In this chapter we contextualize the scale of the gendered inequalities that have been exacerbated by COVID-19 response policies, which ultimately threaten any progress towards gender equality laid out in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). At the heart of the SDGs are the principles of equity and inclusion: this introduction identifies how and why COVID-19 response policies have exacerbated the inequalities that the most socially, economically and culturally marginalized women and girls in the Global South live with on a daily basis. We use this chapter to clearly lay out the aims, scope, methodology and the structure of the book.
Acciari, L. 2020. Care for those who care for you! Domestic workers’ struggles in times of pandemic crisis. Interface: A Journal for and about Social Movements, 12(1), 121–127.
Adhikari, S., Meng, S., Wu, Y.J., Mao, Y.P., Ye, R.X., Wang, Q.Z., Sun, C., Sylvia, S., Rozelle, S., Raat, H., Zhou, H. 2020. Epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, prevention and control of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) during the early outbreak period: a scoping review. Infectious Diseases of Poverty, 9, 29.
AfDB. 2020. The African Development Bank Group’s Covid-19 rapid response facility (CRF). African Development Bank (AfDB). Available from: https://www.afdb.org/en/documents/african-development-bank-groups-covid-19-rapid-response-facility-crf [Accessed 13 May 2020].
Africa CDC. 2020. AU and Africa CDC launch partnership to accelerate COVID-19 testing: trace, test and track. Africa Center for Disease Control (ACDC).
African Union. nd. AU strategy for gender equality and women’s empowerment: 2018–2028. African Union. Available from: https://au.int/en/articles/au-strategy-gender-equality-and-womens-empowerment [Accessed 22 May 2021].
African Union. 2020a. AU COVID-19 response fund. African Union. Available from: https://au.int/en/introduction [Accessed 14 June 2021].
African Union. 2020b. Framework document on the impact of Covid-19 on gender equality and women’s empowerment: African Union guidelines on gender responsive responses to Covid-19. African Union. Available from: https://au.int/sites/default/files/documents/38617-doc-gewe_and_covid_19_eng.pdf [Accessed 9 December 2020].
African Union. 2021. Meeting on the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on production of gender statistics in Africa. African Union. Available from: https://au.int/en/newsevents/20210427/meeting-impact-covid-19-pandemic-production-gender-statistics-africa [Accessed 27 May 2021].
African Union Commission. 2016. Maputo Plan of Action 2016–2030 for the operationalisation of the continental policy framework for sexual and reproductive health and rights. African Union.
Agüero, J.M. 2021. COVID-19 and the rise of intimate partner violence. World Development, 137, 105217.
Al-Ali, N. 2020. Covid-19 and feminism in the global south: challenges, initiatives and dilemmas. European Journal of Women’s Studies, 27, 333–347.
Ali, S., Asaria, M. and Stranges, S. 2020. COVID-19 and inequality: are we all in this together? Canadian Journal of Public Health, 111(3), 415–416.
Allende, I. 2021. Women are disempowered constantly. Available from: https://www.hayfestival.com/hayplayer/ [Accessed 23 October 2021].
Allon, F. 2014. The feminisation of finance: gender, labour and the limits of inclusion. Australian Feminist Studies, 29(79), 12–30.
Anderson, B. 2001. Just another job? Paying for domestic work. Gender & Development, 9, 25–33.
Animal Político. 2020. AMLO dice que el 90% de las llamadas sobre violencia contra las mujeres son falsas. Available from: https://www.animalpolitico.com/2020/05/llamadas-falsas-violencia-mujeres-amlo/ [Accessed 11 June 2021].
Arenas-Arroyo, E., Fernandez-Kranz, D. and Nollenberger, N. 2020. Can’t Leave You Now! Intimate Partner Violence under Forced Coexistence and Economic Uncertainty. Institute of Labour Economics. IZA DP No. 13570.
Arredondo, R. 2020. Mercosur: a new victim of the coronavirus? OpinioJuris. Available from: https://opiniojuris.org/2020/05/02/mercosur-a-new-victim-of-the-coronavirus/ [Accessed 12 June 2021].
Astles, J. 2020. What is the impact of COVID-19 on LGBTI migrants? Available from: https://rosanjose.iom.int/site/en/blog/what-impact-covid-19-lgbti-migrants [Accessed 22 May 2021].
AWID. 2020. From a feminist bailout to a global feminist economic recovery. AWID. Available from: https://www.awid.org/publications/bailout-manifesto-feminist-bailout-global-feminist-economic-recovery [Accessed 10 December 2020].
Barlow, M., Grugel, J. and Omukuti, J. 2020. Sub-Saharan countries are taking on more debt, and women will bear the brunt of repaying it. LSE Covid 19 Blog. Available from: https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/covid19/2020/07/28/sub-saharan-countries-are-taking-on-more-debt-and-women-will-bear-the-brunt-of-repaying-it/ [Accessed 23 May 2021].
Bartlett, J. 2021. ‘A new Chile’: political elite rejected in vote for constitutional assembly. The Guardian, 18 May 2021. Available from: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/may/18/a-new-chile-political-elite-rejected-in-vote-for-constitutional-assembly [Accessed 18 May 2021].
Batha, E. 2021. Biden to end Trump-era anti-abortion ‘global gag rule’. Reuters, 21 January 2021. Available from: https://news.trust.org/item/20210121193948-4zsjc [Accessed 30 January 2021].
Benería, L., Berik, G. and Floro, M.S. 2016. Gender, Development, and Globalization: Economics as if All People Mattered. New York and London: Routledge.
BHRRC. 2020. Economies of care or abuse? Company behaviour in Mexico during Covid-19. Business and Human Rights Resource Centre. Available from: https://media.business-humanrights.org/media/documents/Mexico_COVID-19_Report_EN_Final.pdf [Accessed 12 November 2020].
Bianculli, A. 2020. COVID-19: An Opportunity for Regional Cooperation in Latin America?United Nations University, 15 April 2020. Available from: https://cris.unu.edu/coronavirus-opportunity-latin-america [Accessed 20 May 2020].
Bieber, F. 2020. Global nationalism in times of the COVID-19 pandemic. Nationalities Papers, Cambridge University Press, 1–13.
Biroli, F. and Caminotti, M. 2020. The conservative backlash against gender in Latin America. Politics & Gender, 16(1), 1–6.
Bøås, M. and McNeill, D. 2003. Multilateral Institutions: A Critical Introduction. London: Pluto Press.
Bond. 2020. UK NGOs increasingly concerned that measures to help prevent spread of Covid-19 in the world’s poorest countries remain unfunded. Available from: https://www.bond.org.uk/press-releases/2020/06/uk-ngos-increasingly-concerned-that-measures-to-help-prevent-spread-of-covid [Accessed 24 May 2021].
Boniol, M., McIsaac, M., Xu, L., Wuliji, T., Diallo, K. and Campbell, J. 2019. Gender equity in the health workforce: analysis of 104 countries. World Health Organization.
Bordo, M.D. and Meissner, C.M. 2012. Does inequality lead to a financial crisis? Journal of International Money and Finance, 31(8), 2147–2161.
Börzel, T.A. and Risse, T. 2019. Grand theories of integration and the challenges of comparative regionalism. Journal of European Public Policy, 26(8), 1231–1252.
Brizuela, V., Kapilashrami, A., Bonet, M., Khosla, R., Kobeissi, L., Say, L. and Thorson, A. 2021. Sexual and reproductive health and rights of migrants: strengthening regional research capacity. World Health Organization Bulletin, 99(5), 402–404.
Bull, G., Grown, C., Guermazi, B., Rutkowski, M. and Uttamchandani, M. 2020. Building back better means designing cash transfers for women’s empowerment. World Bank Blogs. Available from: https://blogs.worldbank.org/voices/building-back-better-means-designing-cash-transfers-womens-empowerment [Accessed 23 May 2021].
Businesstech. 2020. Here’s how many domestic workers lost their jobs during lockdown. Available from: https://businesstech.co.za/news/business/436721/heres-how-many-domestic-workers-lost-their-jobs-during-lockdown/ [Accessed 23 May 2021].
Butler, J. 2006. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. Florence: Taylor & Francis.
CARE International. 2011. Do conditional cash transfers really empower women? A look at CCTs in Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia. CARE International. Available from: https://insights.careinternational.org.uk/publications/do-conditional-cash-transfers-really-empower-women-a-look-at-ccts-in-peru-ecuador-and-bolivia [Accessed 20 June 2020].
Castellanos, L. 2021. 8M: El feminismo es el principal movimiento opositor en México. Washington Post, 7 March 2021. Available from: https://www.washingtonpost.com/es/post-opinion/2021/03/07/8m-2021-protestas-feminismo-movimiento-opositor-mexico/ [Accessed 20 March 2021].
Charmes, J. 2019. The unpaid care work and the labour market: an analysis of time use data based on the latest World Compilation of Time-use Surveys. International Labour Organisation. Geneva: ILO.
