FIVE: The Last Laugh?

The final chapter concludes with reflective discussions around the relationship between resistance, power, humour and agency in Africa emphasizing that in order to understand the complexities involved in humour and political work, it is necessary to recognize how humour enacts a particular type of agency. Finally, we explore what the implications of our findings are for more contemporary issues, like COVID-19, as well as for understanding what these power relations mean for notions such as decolonizing knowledge.

  • Abrahamsen, R. (2003). African Studies and the Post-Colonial Challenge. African Affairs, 102(407), 189210.

  • Adebanwi, W. (2004). The City, Hegemony and Ethno-Spatial Politics: The Press and the Struggle for Lagos in Colonial Nigeria. Nationalism and Ethnic Politics, 9(4), 2551.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Adebanwi, W. (2007). Territoriality and the Discourse of Ethnic Groups’ Clashes. Nationalism and Ethnic Politics, 13(2), 21343.

  • Adebanwi, W. (Ed) (2017). The Political Economy of Everyday Life in Africa: Beyond the Margins .Woodbridge: James Currey.

  • Adetuyi, C., Jegede, O.O., & Adeniran, A.A. (2018). Linguistic Features of Pidgin in Stand-Up Comedy in Nigeria. World Journal of English Language, 8(2), 111.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Agbese, A.-O., & Agbese, E. (2021). ‘Coromentality’: Nigerians’ Use of Memetic Humour During the COVID-19 Lockdowns. In S. Mpofu (Ed), Digital Humour in the Covid-19 Pandemic: Perspectives from the Global South (pp 75100). Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Amin, S. (2020, 23 Jan). Artistic Freedom of Expression Shrinks in ‘New’ Egypt. Retrieved 29 November 2021, from Al-Monitor: https://www.al-monitor.com/originals/2020/01/january-25-anniversary-freedom-of-expression.html

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Amnesty International (2020, 8 July). Tanzania: Charges against Comedian for Laughing Must Be Thrown Out. Retrieved 12 July 2022, from Amnesty International: https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2020/07/tanzania-charges-against-comedian-for-laughing-must-be-thrown-out/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anazia, D. (2015, 20 Feb). 2015 Elections: Much Ado About Celebrities’ Endorsement. Retrieved 12 July 2022, from The Guardian: https://guardian.ng/saturday-magazine/weekend-beats/2015-elections-much-ado-about-celebrities-endorsement/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anderson, E. (2020). In a Silent Way. Journal of Aesthetics & Culture, 12(1), 110.

  • Anderton, J. (2016). Beckett’s Creatures: Art of Failure after the Holocaust .London: Bloomsbury.

  • Angelini, E.M. (2020). Gado’s Editorial Cartoons: A Reflection of the Political Turmoil in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Cincinnati Romance Review, 48, 1837.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Apter, A. (2007). Beyond Words: Discourse and Critical Agency in Africa .Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

  • Balogun, T.A. (2013). In Defense of Nigerian Pidgin. Journal of Languages and Culture, 4(5), 908.

  • Banjo, O.O., Appiah, O., Wang, Z., Brown, C., & Walther, W.O. (2015). Co-Viewing Effects of Ethnic-Oriented Programming: An Examination of In-Group Bias and Racial Comedy Exposure. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 92(3), 66280.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnett, M. (1999). Culture, Strategy and Foreign Policy Change: Israel’s Road to Oslo. European Journal of International Relations, 5(1), 536.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baumgartner, J., & Morris, J.S. (Eds) (2008). Laughing Matters: Humor and American Politics in the Media Age .New York and London: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baumgartner, J., & Lockerbie, B. (2018). Maybe It Is More Than a Joke: Satire, Mobilization, and Political Participation. Social Science Quarterly, 99(3), 106074.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Belanoff, P. (2001). Silence: Reflection, Literacy, Learning, and Teaching. College Composition and Communication, 52(3), 399428.

  • Bell, N. (2015). We Are not Amused: Failed Humor in Interaction .Berlin, Boston and Munich: De Gruyter Mouton.

  • Bennoune, M. (2016, 9 Apr). Jihadist ‘Crimes that Surpass All Understanding’: A Letter from 1995 Algeria. Retrieved 12 July 2022, from Open Democracy: https://www.opendemocracy.net/en/5050/jihadist-crimes-that-surpass-all-understanding-letter-from-1995-algeria/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bernal, V. (2013). Please Forget Democracy and Justice: Eritrean Politics and the Powers of Humor. American Ethnologist, 40(2), 3009.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bhungalia, L. (2020). Laughing at Power: Humor, Transgression, and the Politics of Refusal in Palestine. Environment and Planning C: Politics and Space, 38(3), 387404.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Billig, M. (2005). Laughter and Ridicule: Towards a Social Critique of Humour .London: Sage.

