turned-into-a-city [Accessed 27 August 2021].
Millar, K.M. (2017) ‘Toward a critical politics of precarity’, Sociology Compass 11(6), e12483.
Minca, C. (2015) ‘Geographies of the camp’, Political Geography, 49: 74–83.
Mire, H.Y. (2017) ‘Qof Ma Dhiban: Somali Orality and the Delineation Of Power’, Major Research Paper, York University, Toronto, Available from: https://yorkspace.library.yorku.ca/xmlui/handle/10315/34823 [Accessed 1 August 2021].
Mohamed, J. (2007) ‘Kinship and contract in Somali politics’, Africa, 77(2): 226–249.
Momodu, S. (2016) ‘Somalia rising from the ashes’, Africa Renewal, 30(1): 36–40.
Moran, D. (2013) ‘Between outside and inside? Prison visiting rooms as liminal carceral spaces’, GeoJournal, 78(2): 339–351.
Mosse, D. (ed) (2011) Adventures in Aidland. The Anthropology of Professionals in International Development, New York: Berghahn Books.
Muggah, R. and Abdenur, A.E. (2018) ‘Refugees and the city: The twenty-first-century front line’, World Refugee Council Research Paper No. 2, July, Available from: https://www.cigionline.org/publications/refugees-and-city-twenty-first-century-front-line/ [Accessed: 27 March 2019].
Müller, T.R. (2013) ‘The long shadow of Band Aid humanitarianism: Revisiting the dynamics between famine and celebrity’, Third World Quarterly, 34(3): 470–484.
Münch, P. and Veit, A. (2018) ‘Intermediaries of intervention: How local power brokers shape external peace- and state-building in Afghanistan and Congo’, International Peacekeeping, 25(2): 266–292.
Murphy, J. and McDowell, S. (2018) ‘Transitional optics: Exploring liminal spaces after conflict’, Urban Studies, 56(12): 2499–514.
Muto, M. (2012) ‘The impacts of mobile phones and personal networks on rural-to-urban migration: Evidence from Uganda’, Journal of African Economies, 21(5): 787–807.
Mwambari, D. and Owor, A. (2019) ‘The black market of knowledge production’, Governance in Conflict Network, 20 March, Available from: https://www.gicnetwork.be/the-black-market-of-knowledge-production/ [Accessed 25 April 2020].
Mwangi, O.G. (2010) ‘The Union of Islamic Courts and security governance in Somalia’, African Security Review, 19(1): 88–94.
Myers, G. (2011) African Cities: Alternative Visions of Urban Theory and Practice, London, New York: Zed Books.
Narotzky, S. and Besnier, N. (2014) ‘Crisis, value, and hope: Rethinking the economy’, Current Anthropology 55(S9): S4–S16.
Natile, S. (2020) The Exclusionary Politics of Digital Financial Inclusion: Mobile Money, Gendered Walls. London: Routledge.
Neves Alves, S. (2019) ‘Everyday states and water infrastructure: Insights from a small secondary city in Africa, Bafatá in Guinea-Bissau’, Environment and Planning C: Politics and Space, 39(2): 247–264.
Ngowi, E., Mwakalobo, A. and Mwamfupe, D. (2015) ‘Making ICTs work for agro-pastoral livelihood: Using the telecentre as learning tool for agro-pastoralists communities in Tanzania’, Journal of Sustainable Development 8(2): 89–98.
Nguya, G., and Siddiqui, N. (2020) ‘Triple nexus implementation and implications for durable solutions for internal displacement: On paper and in practice’, Refugee Survey Quarterly, 39(4): 466–480.
Nikielska-Sekula, K. (2021) ‘“Have you just taken a picture of me?”: Theoretical and ethical implications of the use of researcher-produced photography in studying migrant minorities’ in K. Nikielska-Sekula and A. Desille (eds) Visual Methodology in Migration Studies: New Possibilities, Theoretical Implications, and Ethical Questions. Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp 31–49.
Nordin, A.H.M. and Weissmann, M. (2018) ‘Will Trump make China great again? The belt and road initiative and international order’, International Affairs, 94(2): 231–249.
Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) (2018) ‘Back to square one: Post-eviction assessment in Somalia’, Report, 25 January, Available from: https://www.nrc.no/resources/reports/back-to-square-one/ [Accessed 23 April 2019].
Nurhussein, S. (2008) ‘Global networks, fragmentation, and the rise of telecommunications in stateless Somalia’, MA thesis, University of Oregon.
Nyberg Sørensen, N. (2004) ‘Opportunities and pitfalls in the migration-development nexus: Somaliland and beyond’, DIIS Working Paper 2004/21, Copenhagen: Danish Institute for International Studies.
O’Reilly, K. (2010) ‘Combining sanitation and women’s participation in water supply: An example from Rajasthan’, Development in Practice, 20(1): 45–56.
Oesch, L. (2017) ‘The refugee camp as a space of multiple ambiguities and subjectivities’, Political Geography, 60: 110–120.
Ogallo, L.A., Omondi, P., Ouma, G. and Wayumba, G. (2018) ‘Climate change projections and the associated potential impacts for Somalia’, American Journal of Climate Change, 7(2): 153–170.
Oiarzabal, P.J. and Reips, U.D. (2012) ‘Migration and diaspora in the age of information and communication technologies’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 38(9): 1333–1338.
Oka, R. (2011) ‘Unlikely cities in the desert: The informal economy as causal agent for permanent “urban” sustainability in Kakuma refugee camp, Kenya’, Urban Anthropology and Studies of Cultural Systems and World Economic Development, 40(3–4): 223–262.
Ong, A. (2011) ‘Introduction. Worlding cities, or the art of being global’, in A. Roy and A. Ong (eds) Worlding Cities: Asian Experiments and the Art of Being Global. Oxford: Malden, Blackwell, pp 1–28.
Onitsuka, K. and Hidayat, A.R.R.T. (2019) ‘Does ICT facilitate or impede rural youth migration in Indonesia?’, Proceedings of the 9th International Conference Rural Research and Planning Group, Universitas Mahasaraswati Denpasar, Bali, 34–43.
Owino, B. (2020) ‘Harmonising data systems for cash transfer programming in emergencies in Somalia’, Journal of International Humanitarian Action, 5(1): 1-16.
Paris, R. (2001) ‘Warten auf Amtsfluren’, K ölner Zeitschrift f ür Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, 53(4): 705–733.
Pech, L., Büscher, K. and Lakes, T. (2018) ‘Intraurban development in a city under protracted armed conflict: Patterns and actors in Goma, DR Congo’, Political Geography, 66: 98–112.
Pénicaud, C. and McGrath, F. (2013) ‘Innovative inclusion: How Telesom ZAAD brought mobile money to Somaliland’, GSMA Mobile for Development, Available from: https://www.gsma.com/mobilefordevelopment/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/Telesom-Somaliland.pdf [Accessed 24 August 2021].
Pérouse de Montclos, M-A. and Kagwanja, P.M. (2000) ‘Refugee camps or cities? The socio-economic dynamics of the Dadaab and Kakuma camps in northern Kenya’, Journal of Refugee Studies, 13(2): 205–222.
Picker, G., and Pasquetti, S. (2015) ‘Durable camps: The state, the urban, the everyday’, City, 19(5): 681–688.
Porter, G., Hampshire, K., Abane, A., Munthali, A., Robson, E., De Lannoy, A., Tanle, A. and Owusu, S. (2020) ‘Mobile phones, gender, and female empowerment in sub-Saharan Africa: Studies with African youth’, Information Technology for Development, 26(1): 180–193.
Potvin, M. (2013) ‘Humanitarian urbanism under a neoliberal regime: Lessons from Kabul (2001–2011)’, Paper presented at the International Resourceful Cities 21 Conference, Berlin, 29–31 August.
Pratt, A. (2019) ‘Formality as exception’, Urban Studies, 56(3): 612–615.
Purdeková, A. (2017) ‘Respacing for peace? Resistance to integration and the ontopolitics of rural planning in post-war Burundi’, Development and Change, 48(3): 534–566.
Rabinow, P. (1995) French Modern: Norms and Forms of the Social Environment .Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press.