Chuku, C., Mukasa, A. and Yenice, Y. 2020. Putting women and girls’ safety first in Africa’s response to COVID-19. Brookings, 8 May 2020. Available from: https://www.brookings.edu/blog/africa-in-focus/2020/05/08/putting-women-and-girls-safety-first-in-africas-response-to-covid-19/ [Accessed 24 May 2021].
Clarke, R., Coulson, J. and Fall, M. 2020. COVID-19 jeopardises progress made towards protecting women and girls from violence and harmful practices. UN Women, 15 June 2020. Available from: https://africa.unwomen.org/en/news-and-events/stories/2020/06/op-ed-unfpa-unwomen-unicef [Accessed 23 May 2021].
COMESA. 2020. Socio-economic impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic: final report evidence from COMESA region. COMESA, November 2020. Available from: https://www.comesa.int/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/Report-Socio-economic-impacts-of-COVID-19-in-COMESA-FINAL-EDIT-09.12.20.pdf [Accessed 15 December 2020].
COMESA. 2021a. Gender ministers approve key documents for gender equality and women empowerment. COMESA, 5 April 2021. Available from: https://www.comesa.int/gender-ministers-approve-key-documents-for-gender-equality-and-women-empowerment/ [Accessed 12 June 2021].
COMESA. 2021b. Gender experts meet to review programmes’ implementation. COMESA, 23 March 2021. Available from: https://www.comesa.int/gender-experts-meet-to-review-programs-implementation/ [Accessed 12 June 2021].
Consejo Nacional Para La Igualdad de Género. 2020. Lineamientos del consejo Nacional para la igualdad de genero frente a la crisis sanitaria, para su implementecion en las instituciones del estado. Consejo Nacional Para La Igualdad de Género, 15 May 2020. Available from: https://www.igualdadgenero.gob.ec/lineamientos-cnig-covid19/ [Accessed 1 June 2020].
Cools, S. and Kotsadam, A. 2017. Resources and intimate partner violence in sub-Saharan Africa. World Development, 95(C), 211–230.
Cornwall, A. and Rivas, A.-M. 2015. From ‘gender equality’ and ‘women’s empowerment’ to global justice: reclaiming a transformative agenda for gender and development. Third World Quarterly, 36(2), 396–415.
Cornwall, A., Gideon, J. and Wilson, K. 2008. Introduction: reclaiming feminism: gender and neoliberalism. IDS Bulletin, 39(6), 1–9.
Corus, C., Saatcioglu, B., Kaufman-Scarborough, C., Blocker, C.P., Upadhyaya, S. and Appau, S. 2016. Transforming poverty-related policy with intersectionality. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 35(2), 211–222.
Costa, S. 2018. Entangled inequalities, state, and social policies in contemporary Brazil. In M. Ystanes and I.A. Strønen (eds) The Social Life of Economic Inequalities in Contemporary Latin America, 59–80. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.
Cotton, C. 2019. Migration and young women’s access to maternal healthcare in sub-Saharan Africa. Health & Place, 55, 136–144.
Coulibaly, B.S. 2021. Debt sustainability and financing for development: a key post-COVID challenge. Available from: https://www.brookings.edu/blog/africa-in-focus/2021/02/09/debt-sustainability-and-financing-for-development-a-key-post-covid-challenge [Accessed 24 May 2021].
Council of Europe. 2004. Gender mainstreaming: conceptual framework, methodology and presentation of good practices. Council of Europe. Final Report of the Group of Specialists on Mainstreaming, EG-S-MS 98(2) rev. Strasburg: Directorate General of Human Rights.
Covarrubias, A. 2019. Latin American integration: circumstantial regionalism. In M. Shifter and B. Binetti (eds) Unfilled Promises: Latin America Today. Washington: Inter-American Dialogue. 121–140.
D’Souza, A. 2010. Moving towards decent work for domestic workers: an overview of the ILO’s work. International Labour Organisation. Geneva: ILO.
Damons, M. 2020. 250 000 domestic worker jobs lost in lockdown. NEWS24.2 October 2020. Available from: https://www.news24.com/news24/southafrica/news/250-000-domestic-worker-jobs-lost-in-lockdown-20201002 [Accessed 20 November 2020].
Davies, G. 2020. The risks of the global Covid debt bridge. Financial Times. 30 November 2020. Available from: https://www.ft.com/content/d3562efc-904a-4799-8593-ae2d372d02ba [Accessed 12 May 2021].
Davies, S.E. and Bennett, B. 2016. A gendered human rights analysis of Ebola and Zika: locating gender in global health emergencies. International Affairs, 92(5), 1041–1060.
Davies, S., Harman, S., True, J. and Wenham, C. 2020. Why gender matters in the impact and recovery from Covid-19. The Lowy Institute. 20 March 2020. Available from: https://www.lowyinstitute.org/the-interpreter/why-gender-matters-impact-and-recovery-covid-19 [Accessed 20 May 2021].
De Jong, S. 2016. Mainstream(ing) has never run clean, perhaps never can: gender in the main/stream of development. In The Palgrave Handbook of Gender and Development. London: Palgrave Macmillan
Deacon, B. 2005. The governance and politics of global social policy. Social Policy and Society, 4(4), 437–445.
Debusscher, P. 2012. Gender mainstreaming in European Union development policy toward Latin America: transforming gender relations or confirming hierarchies? Latin American Perspectives, 39(6), 181–197.
Deere, C.D. and León, M. 2003. The gender asset gap: land in Latin America. World Development, 31(6), 925–947.
DFID. 2017. Economic development strategy: prosperity, poverty and meeting global challenges. Department for International Development. Available from: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/587374/DFID-Economic-Development-Strategy-2017.pdf [Accessed 20 June 2020].
Dhamoon, R.K. 2011. Considerations on mainstreaming intersectionality. Political Research Quarterly, 64(1), 230–243.
Dhar, D. 2020. Women’s unpaid care work has been unmeasured and undervalued for too long. Available from: https://www.kcl.ac.uk/news/womens-unpaid-care-work-has-been-unmeasured-and-undervalued-for-too-long [Accessed 23 May 2021].
DNI COSTA RICA 2002. Trabajo infantil y adolescente domestico … pesa demasiado: historias de vida de siete niñas y adolescentes mujeres trabajadoras domesticas en casas de terceros en Centroamerica, Mexico y Republica Dominicana. Costa Rica: OIT-IPEC/DNI Costa Rica.
Dodds, K., Broto, V.C., Detterbeck, K., Jones, M., Mamadouh, V., Ramutsindela, M., Varsanyi, M., Wachsmuth, D. and Woon, C.Y. 2020. The COVID-19 Pandemic: Territorial, Political and Governance Dimensions of the Crisis. Territory, Politics, Governance, 8(3), 289–298.
Donato, K.M., Alexander, J.T., Gabaccia, D.R. and Leinonen, J. 2011. Variations in the gender composition of immigrant populations: how they matter. International Migration Review, 45(3), 495–526.
Dugarova, E. 2020. Unpaid care work in times of the covid-19 crisis: gendered impacts, emerging evidence and promising policy responses. Available from: https://www.un.org/development/desa/family/wp-content/uploads/sites/23/2020/09/Duragova.Paper_.pdf [Accessed 12 November 2020].
Duggan, J., Morris, S., Sandefur, J. and Yang, G. 2020. New data show the World Bank’s COVID response is too small and too slow. Available from: https://www.cgdev.org/blog/new-data-show-world-banks-covid-response-is-too-small-too-slow [Accessed 14 June 2021].
DW. 2020. Record German debt due to pandemic, but less than expected. Available from: https://www.dw.com/en/record-german-debt-due-to-pandemic-but-less-than-expected/a-56277250 [Accessed 10 May 2021].
EAC. 2020. Gender-based violence and COVID-19 in the EAC. Available from: https://www.eac.int/gender/gbv/gbv-and-covid-19 [Accessed 12 November 2020].
ECLAC. nd. Gender Equality Observatory for Latin America and the Caribbean. Available from: https://oig.cepal.org/en [Accessed 22 May 2021].
ECLAC. 2016. The Social Inequality Matrix in Latin America. Santiago: ECLAC.
ECLAC. 2017. Montevideo Strategy for Implementation of the Regional Gender Agenda within the Sustainable Development Framework by 2030. Santiago: CEPAL.
ECLAC. 2020a. COVID-19 Observatory in Latin America and the Caribbean: economic and social impact. ECLAC.
ECLAC. 2020b. Preliminary overview of the economies of Latin America and the Caribbean. ECLAC.
ECLAC. 2020c. ECLAC proposes moving towards a basic income to help the most vulnerable population overcome the coronavirus’s effects. Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. 12 May 2020. Available from: https://www.cepal.org/en/pressreleases/eclac-proposes-moving-towards-basic-income-help-most-vulnerable-population-overcome [Accessed 20 May 2020].