  • Black, S.P. (2012). Laughing to Death: Joking as Support amid Stigma for Zulu-speaking South Africans Living with HIV. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, 22(1), 87108.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bonello, K., Giappone, R., Francis, F., & MacKenzie, I. (Eds) (2018). Comedy and Critical Thought: Laughter as Resistance .London: Rowman and Littlefield International.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boyle, T. (2013). Silence: My Worst Stand-Up Comedy Performances and Experiences .Scotts Valley, CA: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bozzini, D. (2013). The Catch-22 of Resistance: Jokes and the Political Imagination of Eritrean Conscripts. Africa Today, 60(2), 3964.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bradfield, S.J. (2012). Madam & Eve: The Politics of Race and Postcolonial Television in South Africa. Television and New Media, 14(6), 52945.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brassett, J. (2016). British Comedy, Global Resistance: Russell Brand, Charlie Brooker and Stewart Lee. European Journal of International Relations, 22(1), 16891.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brassett, J., Browning, C.S., & Web, A.W. (2020). Humorous States: IR, New Diplomacy and the Rise of Comedy in Global Politics. Global Society, 35(1), 17.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Braun, L.N., & Buse, R.N. (2020). Infectious Images: Viral Internet Content in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Critical Arts, 34(4), 10316.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Burke, J. (2019, 23 Aug). Zimbabwean Comedian Goes into Hiding after Abduction and Beating. Retrieved 12 July 2022, from The Guardian: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/aug/23/zimbabwean-comedian-samantha-kureya-goes-into-hiding-after-abduction-and-beating

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Calvert, J.E. (2006). The Quaker Theory of a Civil Constitution. History of Political Thought, 27(4), 586619.

  • Canut, C., & Smith, É. (2006). Pacts, Alliances and Jokes: Local Practice and Global Discourse. Cahiers d’études africaines, 4(184), 687754.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Certeau, M.D. (1984). The Practice of Everyday Life . (S. Rendall, Trans) Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

  • Chenoweth, E., Perkoski, E., & Kang, S. (2017). State Repression and Nonviolent Resistance. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 61(9), 195069.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheruiyot, D., & Uppal, C. (2019). Pan-Africanism as a Laughing Matter: (Funny) Expressions of African Identity on Twitter. Journal of African Media Studies, 11(2), 25774.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chima, F.U. (2017). Satire in Traditional African Oral Poetry: The Edda Igbo Example. In A. Ebeogu (Ed), Ethnosensitive Dimensions of African Oral Literature: Igbo Perspectives (pp 10538). New York: African Heritage Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chisale, S.S. (2021). Listening to the Voices from Below on Marital Violence and Silence: The Case of Judges 19. In C.J. Kaunda (Ed), Religion, Gender, and Wellbeing in Africa (p 134). Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chonka, P. (2017). Cartoons in Conflict: Amin Arts and Transnational Geopolitical Imagination in the Somali-language Public Sphere. Critical African Studies, 9(3), 35076.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chonka, P. (2019). The Empire Tweets Back? #HumanitarianStarWars and Memetic Self-Critique in the Aid Industry. Social Media and Society, 5(4), 113.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Christensen, J.B. (1963). Utani: Joking, Sexual License and Social Obligations Among the Luguru. American Anthropologist, 65(6), 131427.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chukwuma, H. (2011). Teaching African Literature in an Age of Multiculturalism. In E.N. Emenyonu (Ed), Teaching African Literature Today (Vol. 29, pp 6370). Woodbridge: James Currey.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chukwumah, I. (Ed) (2018). Joke-Performance in Africa: Mode, Media and Meaning .London and New York: Routledge.

  • Cixous, H., Cohen, K., & Cohen, P. (1976). The Laugh of the Medusa (K. Cohen & P. Cohen, Trans). Signs, 1(4), 87593.

  • Clark, J.H. (2019). ‘The State Kills, We Kill, Everyone Kills’: Cracking and Framing the Field with Humor. Political Geography, 68, 1318.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cole, H.M. (1982). Mbari: Art and Life Among the Owerri Igbo .Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

  • Conradie, M., Brokensha, S., & Pretorius, M. (2012). No Small Irony: A Discourse Analysis of Zapiro’s 2010 World Cup Cartoons. Language Matters, 43(1), 3959.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cornwall, A. (2002). Locating Citizen Participation. IDS Bulletin, 33(2), ix.

