This chapter examines the issue of harm and suffering, one of the issues identified in reparations litigation and policy debates, in more detail. As Chapter 3 identified through its litigation analysis, some reparations claims have been dismissed in part due to the conception that there is nobody alive today who has directly suffered from slavery and thus in one sense there is no surviving victim who should be compensated. This argument distinguishes the ‘legacy’ of transatlantic slavery as an institution that was directed against Black people who are arguably still feeling its effects, from more recent harms like the persecution of the Jews in the Holocaust of World War II (Rosensaft and Rosensaft, 2002). Holocaust reparations have been paid in part because not only is the Holocaust a more recent memory, but also because several survivors and their children are still alive (Brandler, 2000). As a result, a direct victim who has suffered a tangible injury exists and the harm caused to them can arguably be addressed through reparative approaches that, for example, meet the costs of medical bills and the social care needs and pensions of ageing survivors (discussed further in Chapter 5). The Holocaust was also litigated in an international justice forum in accordance with contemporary international law perspectives (Bassiouni, 1979; Buergenthal, 2003; Bazyler, 2017) whereas transatlantic slavery has not been subject to the same process (discussed further in both Chapter 5 and Chapter 8). Thus, a more coherent legal basis for reparations arguably exists within Holocaust reparations where an identified perpetrator exists whose guilt has been established through normative justice processes.
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