ECLAC. 2020d. In light of women’s greater exposure, ECLAC calls on states to guarantee their rights in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Available from: https://www.cepal.org/en/pressreleases/light-womens-greater-exposure-eclac-calls-states-guarantee-their-rights-context-covid [Accessed 15 June 2021].
ECLAC. 2020e. Risks of the COVID-19 pandemic for the exercise of women’s sexual and reproductive rights. ECLAC. Available from: https://repositorio.cepal.org/bitstream/handle/11362/46508/1/S2000905_en.pdf
ECLAC. 2020f. Care in Latin America and the Caribbean during the COVID-19: towards comprehensive systems to strengthen response and recovery. ECLAC. Brief v. 1.1 19 August 2020. Available from: https://repositorio.cepal.org/bitstream/handle/11362/45917/190820_en.pdf
ECLAC. 2021. The economic autonomy of women in a sustainable recovery with equality. Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. COVID-19 Special Report No.9 February 2021 Available from: https://repositorio.cepal.org/bitstream/handle/11362/46634/5/S2000739_en.pdf
ECOWAS. 2020. COVID-19: ECOWAS ministers recommend zero tolerance to sexual and gender-based violence. UNICEF, 19 October 2020. Available from: https://www.unicef.org/wca/press-releases/covid-19-ecowas-ministers-recommend-zero-tolerance-sexual-and-gender-based-violence [Accessed 12 February 2021].
El País. 2020. El feminismo marca el paso de la política de América Latina. El País, 4 March 2020. Available from: https://elpais.com/sociedad/2020-03-04/el-feminismo-encauza-la-politica-en-america-latina.html [Accessed 10 May 2020].
Elias, J. and Rai, S.M. 2019. Feminist everyday political economy: space, time, and violence. Review of International Studies, 45(2), 201–220.
Elias, J. and Roberts, A. 2018. Handbook on the International Political Economy of Gender. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Elson, D. 1995. Male Bias in the Development Process. New York: Manchester University Press.
Endler, M., Al-Haidari, T., Benedetto, C., Chowdhury, S., Christilaw, J., El Kak, F., Galimberti, D., Garcia-Moreno, C., Gutierrez, M. and Ibrahim, S. 2021. How the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic is impacting sexual and reproductive health and rights and response: results from a global survey of providers, researchers, and policy-makers. Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica, 100, 571–578.
Equipop. 2020. Protecting women’s health and rights during Covid-19: experiences and feminist perspectives from West African civil society. Equipop. Available from: https://equipop.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/Rapport-Enquete-Covid19-ANGLAIS.pdf [Accessed 8 March 2022].
Erondu, N. 2020. Together, African countries have enough to fight COVID-19. Available from: https://www.chathamhouse.org/2020/05/together-african-countries-have-enough-fight-covid-19 [Accessed 8 February 2020].
Esteves, P. 2020. Latin America’s uncoordinated response in tackling COVID-19. South African Institute of International Affairs (SAIIA). November 2020. Available from: https://www.africaportal.org/publications/latin-americas-uncoordinated-response-tackling-covid-19/ [Accessed 8 March 2022].
Esteves, P. and van Staden, C. 2020. US and Chinese COVID-19 health outreach to Africa and Latin America: a comparison. South African Institute of International Affairs (SAIIA), November 2020. Available from: https://www.africaportal.org/publications/us-and-chinese-covid-19-health-outreach-africa-and-latin-america-comparison/ [Accessed 8 March 2022].
European Commission. 2020a. Q&A: global EU response to the coronavirus pandemic. Available from: https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/QANDA_20_606 [Accessed 24 May 2021].
European Commission. 2020b. EU and Germany join efforts to support the African Union’s response to coronavirus. European Commission, 1 September 2020. Available from: https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/IP_20_1514 [Accessed 12 November 2020].
Evans, D., Hares, S., Acosta, A.M. and Saintis, C. 2021. It’s been a year since schools started to close due to COVID-19. Available from: https://www.cgdev.org/blog/its-been-year-schools-started-close-due-covid-19 [Accessed 14 June 2021].
Evans, R. and Harding, A. 1997. Regionalisation, regional institutions and economic development. Policy & Politics, 25(1), 19–30.
Everett, J. and Charlton, S.E.M. 2013. Women Navigating Globalization: Feminist Approaches to Development. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.
Farrell, M. 2005. Global politics of regionalism: an introduction. In M. Farrell, B. Hettne and L. van Langenhove (eds) Global Politics of Regionalism: Theory and Practice. London: Pluto Press. 1–18.
Fawole, O.I., Okedare, O.O. and Reed, E. 2021. Home was not a safe haven: women’s experiences of intimate partner violence during the COVID-19 lockdown in Nigeria. BMC Women’s Health, 21(32), 1–7.
Federal Reserve. 2020. Federal Reserve takes additional actions to provide up to $2.3 trillion in loans to support the economy. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, 9 April 2020. Available from: https://www.federalreserve.gov/newsevents/pressreleases/monetary20200409a.htm [Accessed 10 June 2020].
Feminist Alliance for Rights. 2020. Call for a feminist COVID-19 policy. Available from: https://feministallianceforrights.org/blog/2020/03/20/action-call-for-a-feminist-covid-19-policy/ [Accessed 4 January 2021].
Fleury, A. 2016. Fleeing to Mexico for Safety: The Perilous Journey for Migrant Women. United Nations University, 4 May 2016. Available from: https://unu.edu/publications/articles/fleeing-to-mexico-for-safety-the-perilous-journey-for-migrant-women.html [Accessed 23 May 2021].
Frenkel, A. 2020. El mercosur ante la covid-19: de la disputa comercial a la amenaza sanitaria. Análisis Carolina, 40, 1–14.
Fresnillo, I. 2020. Shadow report on the limitations of the G20 Debt Service Suspension Initiative: draining out the Titanic with a bucket? Eurodad. 14 October 2020. Available from: https://www.eurodad.org/g20_dssi_shadow_report [Accessed 12 November 2020].
Freund, C. 2000. Different paths to free trade: the gains from regionalism. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 115(4), 1317–1341.
Friedman, T.L. 2007. The World is Flat [Updated and Expanded]: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century. London: Macmillan.
Fukuda-Parr, S., Heintz, J. and Seguino, S. 2013. Critical perspectives on financial and economic crises: heterodox macroeconomics meets feminist economics. Feminist Economics, 19(3), 4–31.
Gago, V. 2018. #WeStrike: notes toward a political theory of the feminist strike. The South Atlantic Quarterly, 117(3), 660–669.
Gago, V., Malo, M. and Mason-Deese, L. 2020. Introduction: the new feminist internationale. The South Atlantic Quarterly, 119(3), 620–632.
Gamble, A. and Payne, A., eds. 1996. Regionalism and World Order. London: Macmillan.
Gandois, H. 2009. Regionalism, a solution for the weak? A case study on Africa. The Women in International Security Annual Symposium, 11 June. Washington, DC.
Gates, M. 2020. The pandemic’s toll on women: COVID-19 is gender-blind, but not gender-neutral. Available from: https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/world/2020-07-15/melinda-gates-pandemics-toll-women [Accessed 24 May 2021].
Gates Foundation. 2020. Covid-19: a global perspective. 2020 Goalkeepers Report. Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
Gebrewahd, G.T., Gebremeskel, G.G. and Tadesse, D.B. 2020. Intimate partner violence against reproductive age women during COVID-19 pandemic in northern Ethiopia 2020: a community-based cross-sectional study. Reproductive Health, 17(152), 1–8.
Gender and Covid-19 Working Group. 2020. Gender and Covid-19 Working Group. Available from: https://www.genderandcovid-19.org/gender-working-group-page/ [Accessed 6 May 2021].
Georgieva, K. 2020. A global crisis like no other needs a global response like no other. IMFBlogs. Available from: https://blogs.imf.org/2020/04/20/a-global-crisis-like-no-other-needs-a-global-response-like-no-other/ [Accessed 22 May 2021].
Girls Not Brides. 2020. Child, early and forced marriage and unions in Latin America and the Caribbean. Available from: https://www.girlsnotbrides.org/learning-resources/resource-centre/child-marriage-and-unions-in-lac/ [Accessed 23 May 2021].
Glasier, A., Gülmezoglu, A.M., Schmid, G.P., Moreno, C.G. and Van Look, P.F. 2006. Sexual and reproductive health: a matter of life and death. The Lancet, 368, 1595–1607.
Glassman, A., Chalkidou, K. and Sullivan, R. 2020. Does one size fit all? Realistic alternatives for COVID-19 response in low-income countries. Available from: https://www.cgdev.org/blog/does-one-size-fit-all-realistic-alternatives-covid-19-response-low-income-countries [Accessed 23 May 2021].
Global Legal Monitor. 2020. Malawi: high court temporarily blocks COVID-19 lockdown. Available from: https://www.loc.gov/law/foreign-news/article/malawi-high-court-temporarily-blocks-covid-19-lockdown/ [Accessed 23 May 2021].