  • Crigler, R.K. (2018). No Laughing Matter? Humour and the Performance of South Africa. South African Theatre Journal, 31(2–3), 15571.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CWB (2022). Our Work. Retrieved 29 April 2022, from Clowns Without Borders International: https://www.cwb-international.org/our-work/

  • Dahlgren, P., & Alvares, C. (2013). Political Participation in an Age of Mediatisation. Javnost: The Public, 20(2), 4765.

  • Daily News Reporter (2021, 17 Sept). Dr Kijaji Warns Against Irresponsible Reportage. Retrieved 12 July 2022, from Daily News: https://www.africa-press.net/tanzania/all-news/dr-kijaji-warns-against-irresponsible-reportage-2

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Damir-Geilsdorf, S., & Milich, S. (2020). Forms and Functions of Political Humor in Arab Societies: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives. In S. Damir-Geilsdorf, & S. Milich (Eds), Creative Resistance: Political Humor in the Arab Uprisings (pp 950). Bielefeld: transcript Verlag.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Davidheiser, M. (2006). Joking for Peace. Social Organization, Tradition, and Change in Gambian Conflict Management. Cahiers d’études africaines, 184, 83559.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Davies, C. (1982). Ethnic Jokes, Moral Values and Social Boundaries. The British Journal of Sociology, 33(3), 383403.

  • Davies, C. (2007). Humour and Protest: Jokes under Communism. International Review of Social History, 52(S15), 291305.

  • Davis, D.E. (1994). The Harm That Has No Name: Street Harassment, Embodiment, and African American Women. UCLA Women’s Law Journal, 4(2), 13378.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Degani, M. (2018). Shock Humor: Zaniness and the Freedom of Permanent Improvisation in Urban Tanzania. Cultural Anthropology, 33(3), 47398.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Denselow, R. (2015, 1 Apr). Fela Kuti: Nigeria’s New President Muhammadu Buhari: The Man who Jailed Fela Kuti. Retrieved 29 November 2021, from The Guardian: https://www.theguardian.com/music/2015/apr/01/nigerias-new-president-muhammadu-buhari-is-the-man-who-put-fela-kuti-in-jail

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deutsch, E. (1996). Essays on the Nature of Art .Albany: State University of New York Press.

  • Devlieger, C. (2018). Rome and the Romains: Laughter on the Border between Kinshasa and Brazzaville. Africa, 88(1), 16082.

  • Diamond, L. (2010). Liberation Technology. Journal of Democracy, 21(3), 6983.

  • Dodds, K. (2010). Popular Geopolitics and Cartoons: Representing Power Relations, Repetition and Resistance. Critical African Studies, 2(4), 11331.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Donian, J. (2019). Taking Comedy Seriously: Stand-Up’s Dissident Potential in Mass Culture .Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.

  • Donian, J. (2021). The comedy-scape in Apartheid South Africa: A Historical Overview. Phronimon, 22, 115.

  • Donian, J. (2022a). Laughing Along Racial Lines: Humour in Post-Apartheid South Africa. Phronimon, 23, 115.

  • Donian, J. (2022b). South African Vernacular Stand-up Comedy as Performative Resistance. In I. Nwankwọ (Ed), Stand-up Comedy in Africa: Humour in Popular Languages and Media (pp 6788). Stuttgart: Ibidem Verlag.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dorman, S.R. (2006). Post-liberation Politics in Africa: Examining the Political Legacy of Struggle. Third World Quarterly, 27(6), 1085101.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dowling, T. (1996, Feb). The Forms, Functions and Techniques of Xhosa Humour. PhD Thesis, University of Cape Town. Retrieved from https://open.uct.ac.za/bitstream/handle/11427/17456/thesis_hum_1996_dowling_tessa.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ebewo, P. (2001). Satire and the Performing Arts: The African Heritage. In L. Losambe, & D. Sarinjeive (Eds), Pre-colonial and Post-colonial Drama and Theatre in Africa (pp 4858). Claremont, Cape Town: New Africa Books.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ebrahim, H. (2018). Traversing the Cinemascape of Contemporary South Africa: A Peripatetic Journey. Black Camera, 9(2), 194215.