Goldstein, M. 2019. The economic lives of young women in the time of Ebola and lessons from an empowerment program. World Bank Blogs. Available from: https://blogs.worldbank.org/impactevaluations/economic-lives-young-women-time-ebola-and-lessons-empowerment-program [Accessed 22 May 2021].
Gouws, A. and Coetzee, A. 2019. Women’s movements and feminist activism. Agenda, 33(2), 1–8.
Government of South Africa. 2020. Quarterly Labour Force Survey Quarter 1: 2020. Department of Statistics, South Africa.
Gramlich, J. 2020. Coronavirus downturn likely to add to high government debt in some countries. Available from: https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2020/04/29/coronavirus-downturn-likely-to-add-to-high-government-debt-in-some-countries/ [Accessed 23 May 2021].
Griffin, P. 2015. Crisis, austerity and gendered governance: a feminist perspective. Feminist Review, 109(1), 49–72.
Grown, C. and Sánchez-Páramo, C. 2020. The coronavirus is not gender-blind, nor should we be. Available from: https://blogs.worldbank.org/voices/coronavirus-not-gender-blind-nor-should-we-be [Accessed 22 May 2021].
Grugel, J. 2006. Regionalist governance and transnational collective action in Latin America. Economy and Society, 35(2), 209–231.
Grugel, J. and Hout, W. 2003. Regionalism Across the North/South Divide: State Strategies and Globalization. London: Routledge.
Grugel, J. and Riggirozzi, P. 2009. The end of the embrace? Neoliberalism and alternatives to neoliberalism in Latin America. In J. Grugel and P. Riggirozzi (eds) Governance after Neoliberalism in Latin America, 1–24. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Grugel, J. and Riggirozzi, P. 2018. Neoliberal disruption and neoliberalism’s afterlife in Latin America: What is left of post-neoliberalism? Critical Social Policy, 38(3), 547–566.
Gruzd, S., Bosman, I. and Zikalala, N.M. 2020. Regions Apart: How South Africa and Nigeria Responded to COVID-19. South Africa Institute of International Affairs (SAIIA).
Guyatt, T. 2019. Millions of girls are out of school – but data show that gender alone is not the main culprit. Available from: http://uis.unesco.org/en/blog/millions-girls-are-out-school-data-show-gender-alone-not-main-culprit [Accessed 29 May 2021].
Hameiri, S. 2013. Theorising regions through changes in statehood: rethinking the theory and method of comparative regionalism. Review of International Studies, 39(2), 313–335.
Harcourt, W. 2016. The Palgrave Handbook of Development: Critical Engagements in Feminist Theory and Practice. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Harman, S. 2016. Ebola, gender and conspicuously invisible women in global health governance. Third World Quarterly, 37, 524–541.
Hartmann, C. 2016. Sub-Saharan Africa. In T.A. Borzel and T. Risse (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Regionalism, 271–294. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hendriks, S. 2019. The role of financial inclusion in driving women’s economic empowerment. Development in Practice, 29(8), 1029–1038.
Horn, P. and Grugel, J. 2018. The SDGs in middle-income countries: setting or serving domestic development agendas? Evidence from Ecuador. World Development, 109, 73–84.
Horner, R. and Hulme, D. 2019a. From international to global development: new geographies of 21st century development. Development and Change, 50, 347–378.
Horner, R. and Hulme, D. 2019b. Global development, converging divergence and development studies: a rejoinder. Development and Change, 50(2), 495–510.
HRC. 2020. COVID-19 and the LGBTQ community: vaccinations and the economic toll of the pandemic. Human Rights Campaign Foundation. Available from: https://hrc-prod-requests.s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/files/documents/COVID-Vaccines-Brief-030821.pdf [Accessed 8 March 2022].
Huber, E., Nielsen, F., Pribble, J. and Stephens, J.D. 2006. Politics and inequality in Latin America and the Caribbean. American Sociological Review, 71(6), 943–963.
Hulme, D. 2010. Lessons from the making of the MDGS: human development meets results-based management in an unfair world. IDS Bulletin, 41(1), 15–25.
Hulme, D. and Scott, J. 2010. The political economy of the MDGs: retrospect and prospect for the world’s biggest promise. New Political Economy, 15(2), 293–306.
Human Rights Watch. 2021a. World Report 2021: Brazil. Human Rights Watch. Available from: https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2021/country-chapters/brazil [Accessed 8 March 2022].
Human Rights Watch. 2021b. World Report 2021: Somalia. Human Rights Watch. Available from: https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2021/country-chapters/somalia [Accessed 8 March 2022].
IAHRN. 2021. What is the Inter-American Human Rights System? Inter-American Human Rights Network. Available from: http://interamericanhumanrights.org/background/what-is-the-inter-american-human-rights-system/ [Accessed 12 June 2021].
Ifediora, O.F. and Aning, K. 2017. West Africa’s ebola pandemic: toward effective multilateral responses to health crises. Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations, 23, 225–244.
ILO. nd. Ratifications of C189 – Domestic Workers Convention, 2011 (No. 189). Geneva: ILO.
ILO. 2011. Decent Work for Domestic Workers: Convention 189 & Recommendation 201 at a Glance. Geneva: ILO.
ILO. 2018a. More than 60 per cent of the world’s employed population are in the informal economy. ILO, 30 April 2018. Available from: https://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/newsroom/news/WCMS_627189/lang--en/index.htm [Accessed 4 November 2020].
ILO. 2018b. Women and Men in the Informal Economy: A Statistical Picture, third edition. Geneva: ILO.
ILO. 2019. The Unpaid Care Work and the Labour Market: An Analysis of Time Use Data Based on the Latest World Compilation of Time-use Surveys. Geneva: ILO.
ILO. 2020a. COVID-19 has exposed the fragility of our economies. Available from: https://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/newsroom/news/WCMS_739961/lang--en/index.htm [Accessed 23 May 2021].
ILO. 2020b. More than half of Latin American workers are not covered by contributory social security. Geneva: ILO.
ILO. 2020c. COVID-19 y economía informal: la respuesta argentina para mitigar el impacto.
ILO. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-ZFWgOP2HiU [Accessed 20 December 2020].
IMAS. 2020. Mas de 4500 graduadas de manera virtual del Programa Avanzamos Mujeres. IMAS, 30 June 2020. Available from: https://www.imas.go.cr/es/comunicado/mas-de-4500-graduadas-de-manera-virtual-del-programa-avanzamos-mujeres [Accessed 1 December 2020].
IMF. 2020a. IMF executive board approves immediate debt relief for 25 countries. Available from: https://www.imf.org/en/News/Articles/2020/04/13/pr20151-imf-executive-board-approves-immediate-debt-relief-for-25-countries [Accessed 24 May 2021].
IMF. 2020b. Fiscal monitor. Available from: https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/FM/Issues/2020/09/30/october-2020-fiscal-monitor [Accessed 11 May 2021].
IMF. 2020c. A Joint Response for Latin America and the Caribbean to Counter the COVID-19 Crisis: Remarks by Managing Director Kristalina Georgieva at Conference of Latin American and Caribbean Leaders Organized by the Government of Spain. IMF, 24 June 2020. Available from: https://www.imf.org/en/News/Articles/2020/06/24/sp062420-a-joint-response-for-latin-america-and-the-caribbean-to-counter-the-covid-19-crisis [Accessed 13 September 2020].
IMF. 2021a. Gross Debt Position. IMF. Available from: https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WEO [Accessed 5 May 2021].
IMF. 2021b. Policy Responses to Covid-19: Policy Tracker. IMF. Available from: https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 [Accessed 8 March 2022].
IMF. 2021c. World Economic Outlook Update. IMF, Available from: https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WEO/Issues/2021/01/26/2021-world-economic-outlook-update [Accessed 8 February 2021].
Inman, P. 2020. $11.3bn in IMF Covid-19 money is being used to service debt, says group. The Guardian, 16 July 2020. Available from: https://www.theguardian.com/business/2020/jul/16/dollar-11bn-in-imf-covid-19-money-being-used-to-service-debt-says-group-private-lendwers-poorest-nations [Accessed 3 September 2020].
Interpol. 2020. Threats and Trends Child Sexual Exploitation and Abuse Covid-19 Impact. Interpol.
IRC. 2020. Ebola. Available from: https://www.rescue.org/topic/ebola [Accessed 23 May 2021].
Jeffreys, S. 2008. The Industrial Vagina: The Political Economy of the Global Sex Trade. New York: Routledge.
JHU. 2021. Coronavirus Resource Centre. Available from: https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html [Accessed 22 June 2021].
John, N., Casey, S.E., Carino, G. and McGovern, T. 2020. Lessons never learned: crisis and gender-based violence. Developing World Bioethics, 20(2), 65–68.