  • Eko, L. (2007). It’s a Political Jungle Out There: How Four African Newspaper Cartoons Dehumanized and ‘Deterritorialized’ African Political Leaders in the Post-Cold War Era. The International Communication Gazette, 69(3), 21938.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Eko, L. (2010). The Art of Criticism: How African Cartoons Discursively Constructed African Media Realities in the Post-Cold War Era. Critical African Studies, 2(4), 6591.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Eko, L. (2015). The Art of Satirical Deterritorialization: Shifting Cartoons from Real Space to Cyberspace in Sub-Saharan Africa. The International Communication Gazette, 77(3), 24866.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Eko, L. (2017). Globalization and the Diffusion of Media Policy in Africa: The Case of Defamation of Public Officials. Africa Policy Journal, 12, 1744.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Elden, S. (2006). Spaces of Humanitarian Exception. Geografiska Annaler: Series B, Human Geography, 88(4), 47785.

  • Ellis, S. (1989). Tuning In to Pavement Radio. African Affairs, 88(352), 32130.

  • El-Shokrofy, E.M. (2022). In the Shadow of the 1994 Genocide: Arthur Nkusi and Stand-up Comedy in Rwanda. In I. Nwankwọ (Ed), Stand-up Comedy in Africa: Humour in Popular Languages and Media (pp 15169). Stuttgart: Ibidem Verlag.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Enekwe, O. (2017). Igbo Masks: The Oneness of Ritual .Lagos: Department of Culture, Federal Ministry of Information and Culture.

  • Ephratt, M. (2016). Verbal Silence as Figure: Its Contribution to Linguistic Theory. Poznan Studies in Contemporary Linguistics, 52(1), 4376.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Eriksen, C. (2019). Negotiating Adversity with Humour: A Case Study of Wildland Firefighter Women. Political Geography, 68, 13945.

  • Ettlinger, N. (2011). Governmentality as Epistemology. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 101(3), 53760.

  • Fernandez, B. (2018). Silence as a Form of Agency? Exploring the Limits of an Idea. In T. Dreher, & A.A. Mondal (Eds), Ethical Responsiveness and the Politics of Difference (pp 187204). Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fick, A. (2016, 15 Sept). Laughter Is not the Best Medicine for Freedom’s Unfinished Business. Retrieved 11 July 2022, from eNCA: https://www.enca.com/opinion/laughter-is-not-the-best-medicine-for-freedoms-unfinished-business

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Finnegan, R. (1970 [2012]). Oral Literature in Africa .Cambridge: Open Book Publishers.

  • Fivush, R. (2010). Speaking Silence: The Social Construction of Silence in Autobiographical and Cultural Narratives. Memory, 18(2), 8898.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fluri, J.L. (2019). What’s so Funny in Afghanistan?: Jocular Geopolitics and the Everyday Use of Humor in Spaces of Protracted Precarity. Political Geography, 68, 12530.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fluri, J.L., & Clark, J.H. (2019). Political Geographies of Humor and Adversity. Political Geography, 68, 1224.

  • Fontein, J. (2009). Anticipating the Tsunami: Rumours, Planning and the Arbitrary State in Zimbabwe. Africa, 79(3), 37098.

  • Foucault, M. (1991). Governmentality. In G. Burchell, C. Gordon, & P. Miller (Eds), The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality (pp 87104). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Freedom House. (2022a). Freedom in the World 2022: Sudan. Retrieved 28 September 2022, from Freedom House: https://freedomhouse.org/country/sudan/freedom-world/2022

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Freedom House. (2022b) Freedom in the World 2022: Egypt. Retrieved 28 September 2022, from Freedom House: https://freedomhouse.org/country/egypt/freedom-world/2022

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Furniss, G. (1996). Poetry, Prose and Popular Culture in Hausa .Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press for International African Institute.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Galtung, J. (1969). Violence, Peace and Peace Research. Journal of Peace Research, 6(3), 16791.

  • Galtung, J. (1990). Cultural Violence. Journal of Peace Research, 27(3), 291305.

  • Gathara, P. (2004). Drawing the Line: The History and Impact of Political Cartooning in Kenya .Nairobi: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung.

  • George, C., & Liew, S. (2021). Red Lines: Political Cartoons and the Struggle against Censorship .Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

  • George, N., & Kent, L. (2017). Sexual Violence and Hybrid Peacebuilding: How Does Silence ‘Speak’? Third World Thematics: A TWQ Journal, 2(4), 51837.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Giddens, A. (1984). The Constitution of Society: Outline of the Theory of Structuration .Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Githiora, C. (2018). Sheng: Rise of a Kenyan Swahili Vernacular .Woodbridge and Rochester: James Currey.

  • Gordon, C. (1991). Governmental Rationality: An Introduction. In G. Burchell, C. Gordon, & P. Miller (Eds), The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality (pp 152). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grainger, R. (2010). The Uses of Chaos .Oxford: Peter Lang.

  • Gramsci, A. (1971). Selections from the Prison Notebooks of Antonio Gramsci .New York: International Publishers.