Jones, N., Gebeyehu, Y., Gezahegne, K., Iyasu, A., Workneh, F. and Yadete, W. 2020. ‘Listening to young people’s voices under covid-19. Child marriage risks in the context of covid-19 in Ethiopia.’ Policy brief. London: Gender and Adolescence: Global Evidence. UK GOV. Available from: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/5f314dec8fa8f57acac337db/GAGE-Covid-19-Ethiopia-child-marriage.pdf [Accessed 28 August 2020].
Kabeer, N. 2015. Gender, poverty, and inequality: a brief history of feminist contributions in the field of international development. Gender & Development, 23(2), 189–205.
Keck, M.E. and Sikkink, K. 2014. Activists Beyond Borders. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Kennedy, G. 2020. Spotlight on sexual and reproductive health and rights at the UN. Available from: https://www.universal-rights.org/blog/spotlight-on-sexual-and-reproductive-health-and-rights-at-the-un/ [Accessed 17 May 2021].
Kharas, H. 2021. Global development cooperation in a COVID-19 world. Center for Sustainable Development at Brookings. Global Working Paper 150. Available from: https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/Global-Development-Cooperation-COVID-19-World.pdf [Accessed 8 March 2022].
Kimunge, S., Kakai, O., Kiptura, E., Ojamaa, B., Matoke, T. and K’onyango, O. 2020. Kenya: thousands of learners fail to report back as schools open. Nation Kenya.
King, A., Andrus, J.K. and Figueroa, J.P. 2020. Financial crisis at PAHO in the time of COVID-19: a call for action. The Lancet, 396(10244), 96.
King, T., Hewitt, B., Crammond, B., Sutherland, G., Maheen, H. and Kavanagh, A. 2020. Reordering gender systems: can COVID-19 lead to improved gender equality and health? The Lancet, 396(10244), 80–81.
Liang, S.T., Liang, L.T. and Rosen, J. 2021. Covid-19: a comparison to the 1989 influenza and how we can defeat it. British Medical Journal Postgrad Med, 97(1147), 273–274.
Lotta, G. 2020. Gender, race, and health workers in the COVID-19 pandemic. Available from: https://fiocruz.tghn.org/articles/gender-race-and-health-workers-covid-19-pandemic/ [Accessed 11 June 2021].
Lu, M. 2020. Charting America’s debt: $27 trillion and counting. Available from: https://www.visualcapitalist.com/americas-debt-27-trillion-and-counting/ [Accessed 16 May 2021].
Lucia, E.L. 2019. Unpacking the politics of regionalism: what to expect from a socio-political economy of regionalism? International Relations, 33, 610–615.
Lupien, P., Rincón, A., Carrera, F. and Lagos, G. 2021. Early COVID-19 policy responses in Latin America: a comparative analysis of social protection and health policy. Canadian Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies/Revue canadienne des études latino-américaines et caraïbes, 46(2), 297–317.
Luxton, M. 2018. The production of life itself: gender, social reproduction and IPE. In Handbook on the International Political Economy of Gender. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Mahmud, M. and Riley, E. 2021. Household response to an extreme shock: evidence on the immediate impact of the Covid-19 lockdown on economic outcomes and well-being in rural Uganda. World Development, 140, 105318.
Majumdar, S. and Wood, G. 2020. UNTF EVAW briefing note on the impact of COVID-19 on violence against women through the lens of civil society and women’s rights organizations. UN Women. Available from: https://untf.unwomen.org/en/digital-library/publications/2020/06/impact-of-covid-19-on-violence-against-women-and-girls [Accessed 8 March 2022].
Makoni, M. 2021. Tanzania refuses COVID-19 vaccines. The Lancet, 397, 566.
Malamud, A. 2018. Regional organizations and development in Latin American. In J. Cupples, M. Palomino-Schølscha and M. Prieto (eds) The Routledge Handbook of Latin American Development. Oxon and New York: Routledge.
Malamud, A. and Gardini, G.L. 2012. Has regionalism peaked? The Latin American quagmire and its lessons. The International Spectator, 47(1), 116–133.
Maloney, A. 2020. Left jobless by pandemic, Colombia’s informal workers to get government aid. Reuters, 27 March 2020. Available from: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-colombia-trfn-idUSKBN21E3JN [Accessed 3 September 2020].
Mansfield, E.D. and Solingen, E. 2010. Regionalism. Annual Review of Political Science, 13, 145–163.
Massinga Loembé, M., Tshangela, A., Salyer, S.J., Varma, J.K., Ouma, A.E.O. and Nkengasong, J.N. 2020. COVID-19 in Africa: the spread and response. Nature Medicine, 26, 999–1003.
Matheis, F. and Staeger, U. 2020. How member states and partners impede the African Union’s quest for financial autonomy. The Conversation, 22 December 2020. Available from: https://theconversation.com/how-member-states-and-partners-impede-the-african-unions-quest-for-financial-autonomy-151115 [Accessed 4 May 2021].
Mazur, A. and Goetz, G. 2010. Introduction. In G. Goertz and A. Mazur (eds) Politics, Gender, and Concepts: Theory and Methodology. London: Cambridge University Press. 1–13.
McDougal, L., Raj, A., Yore, J., Boyd, S., Penumetcha, N., Pryor, E.C., Dhar, D., Darmstadt, G., Jafa, K., Hawkes, S., Purdie, A., Tanaka, S., Benes, E., Walsh, K., Harrison, L., Jutting, J., Misra, A., Encarnacion, J., Seck, P., Beegle, K., Buehren, N. and Gaddis, I. 2020. Strengthening gender measures and data in the Covid-19 era: an urgent need for change. Center on Gender Equity and Health, UCSD. Available from: https://docs.gatesfoundation.org/Documents/COVID-19_Gender_Data_and_Measures_Evidence_Review.pdf [Accessed 8 March 2022].
McGeever, J. 2020. UPDATE 2-Brazil national debt jumps to 78.4% of GDP, nears new record. Reuters, 30 April 2020. Available from: https://www.reuters.com/article/brazil-economy-deficit-idUSL1N2CI1RK [Accessed 3 September 2020].
McGowan, C. 2021. Why Chile’s new constitution is a feminist victory. Foreign Policy, 15 February 2021. Available from: https://foreignpolicy.com/2021/02/15/chile-constitution-gender-parity-feminist-protest/ [Accessed 15 March 2021].
McRobbie, A. 2008. The Aftermath of Feminism: Gender, Culture and Social Change. London: Sage.
Medinilla, A., Byiers, B. and Apiko, P. 2020. African regional responses to COVID-19. Discussion paper 272. Available from: https://ecdpm.org/wp-content/uploads/African-regional-responses-COVID-19-discussion-paper-272-ECDPM.pdf [Accessed 8 March 2022].
Megersa, K. 2020. The Informal Sector and COVID-19 in Sub-Saharan Africa. Institute of Development Studies, Available from: https://opendocs.ids.ac.uk/opendocs/bitstream/handle/20.500.12413/15725/890_informal_sector_and_COVID-19_Final.pdf?sequence=5&isAllowed=y [Accessed 8 March 2022].
Merry, S.E. 2006. Transnational human rights and local activism: mapping the middle. American Anthropologist, 108(1), 38–51.
Migueles, R. 2020. Homicidio de mujeres alcanza máximo histórico en medio del Covid-19: Inegi. El Universal. Available from: https://www.eluniversal.com.mx/cartera/homicidio-de-mujeres-alcanza-maximo-historico-en-medio-del-covid-19-inegi?fbclid=IwAR1xgvCM2UiNBNgm2MghyLC3fdH_sYLsMg4riErRSzK5Frc2-7LizRd7bOI [Accessed 18 May 2021].
Miller, A.M. 2004. Sexuality, violence against women, and human rights: women make demands and ladies get protection. Health and Human Rights, 7(2), 16–47.
Miller, M., Bastagli, F., Hart, T., Raga, S., Mustapha, S., Papadavid, P., Prizzon, A. and Te Velde, D.W. 2020. Financing the coronavirus response in sub-Saharan Africa. Working Paper 579. Available from: https://cdn.odi.org/media/documents/coronavirus_working_paper.pdf [Accessed 8 March 2022].
Milman, O. 2021. Covid-19 has now killed as many Americans as the 1918–19 flu pandemic. The Guardian, 20 September 2021. Available from: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/sep/20/covid-19-death-toll-1918-flu-pandemic [Accessed 4 November 2021].
Mohanty, C.T. 1991. Under western eyes: feminist scholarship and colonial discourses. In C. Mohanty, A. Russo and L. Torres (eds) Third World Women and the Politics of Feminism, 51–80. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.
Mohanty, C.T. 2003. Feminism without Borders. London: Duke University Press.
Moi, T. 2001. What is a Woman? And Other Essays. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Mold, A. and Mveyange, A. 2020. Crisis? What crisis? Covid-19 and the unexpected recovery of regional trade in East Africa. Brookings Institute, 28 September 2020. Available from: https://www.brookings.edu/blog/africa-in-focus/2020/09/28/crisis-what-crisis-covid-19-and-the-unexpected-recovery-of-regional-trade-in-east-africa/ [Accessed 4 November 2020].