  • Gruen, J. (1969, Dec). Samuel Beckett Talks about Beckett. Vogue, p 210.

  • Gukurume, S. (2022). Youth and the Temporalities of Non-violent Struggles in Zimbabwe: #ThisFlag Movement. African Security Review, 31(3), 282–99.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hagberg, S. (2006). The Politics of Joking Relationships in Burkina Faso. Zeitschrift Für Ethnologie, 131(2), 197214.

  • Hammett, D. (2010a). Political Cartoons, Post-Colonialism and Critical African Studies. Critical African Studies, 2(4), 126.

  • Hammett, D. (2010b). Zapiro and Zuma: A Symptom of an Emerging Constitutional Crisis in South Africa? Political Geography, 29(2), 8896.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hammett, D. (2011). Resistance, Power and Geopolitics in Zimbabwe. Area, 43(2), 20210.

  • Hammett, D. (2014). Narrating the Contested Public Sphere: Zapiro, Zuma and Freedom of Expression in South Africa. In E. Obadare, & W. Willems (Eds), Civic Agency in Africa: Arts of Resistance in the 21st Century (pp 20424). Woodbridge: James Currey.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hammett, D. (2022). Governmentality and Comic Propaganda: Mighty Man, the Black Superhero of Apartheid. Political Geography, 99, 102742.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hammett, D., & Marshall, D. (2017). Building Peaceful Citizens? Nation-building in Divided Societies. Space and Polity, 21(2), 12943.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hammett, D., & Jackson, L. (2018). Developing a ‘Civil’ Society in Partial Democracies: In/civility and a Critical Public Sphere in Uganda and Singapore. Political Geography, 67, 14555.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harris, A. (2012). An Awkward Silence: Reflections on Theory and Africa. Kunapipi, 34(1), 2841.

  • Hart, M. (2007). Humour and Social Protest: An Introduction. International Review of Social History, 52(S15), 120.

  • Harvey, S. (1989). An Analysis of the Course of a Joke’s Telling in Conversation. In R. Bauman, & J. Sherzer (Eds), Explorations in the Ethnography of Speaking (2nd edn, pp 33753). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haynes, J. (1994). Structural Adjustments of Nigerian Comedy: Baba Sala. Program of African Studies, Northwestern University, 1718, 20. Retrieved 23 June 2020, from Program of African Studies, Northwestern University: http://hdl.handle.net/2027/spo.4761530.0008.010

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Heinrich Böll Foundation (2016, Apr). Zambezi News: Brightening Up the Gloom of Zimbabwean Politics: Interview. Perspectives: Political Analyses and Commentary, 2, 1315.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hennessy, T. (2018, 7 Aug). That Painful Silence when Your Joke Falls Flat . Retrieved 23 November 2021, from Duke Magazine: https://alumni.duke.edu/magazine/articles/painful-silence-when-your-joke-falls-flat

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hernann, A. (2016). Joking Through Hardship: Humor and Truth-Telling among Displaced Timbuktians. African Studies Review, 59(1), 5776.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holden, P. (2008). The Arms Deal in Your Pocket .Jeppestown: Jonathan Ball Publishers.

  • Holm, N. (2017). Humour as Politics: The Political Aesthetics of Contemporary Comedy .Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.

  • Hron, M. (2016). From ‘Tutsi Crush’ to ‘FWP’: Satire, Sentiment, and Rights in African Texts and Contexts. In S.A. McClennen, & A.S. Moore (Eds), The Routledge Companion to Literature and Human Rights (pp 21523). London and New York: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ibrahim, A., & Eltantawy, N. (2017). Egypt’s Jon Stewart: Humorous Political Satire and Serious Culture Jamming. International Journal of Communication, 11, 280624.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ikeji, L. (2020, 21 Aug). Man Who Impersonated Goodluck Jonathan Speaks after Spending 3 Months in Detention. Retrieved 5 December 2021, from Linda Ikeji Blog: https://www.lindaikejisblog.com/2020/8/man-who-impersonated-goodluck-jonathan-speaks-after-spending-3-months-in-detention.html#comments

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Inyabri, I., & Mensah, E. (2021). Nigerian Pidgin, Identity and National Re-invention in Naija Stand-up Comedy. In A.T. Akande, & O. Salami (Eds), Current Trends in Nigerian Pidgin English: A Sociolinguistic Perspective (pp 11545). Berlin and Boston: Walter de Gruyter Inc.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • IOL (2006, 4 July). Zuma Defamation Claim ‘Largest in SA History’. Retrieved 26 January 2022, from IOL: https://www.iol.co.za/news/south-africa/zuma-defamation-claim-largest-in-sa-history-284142

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Irigaray, L. (1985). This Sex Which Is Not One. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

  • Itiri, N.U. (2015). From Entertainment to Politics: Nigerian Celebrities and the 2015 General Elections. VUNA Journal of History and International Relations, 2(2), 24957.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Iwata, T. (2020). Evolution of Comedy in Africa. Ritsumeikan Annual Review of International Studies, 19, 118.