Molyneux, M. 2006. Mothers at the service of the new poverty agenda: progresa/oportunidades, Mexico’s conditional transfer programme. Social Policy & Administration, 40(4), 425–449.
Momsen, J.H. 2020. Gender and Development, third edition. London: Routledge.
Montgomery, M. 2017. Colonial legacy of gender inequality: Christian missionaries in German East Africa. Politics & Society, 45(2), 225–268.
Moore, M. 2020. How can African tax collectors help cope with the economic impacts of Covid-19? Available from: https://www.ictd.ac/blog/africa-tax-cope-economic-impacts-covid-19-coronavirus/ [Accessed 24 May 2021].
Mthathi, S. 2020. Austerity measures hurt women and girls the most. Oxfam. Available from: https://www.oxfam.org.za/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/Austerity-hurts-girls-and-women-OZA_Final-01172020.pdf [Accessed 20 December 2020].
Mukhopadhyay, M. 2016. Mainstreaming gender or ‘streaming’ gender away: feminists marooned in the development business. In W. Harcourt (ed) The Palgrave Handbook of Gender and Development, 77–91. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Muluneh, M.D., Stulz, V., Francis, L. and Agho, K. 2020. Gender based violence against women in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(3), 903.
Munck, R. 2021. Rethinking Development. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Munevar, D. 2020a. Covid-19 and debt in the global south: protecting the most vulnerable in times of crisis I. Available from: https://www.eurodad.org/covid19_debt1 [Accessed 27 October 2020].
Munevar, D. 2020b. Covid-19, deuda pública y sistemas de salud en el sur global. Available from: https://www.eurodad.org/covid19_deuda1 [Accessed 24 May 2021].
Muraya, K. 2020. Gender and COVID-19 in Africa. The Gender and COVID-19 Working Group. Available from: https://www.genderandcovid-19.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Gender-and-COVID19-in-Africa.pdf [Accessed 8 March 2022].
Mustapha, S. and Prizzon, A. 2018. Africa’s rising debt: how to avoid a new crisis. ODI. Available from: https://cdn.odi.org/media/documents/12491.pdf [Accessed 8 March 2022].
Mutize, M. 2020. African countries aren’t borrowing too much: they’re paying too much for debt. Available from: https://theconversation.com/african-countries-arent-borrowing-too-much-theyre-paying-too-much-for-debt-131053 [Accessed 21 May 2021].
Nature. 2021. Editorial: India, Brazil and the human cost of sidelining science. Nature, 4 May 2021. Available from: https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-021-01166-w [Accessed 8 March 2022].
OAS. 2020. COVID-19 in Women’s Lives: Reasons to Recognize the Differential Impacts. OAS. Available from: https://www.oas.org/es/cim/docs/ArgumentarioCOVID19-EN.pdf [Accessed 8 March 2022].
OECD. 2020a. COVID-19 in Latin America and the Caribbean: Regional Socio-Economic Implications and Policy Priorities. OECD. Available from: https://read.oecd-ilibrary.org/view/?ref=129_129904-k3xp17fqbl&title=COVID-19-in-Latin-America-and-the-Caribbean-Regional-socio-economic-implications-and-policy-priorities [Accessed 8 March 2022].
OECD. 2020b. OECD Policy Responses to Coronavirus (COVID-19): The Impact of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Crisis on Development Finance. OECD, Available from: https://read.oecd-ilibrary.org/view/?ref=134_134569-xn1go1i113&title=The-impact-of-the-coronavirus-(COVID-19)-crisis-on-development-finance [Accessed 8 March 2022].
OECD. 2020c. Women at the Core of the Fight against COVID-19 Crisis. OECD, Available from: https://read.oecd-ilibrary.org/view/?ref=127_127000-awfnqj80me&title=Women-at-the-core-of-the-fight-against-COVID-19-crisis [Accessed 8 March 2022].
Office for National Statistics. 2021. Main Figures: From Our Time Series Explorer. Office for National Statistics. Available from: https://www.ons.gov.uk/ [Accessed 16 May 2021].
Oguntayo, R., Oyeleke, J.T., John-Oguntayo, O. and Aajayi-Hutchful, F.A. 2020. Personality traits, emotional intelligence, socio-contextual factors and spousal violence: the trajectory of COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. International Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 14(2), 101–107.
OHCHR. 2014. Ending Impunity for Femicide Across Latin America. United Nations Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner. Available from: https://www.ohchr.org/en/newsevents/pages/endingimpunitylac.aspx [Accessed 8 March 2022].
Orchid Project. 2020. Impacts of COVID-19 on female genital cutting (FGC). Orchid Project. Available from: https://www.orchidproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/COVID_female_genital_cutting_FGC_policy_briefing_Orchid_Project_FINAL.pdf [Accessed 8 March 2022].
OSAA. nd. The Regional Economic Communities (RECs) of the African Union. Office of the Special Advisor on Africa (OSAA). Available from: https://www.un.org/en/africa/osaa/peace/recs.shtml [Accessed 17 April 2020].
Osborn, C. 2021. Latin America’s COVID-19 fiasco is also a crisis of regional integration. Foreign Policy, 2 April 2021. Available from: https://foreignpolicy.com/2021/04/02/latin-america-covid-19-fiasco-crisis-regional-integration/ [Accessed 8 March 2022].
Ostry, J. and Berg, A. 2011. Inequality and Unsustainable Growth: Two Sides of the Same Coin? Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund.
Owino, J. 2021. Unpaid care and domestic work is borne by women and girls in Kenya, Oxfam. Capital Business, 14 February 2020. Available from https://www.capitalfm.co.ke/business/2020/02/upaid-care-and-domestic-work-is-borne-by-women-and-girls-in-kenya-oxfam/ [Accessed 8 March 2022].
Oxfam. 2020a. Covid-19 financing and fiscal tracker. Available from: https://www.oxfam.org/en/international-financial-institutions/imf-covid-19-financing-and-fiscal-tracker [Accessed 8 March 2022].
Oxfam. 2020b. IMF paves way for new era of austerity post-COVID-19. Oxfam. Avaliable from: https://www.oxfam.org/en/press-releases/imf-paves-way-new-era-austerity-post-covid-19 [Accessed 8 March 2022].
PAHO. 2019. Intimate partner violence in the Americas: a systematic review and reanalysis of national prevalence estimates. Revista panamericana de salud publica .PAHO. [Accessed 11 September 2020].
PAHO. 2020a. New coronavirus: Fiocruz, Ministry of Health of Brazil and PAHO provide training in laboratory diagnosis in nine countries. Available from: https://www.paho.org/en/news/7-2-2020-new-coronavirus-fiocruz-ministry-health-brazil-and-paho-provide-training-laboratory [Accessed 11 June 2021].
PAHO. 2020b. Promoting health equity, gender and ethnic equality, and human rights in COVID-19 responses: key considerations. PAHO. Available from: https://www.paho.org/en/documents/promoting-health-equity-gender-and-ethnic-equality-and-human-rights-covid-19-responses [Accessed 21 August 2020].
Palacio, H. and Singh, S. 2020. Covid-19 threatens to unravel years of progress on reproductive health and rights. Available from: https://blogs.bmj.com/bmj/2020/07/31/covid-19-threatens-to-unravel-years-of-progress-on-reproductive-health-and-rights/ [Accessed 23 May 2021].
Palermo, T., Bleck, J. and Peterman, A. 2014. Tip of the iceberg: reporting and gender-based violence in developing countries. American Journal of Epidemiology, 179(5), 602–612.
Pannetier, J., Ravalihasy, A., Du Loû, A.D., Lert, F. and Lydié, N. 2020. Sexual violence against women from sub-Saharan Africa after migration to France. Population Societies, 5, 1–4.
Peña, A.M. and Barlow, M. 2020. Argentina is trying to tax its way out of another financial crisis – why that’s so risky. Available from: https://theconversation.com/argentina-is-trying-to-tax-its-way-out-of-another-financial-crisis-why-thats-so-risky-137839 [Accessed 24 May 2021].
Perelman, M. 2020. Coronavirus: African Union calls for ‘$100 to 150 billion’ to help continent. France24. Available from: https://www.france24.com/en/africa/20200407-interview-moussa-faki-mahamat-coronavirus-african-union-calls-for-100-to-150-billion-to-help-continent [Accessed 8 August 2020].
Perez-Brumer, A. and Silva-Santisteban, A. 2020. COVID-19 policies can perpetuate violence against transgender communities: insights from Peru. AIDS and Behaviour, 
Perez Osorio, C. 2020. Las Tres Muertes de Marisela Escobedo. NETFLIX.
Pérez-Urdiales, I., Goicolea, I., San Sebastián, M., Irazusta, A. and Linander, I. 2019. Sub-Saharan African immigrant women’s experiences of (lack of) access to appropriate healthcare in the public health system in the Basque Country, Spain. International Journal for Equity in Health, 18(1), 1–11.
Perez-Vincent, S., Carreras, E., Gibbons, M., Murphy, T. and Rossi, M. 2020. COVID-19 lockdowns and domestic violence: evidence from two studies in Argentina (no. 143). Buenos Aires: Universidad de San Andres.
Peterman, A. and O’Donnell, M. 2020. COVID-19 and violence against women and children: a third research round up for the 16 days of activism. Centre for Global Development.
Peterman, A., O’Donnell, M. and Palermo, T. 2020. COVID-19 and violence against women and children: what have we learned so far? Centre for Global Development.
Peterson, S.V. 2005. How (the meaning of) gender matters in political economy. New Political Economy, 10(4), 499–521.
Phillips, T. and Barretto, C. 2020. Bolsonaro’s response to science appals Brazil’s governors. Available from: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/mar/27/jair-bolsonaro-coronavirus-brazil-governors-appalled [Accessed 22 June 2021].
Plan International. 2020. How Covid-19 is threatening girls’ sexual and reproductive health and rights. Available from: https://plan-international.org/sexual-health/how-covid-19-threatens-girls-women [Accessed 23 May 2021].
Plan International. 2021. Young lives on lockdown: the impact of Ebola on children and communities in Liberia. Plan International.
Plan International and Girls Not Brides. 2020. Covid-19 and child marriage in West and Central Africa. Plan International.
PorEsto!. 2020. Quintana roo entre los estados con mas casos de abuso sexual. Available from: https://www.poresto.net/quintana-roo/2020/10/5/quintana-roo-entre-los-estados-con-mas-casos-de-abuso-sexual-216035.html [Accessed 11 May 2021].
Powell, A. and Valencia, O. 2020. Avoiding a new lost decade for Latin America and the Caribbean. Available from: https://blogs.iadb.org/ideas-matter/en/another-lost-decade-for-latin-america-and-the-caribbean/ [Accessed 24 May 2021].
Power, K. 2020. The COVID-19 pandemic has increased the care burden of women and families. Sustainability: Science, Practice and Policy, 16(1), 67–73.
PSC Report. 2020. The importance of regional integration highlighted by COVID-19. Available from: https://issafrica.org/pscreport/psc-insights/the-importance-of-regional-integration-highlighted-by-covid-19 [Accessed 23 May 2021].
Quiliconi, C. and Espinoza, R.S. 2018. The South American regionalisms: a shift or the return of economic integration? In E. Vivares (ed) Regionalism, Development and the Post-Commodities Boom in South America. Springer.
Rai, S.M. 2018. Gender and development. In Elias, J. and Roberts, A. eds., Handbook on the International Political Economy of Gender . Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. 142–158.
Rai, S.M., Hoskyns, C. and Thomas, D. 2014. Depletion: the cost of social reproduction. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 16(1), 86–105.
Rai, S.M., Brown, B.D. and Ruwanpura, K.N. 2019. SDG 8: decent work and economic growth – a gendered analysis. World Development, 113, 368–380.
Rao, A. and Sandler, J. 2016. Beyond binaries: strategies for a 21st-century gender equality agenda. In The Palgrave Handbook of Gender and Development. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Rathgeber, E.M. 1990. WID, WAD, GAD: trends in research and practice. The Journal of Developing Areas, 24(4), 489–502.
REGHID. 2020a. Impact and policy engagement for durable solutions. Available from: https://gcrf-reghid.com/articles/impact-and-policy-engagement-for-durable-solutions/ [Accessed 22 June 2021].
REGHID. 2020b. Covid-19 lockdown experience. Available from: https://gcrf-reghid.com/articles/covid-19-lockdown-experience/ [Accessed 22 June 2021].
Reuters and Associated Press in Lima. 1 June 2021. Peru has world’s worst per capita Covid toll after death data revised. The Guardian.
Riggirozzi, P. 2012. Region, regionness and regionalism in Latin America: towards a new synthesis. New Political Economy, 17(4), 421–443.
Riggirozzi, P. 2014. Regionalism through social policy: collective action and health diplomacy in South America. Economy and Society, 43(3), 432–454.
Riggirozzi, P. 2015. Regionalism, activism, and rights: new opportunities for health diplomacy in South America. Review of International Studies, 41(2), 407–428.
Riggirozzi, P. 2020a. Everyday political economy of human rights to health: dignity and respect as an approach to gendered inequalities and accountability. New Political Economy, 1–13.
Riggirozzi, P. 2020b. Coronavirus y el desafío para la gobernanza regional en América Latina. Análisis Carolina, 1–13.
Riggirozzi, P. 2020c. The sobering reality of unpredicted scenarios: COVID-19, Health and regional politics in Latin America. Available from: https://cris.unu.edu/covid19-health-and-politics-latin-america [Accessed 12 June 2021].
Riggirozzi, P. and Tussie, D. 2012. The rise of post-hegemonic regionalism in Latin America. In The Rise of Post-Hegemonic Regionalism. Springer.
Riggirozzi, P. and Grugel, J. 2015. Regional governance and legitimacy in South America: the meaning of UNASUR. International Affairs, 91, 781–797.
Riggirozzi, P. and Yeates, N. 2015. Locating regional health policy: institutions, politics, and practices. Global Social Policy, 15, 212–228.
Riggirozzi, P. and Grugel, J. 2021. Argentina’s legalisation of abortion is only the beginning of the battle for reproductive rights in Latin America. LSE Blogs. Available from: https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/latamcaribbean/2021/01/27/argentinas-legalisation-of-abortion-is-only-the-beginning-of-the-battle-for-reproductive-rights-in-latin-america/ [Accessed 29 May 2021].
Riggirozzi, P. and Ryan, M. 2021. The credibility of regional policymaking: insights from South America. Globalizations, 1–16. doi.org/10.1080/14747731.2021.1893530.
Rodrik, D. 2002. After neoliberalism, what? Remarks at the BNDES seminar on New Paths of Development, Rio de Janeiro, September, pp 12–13.
SADC. 2020a. Bulletin 2: SADC regional response to COVID-19. An analysis of the regional situation and impact. SADC.
SADC. 2020b. Statement by the SADC executive secretary, H.E. Dr Stergomena Lawrence Tax on Covid-19 and gender based violence and domestic violence. SADC.
SADC. 2021. SADC remains committed to promoting gender equality and women. SADC. Available from: https://www.sadc.int/news-events/news/sadc-remains-committed-promoting-gender-equality-and-women-empowerment/ [Accessed 17 May 2021].
Sen, G. and Östlin, P. 2008. Gender inequity in health: why it exists and how we can change it. Global Public Health, 3, 1–12.
Serbin Pont, A. 2018. La crisis humanitaria en Venezuela y su impacto regional: migración, seguridad y multilateralismo. Pensamiento propio y Análisis, 23(47), 129–158.
Shadmi, E., Chen, Y., Dourado, I., Faran-Perach, I., Furler, J., Hangoma, P., Hanvoravongchai, P., Obando, C., Petrosyan, V., Rao, K.D., Ruano, A.L., Shi, L., De Souza, L.E., Spitzer-Shohat, S., Sturgiss, E., Suphanchaimat, R., Uribe, M.V. and Willems, S. 2020. Health equity and COVID-19: global perspectives. International Journal for Equity in Health, 19(1), 104.
Shamasunder, S., Holmes, S.M., Goronga, T., Carrasco, H., Katz, E., Frankfurter, R. and Keshavjee, S. 2020. COVID-19 reveals weak health systems by design: why we must re-make global health in this historic moment. Global Public Health, 15(7), 1083–1089.
Shildrick, M. and Price, J. 2017. Openings on the body: a critical introduction. In Feminist Theory and the Body. London: Routledge.
Silverio-Murillo, A., Balmori de la Meyer, J. and Hoehn-Velasco, L. 2020. Families under confinement: COVID-19 and domestic violence. Andrew Young School of Policy Studies Research Paper Series, Forthcoming. Available from: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3688384 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3688384
Slaughter, A. 2016. The work that makes work possible. UN Women. Available from: https://www.unwomen.org/en/news/stories/2016/4/op-ed-the-work-that-makes-work-possible
Smith, E. and Chadwick, V. 2020. What more could donors be doing on Covid-19. Available from: https://www.devex.com/news/what-more-could-donors-be-doing-on-covid-19-97173 [Accessed 22 June 2021].
Soederberg, S. 2013. The politics of debt and development in the new millennium: an introduction. Third World Quarterly, 34(4), 535–546.
Staab, S. 2020. COVID-19 sends the care economy deeper into crisis mode. Available from: https://data.unwomen.org/features/covid-19-sends-care-economy-deeper-crisis-mode [Accessed 23 May 2021].
Steel, I. and Harris, T. 2020. Covid-19 economic recovery: fiscal stimulus choices for lower-income countries. ODI.
Stiglitz, J.E. 2008. Is there a post-Washington Consensus consensus? In Serra, S. and Stiglitz, J. ed. The Washington Consensus reconsidered: Towards a new global governance. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 41–56.