  • Janzzen (2015, 30 July). Trevor Noah on British Colonialism. Retrieved 11 July 2022, from Vimeo: https://vimeo.com/134953133

  • Jarmon, L.C. (2020). Jokes. In O.L. Dyson, J.L. Jeffries, & K.L. Brooks (Eds), African American Culture: An Encyclopedia of People, Traditions, and Customs (pp 52224). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, LLC.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jaworski, A. (Ed) (1997). Silence: Interdisciplinary Perspectives .Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

  • Jensen, V. (1973). Communicative Functions of Silence. ETC: A Review of General Semantics, 30(3), 24957.

  • Jiang, T., Li, H., & Hou, Y. (2019). Cultural Differences in Humor Perception, Usage, and Implications. Frontiers in Psychology, 10(123), 1–8.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jimoh, G.A. (2019). Masked in Metaphors: Counter Narratives in the Works of Nigerian Cartoonist Mike Asukwo. African Arts, 52(2), 329.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Johannesen, R.L. (1974). The Functions of Silence: A Plea for Communication Research. Western Speech, 38(1), 2535.

  • Johns, T. (2009). Laughing Off Apartheid: Comedy at the Twilight of White Minority Rule. Journal of Narrative Theory, 39(2), 21140.

  • Kagire, E. (2019, 30 Sept). Naivety Or Utter Ignorance? Ugandan Comedian In The Spotlight Over Genocide Joke. Retrieved 12 July 2022, from KT Press: https://www.ktpress.rw/2019/09/naivety-or-utter-ignorance-ugandan-comedian-in-the-spotlight-over-genocide-joke/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kahn, D. (1997). John Cage: Silence and Silencing. The Musical Quarterly, 81(4), 55698.

  • Kahyana, S. (2022). The Afterlife of Ugandan Stand-up Comedy: Examining the Multiple Roles and Jocular Devices of Teacher Mpamire. In I. Nwankwọ (Ed), Stand-up Comedy in Africa: Humour in Popular Languages and Media (pp 17191). Stuttgart: Ibidem Verlag.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Källstig, A. (2021). Laughing in the Face of Danger: Performativity and Resistance in Zimbabwean Stand-up Comedy. Global Society, 35(1), 4560.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Källstig, A., & Death, C. (2021). Laughter, Resistance and Ambivalence in Trevor Noah’s Stand-up Comedy: Returning Mimicry as Mockery. Critical African Studies, 13(3), 33855.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kashani-Sabet, F. (1998). Picturing the Homeland: Geography and National Identity in Late Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-century Iran. Journal of Historical Geography, 24(4), 41330.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kerr, D. (1995). African Popular Theatre: From Pre-colonial Times to the Present Day .Oxford: James Currey.

  • King, C., & Durbridge, N. (1999). Modern Art in Nigeria: Independence and Innovation. In C. King (Ed), Views of Difference: Different Views of Art (pp 199228). New Haven and London: Yale University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kingsley, P. (2014, 26 Jan). Egypt’s Censorship of Comedian Bassem Youssef Sends ‘Wrong Message’. Retrieved 29 November 2021, from The Guardian: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jan/26/egypt-censorship-bassem-youssef-tv-satirist

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kiruga, M. (2016). From Whispers to Screams: Satire as a Barometer of Kenya’s Changing Political Landscape. Perspectives: Political Analyses and Commentary, 2, 2632.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kofoworola, K.G. (2007). The Court Jester in Nigerian Drama. In D. Robb (Ed), Clowns, Fools and Picaros: Popular Forms in Theatre, Fiction and Film (pp 10114). Amsterdam and New York: Brill-Rodopi.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kosiso (2022, 21 June). Liberia’s President, George Weah Joins Kizz Daniel’s Buga Challenge (Video). Retrieved 10 July 2022, from Midundo: https://mdundo.com/news/39846

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kostelanetz, R. (1987 [2003]). Conversing with Cage (2nd edn). New York and London: Routledge.