Stiglitz, J. 2020. Conquering the great divide. International Monetary Fund. Fall 2020 issue. Available from: https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/fandd/2020/09/COVID19-and-global-inequality-joseph-stiglitz.htm [Accessed 21 January 2021].
Stubbs, T., Kring, W., Laskaridis, C., Kentikelenis, A. and Gallagher, K. 2021. Whatever it takes? The global financial safety net, Covid-19, and developing countries. World Development, 137, 105171.
Tanyag, M. 2018. Depleting fragile bodies: the political economy of sexual and reproductive health in crisis situations. Review of International Studies, 44(4), 654–671.
Tarrow, S. 2001. Transnational politics: contention and institutions in international politics. Annual Review of Political Science, 4(1), 1–20.
Tesoriero, V. 2020. La Marea Verde como nuevo actor político. Cambios en el movimiento feminista argentino. PLAZA PÚBLICA. Revista de Trabajo Social, 22, 101–107.
The Lancet. 2020. 2020: a critical year for women, gender equity, and health. 395(10217), 1.
Thorlby, R., Tallack, C., Finch, D., Idriss, O., Rocks, S., Kraindler, J., Shembavnekar, N. and Alderwick, H. 2020. Spending review 2020: priorities for the NHS, social care and the nation’s health. The Health Foundation.
Tilly, C. 1998. Durable Inequality. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Tolhurst, R., Leach, B., Price, J., Robinson, J., Ettore, E., Scott-Samuel, A., Kilonzo, N., Sabuni, L.P., Robertson, S. and Kapilashrami, A. 2012. Intersectionality and gender mainstreaming in international health: using a feminist participatory action research process to analyse voices and debates from the global south and north. Social Science & Medicine, 74(11), 1825–1832.
True, J. 2012. The Political Economy of Violence against Women. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
UK AID. 2020. Implications of COVID-19 on women informal workers. UK GOV. Available from: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/911533/Query-53-covid-and-women-informal-workers.pdf [Accessed 8 March 2021].
UK Government. 2020. UK to work with African Union to slow spread of coronavirus in Africa. London: UK Government.
UN Women. nda. In focus: gender equality matters in COVID-19 response. Available from: https://www.unwomen.org/en/news/in-focus/in-focus-gender-equality-in-covid-19-response [Accessed 25 May 2021].
UN Women. ndb. Equal pay for work of equal value. Available from: https://www.unwomen.org/en/news/in-focus/csw61/equal-pay [Accessed 23 May 2021].
UN Women. ndc. Facts and figures: economic empowerment. Available from: https://www.unwomen.org/en/what-we-do/economic-empowerment/facts-and-figures [Accessed 22 May 2021].
UN Women. 2020a. Gender equality experts recommend key actions for COVID-19 response and recovery for G7 leaders. UN Women. Available from: https://www.unwomen.org/en/news/stories/2020/5/press-release-key-actions-for-covid-19-response-and-recovery-for-g7-leaders [Accessed 9 September 2020].
UN Women. 2020b. From insight to action: gender equality in the wake of Covid-19. UN Women. Available from: https://www.unwomen.org/en/digital-library/publications/2020/09/gender-equality-in-the-wake-of-covid-19 [Accessed 9 September 2020].
UN Women. 2020c. Policy brief: the impact of Covid-19 on women. UN Women. Available from: https://www.unwomen.org/en/digital-library/publications/2020/04/policy-brief-the-impact-of-covid-19-on-women [Accessed 18 January 2021].
UN Women and Women Count. nd. Whose time to care? Unpaid care and domestic work during Covid-19. UN Women. Available from: https://data.unwomen.org/publications/whose-time-care-unpaid-care-and-domestic-work-during-covid-19 [Accessed 8 March 2022].
UNCTAD. 2019. Borderline: women in informal cross-border trade in Malawi, the United Republic of Tanzania and Zambia. UNCTAD. Available from: https://unctad.org/webflyer/borderline-women-informal-cross-border-trade-malawi-united-republic-tanzania-and-zambia [Accessed 8 March 2022].
UNCTAD. 2020. The Covid-19 shock to developing countries: towards a ‘whatever it takes’ programme for the two-thirds of the world’s population being left behind. UNCTAD. Available from: https://unctad.org/system/files/official-document/gds_tdr2019_covid2_en.pdf [Accessed 8 March 2022].
UNDESA. 2020a. 8: promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all. UNDESA. Available from: https://sdgs.un.org/goals/goal8 [Accessed 21 May 2021].
UNDESA. 2020b. 4: ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all. UNDESA. Available from: https://sdgs.un.org/goals/goal4 [Accessed 22 May 2021].
UNDESA. 2021. UNDESA policy brief #93: social policy and social protection measures to build Africa better post-COVID-19. UNDESA. Available from: https://www.un.org/development/desa/dpad/publication/un-desa-policy-brief-93-social-policy-and-social-protection-measures-to-build-africa-better-post-covid-19/ [Accessed 8 March 2022].
UNDP. 2014. Assessing the socio-economic impacts of ebola virus disease in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone: the road to recovery. UNDP.
UNDP. 2020a. COVID-19: human development on course to decline this year for the first time since 1990. UNDP.
UNDP. 2020b. UNDP Covid-19 global gender response tracker. Factsheet: Latin America. UNDP.
UNDP. 2020c. UNDP Covid-19 global gender response tracker. Factsheet: Sub-Saharan Africa. UNDP.
UNDP. 2020d. Covid-19 and human development: assessing the crisis, envisioning the recovery. 2020 Human Development Perspectives. UNDP.
UNDP. 2021. COVID-19 global gender response tracker. UNDP.
UNECA. 2021. Waving or Drowning? The Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic on East African Trade. Kigali: UNECA.
UNESCO. 2021. Education: from disruption to recovery. Available from: https://en.unesco.org/covid19/educationresponse [Accessed 8 March 2022].
UNFPA. 2020a. Socioeconomic consequences of adolescent pregnancy in six Latin American countries. Implementation of the MILENA methodology in Argentina, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and Paraguay. Panama: United Nations Population Fund – Latin America and the Caribbean Regional Office.
UNFPA. 2020b. Eswatini SMS service helps women access family planning, food amid pandemic. Available from: https://www.unfpa.org/news/eswatini-sms-service-helps-women-access-family-planning-food-amid-pandemic [Accessed 23 May 2021].
UNFPA. 2020c. Ride-hailing app delivers contraceptives to users’ doorsteps. Available from: https://www.unfpa.org/news/ride-hailing-app-delivers-contraceptives-users-doorsteps [Accessed 23 May 2021].
UNGA 1994. Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women (A/RES/48/104). United Nations General Assembly.
UNICEF. nd. Girls’ education: gender equality in education benefits every child. Available from: https://www.unicef.org/education/girls-education [Accessed 23 May 2021].
UNICEF. 2016. Addressing social norms and gender in support of equity in education. UNICEF.
UNICEF. 2020a. Five actions for gender equality in the COVID-19 response. UNICEF.
UNICEF. 2020b. Protecting children from violence in the time of COVID-19: disruptions in prevention and response services. New York: UNICEF.
UNICEF. 2020c. COVID-19: over 97 per cent of students still out of the classrooms in Latin America and the Caribbean. UNICEF.
United Nations. nd. 3: ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages. United Nations. Available from: https://sdgs.un.org/goals/goal3 [Accessed 22 May 2021].
United Nations. 2020a. UN Research Roadmap for the COVID-19 Recovery Leveraging the Power of Science for a More Equitable, Resilient and Sustainable Future. United Nations.
United Nations. 2020b. Impact on workers of COVID-19 is ‘catastrophic’. ILO. Available from: https://news.un.org/en/story/2020/09/1073242 [Accessed 24 May 2021].
United Nations. 2020c. COVID-19: impact could cause equivalent of 195 million job losses, says ILO chief. Available from: https://news.un.org/en/story/2020/04/1061322 [Accessed 11 May 2021].
United Nations General Assembly. 1993. Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women (A/RES/48/104).
UNODC. 2019. Global Study on Homicide 2019. UNODC. Vienna.
V. 2021. Disaster patriarchy: how the pandemic has unleashed a war on women. The Guardian. Available from: https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2021/jun/01/disaster-patriarchy-how-the-pandemic-has-unleashed-a-war-on-women [Accessed 7 June 2021].
Vargas, M. 2020. ‘Okupar’ La CNDH: Madres Convierten Oficiana En Refugio. Available from: https://corrientealterna.unam.mx/derechos-humanos/toma-de-la-cndh-madres-convierten-oficina-en-refugio/ [Accessed 16 May 2021].
Walker, P.G., White, M.T., Griffin, J.T., Reynolds, A., Ferguson, N.M. and Ghani, A.C. 2015. Malaria morbidity and mortality in Ebola-affected countries caused by decreased health-care capacity, and the potential effect of mitigation strategies: a modelling analysis. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 15(7), 825–832.