  • Kramer, E.M. (2003). Cosmopoly: Occidentalism and the New World Order. In E.M. Kramer (Ed), The Emerging Monoculture: Assimilation and the ‘Model Minority’ (pp 23492). Westport and London: Praeger.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kuhlmann, J. (2012). Zimbabwean Diaspora Politics and the Power of Laughter: Humour as a Tool for Political Communication, Criticism and Protest. Journal of African Media Studies, 4(3), 295314.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kuipers, G. (2008). The Sociology of Humor. In V. Raskin (Ed), The Primer of Humor Research (pp 36198). Berlin and New York: De Gruyter Mouton.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lankzin (2007, 20 Dec). Thabo Mbeki Impersonified. Retrieved 4 December 2021, from YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=te6nvZuFR0U

  • Launay, R. (2006). Practical Joking. Cahiers d’études africaines, 4(184), 795808.

  • Lent, J.A. (1987). Mass Media in the Leeward Islands: Press Freedom, Media Imperialism and Popular Culture. In H.E. Hinds Jr, & C.M. Tatum (Eds), Studies in Latin American Popular Culture (pp 24558). Tucson: University of Arizona.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lent, J.A. (2009). African Cartooning: An Overview of Historical and Contemporary Issues. In J.A. Lent (Ed), Cartooning in Africa (pp 138). Cresskill: Hampton Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Limb, P. (2018). Introduction: Drawing a Line Between Play and Power in African Political Cartooning. In P. Limb, & T. Olaniyan (Eds), Taking African Cartoons Seriously: Politics, Satire, and Culture (pp xiiixlviii). East Lansing: Michigan State University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Limb, P., & Olaniyan, T. (2018). Taking African Cartoons Seriously: Politics, Satire, and Culture .East Lansing: Michigan State University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Limon, J. (2000). Stand-up Comedy in Theory, or, Abjection in America .Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

  • Lomotey, B.A. (2020). Exploring Gender Ideologies in Social Media Jokes During the Coronavirus Pandemic. Gender Studies, 19(1), 6589.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Loomba, A. (2005). Colonialism/Postcolonialism .London: Routledge.

  • Mabweazara, H.M., & Strelitz, L.N. (2009). Investigating the Popularity of the Zimbabwean Tabloid Newspaper uMthunywa: A Reception Study of Bulawayo Readers. Ecquid Novi: African Journalism Studies, 30(2), 11333.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MacKinnon, C.A. (1979). Sexual Harassment of Working Women: A Case of Sex Discrimination .New Haven: Yale University Press.

  • Maitland, S. (2009). A Book of Silence .Berkeley, CA: Counterpoint.

  • Manganga, K. (2012). The Use of Jokes and Mobile Telephony to Create Counter-publics in Zimbabwe. Journal of African Media Studies, 4(2), 24355.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Manninen, S., Tuominen, L., Dunbar, R.I., Karjalainen, T., Hirvonen, J., Arponen, E. et al (2017). Social Laughter Triggers Endogenous Opioid Release in Humans. The Journal of Neuroscience, 37(25), 612531.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martin, L.S. (2022). Laughing off Ebola in Sierra Leone: Humor in Times of Crisis. Journal of African Cultural Studies, 34(2), 14356.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martin, L.S., Bradbury-Jones, C., Koroma, S., & Forcer, S. (2021). Bringing Inside Out: Humour, Outreach, and Sexual and Gender-Based Violence in Sierra Leone. Critical African Studies, 13(3), 35673.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mason, A. (2002). Black and White in Ink: Discourses of Resistance in South African Cartooning. African and Asian Studies, 1(4), 385406.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mason, A. (2010a). The Cannibal Ogre and the Rape of Justice: A Contrapuntal View. Critical African Studies, 2(4), 3264.

  • Mason, A. (2010b). What’s So Funny?: Under the Skin of South African Cartooning .Claremont: Double Storey.

  • Matsilele, T., & Mututwa, W.T. (2021). The Aesthetics of ‘Laughing at Power’ in an African Cybersphere. In S. Mpofu (Ed), The Politics of Laughter in the Social Media Age (pp 2341). Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mbembe, A. (1992). The Banality of Power and the Aesthetics of Vulgarity in the Postcolony. Public Culture, 4(2), 130.

  • Mbembe, A. (2001). On the Postcolony .Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press.

  • Mboga, P. (2022, 22 Apr). Comedian-in-chief: Top 3 Funniest Mwai Kibaki Moments. Retrieved 11 July 2022, from K2TV: https://www.k24tv.co.ke/lifestyle/comedian-in-chief-top-3-funniest-mwai-kibaki-moments-61706/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCauley, J.F. (2018). The Logic of Ethnic and Religious Conflict in Africa .Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • McIntyre, K., & Sobel, M. (2018). Reconstructing Rwanda: How Rwandan Reporters Use Constructive Journalism to Promote Peace. Journalism Studies, 19(14), 212647.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Medubi, O. (2010). A Cross-Cultural Study of Silence in Nigeria: An Ethnolinguistic Approach. Journal of Multicultural Discourses, 5(1), 27–44.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Merziger, P. (2007). Humour in Nazi Germany: Resistance and Propaganda? The Popular Desire for an All-Embracing Laughter. International Review of Social History, 52(S15), 27590.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meyer, M. (2016). A Space for Silence: Exhibiting and Materialising Silence through Technology. Cultural Geographies, 23(2), 32136.

  • Meyer, P. (Director) (2017). Afraid of the Dark [Motion Picture]. Netflix.

  • Michieka, M., & Muaka, L. (2016). Humor in Kenyan Comedy. In D.L. Payne, S. Pacchiarotti, & M. Bosire (Eds), Diversity in African Languages (pp 55976). Berlin: Language Science Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Miller, C.L. (1990). Theories of Africans: Francophone Literature and Anthropology in Africa .Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Modisane, L. (2013). South Africa’s Renegade Reels: The Making and Public Lives of Black-centered Films .New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moreau, R.E. (1941). The Joking Relationship. Tanganyika Notes and Records, 22, 1.

  • Moreau, R.E. (1944). Joking Relationships in Tanganyika. Africa, 14(7), 386400.

  • Mosha, R.S. (2000). The Heartbeat of Indigenous Africa: A Study of Chagga Educational System .New York and London: Garland Publishing Inc.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mosha, R.S. (2013, July). Spiritual Direction and African Indigenous Spirituality. The Way, 52/3, 10514.

  • Motsei, M. (2007). The Kanga and the Kangaroo Court: Reflections on the Rape Trial of Jacob Zuma .Johannesburg: Jacana Media.

  • Motsemme, N. (2004). The Mute Always Speak: On Women’s Silences at the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Current Sociology, 52(5), 90932.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Msimang, S. (2016). Decolonising Satire: The History and Future of Political Humour in South Africa. Perspectives: Political Analyses and Commentary, 2, 612.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mukhongo, L.L. (2020). Participatory Media Cultures: Virality, Humor, and Online Political Contestations in Kenya. Africa Spectrum, 55(2), 14869.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Musila, G.A. (2014). Laughing at the Rainbow’s Cracks? Blackness, Whiteness & the Ambivalences of South African Stand-Up Comedy. In E. Obadare, & W. Willems (Eds), Civic Agency in Africa: Arts of Resistance in the 21st Century (pp 14766). Woodbridge and Rochester: Boydell & Brewer.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mwambari, D., & Martin, L.S. (2020, 20 May). Humour Ignores Social Distancing: Postcolonial Irony and Covid-19 in Africa. Retrieved 28 July 2022, from African Arguments: https://africanarguments.org/2020/05/humour-ignores-social-distancing-postcolonial-irony-and-covid-19-in-africa/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ndagala, D.K. (2016). Utani Relationships in Tanzania: Reflections on Ethnic Creativity. Sanaa Journal, 1(1), 4551.

  • Ndiaye, A.R. (1993). Ethno-patronymic Correspondences and Jocular Kinship: A Large Scale Problem of Integration. African Environment: Environmental Studies and Regional Planning Bulletin, 8(31–32), 93124.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ndlovu, N. (2021). ‘A Nation That Laughs Together, Stays Together’: Deconstructing Humour on Twitter During the National Lockdown in South Africa. In S. Mpofu (Ed), Digital Humour in the Covid-19 Pandemic (pp 191212). Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Neuendorf, K.A., Skalski, P.D., Jeffres, L.W., & Atkinb, D. (2014). Senses of Humor, Media Use, and Opinions about the Treatment of Marginalized Groups. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 42, 6576.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ngwira, E., & Lipenga, K.J. (2018). Country Laughing at Itself: Malawian Humour in the Digital Age. English Studies in Africa, 61(2), 2135.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nieuwenhuis, I., & Zijp, D. (2022). The Politics and Aesthetics of Humour in an Age of Comic Controversy. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 25(2), 34154.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nkoala, S. (2021). The Curious Case of ‘Coconut Kelz’: Satire as a Critique of Race-Thinking in South Africa. In S. Mpofu (Ed), The Politics of Laughter in the Social Media Age (pp 23347). Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nnadozie, E. (2017, 26 July). Court Frees Man that Named Dog Buhari. Retrieved 5 December 2021, from Vanguard: https://www.vanguardngr.com/2017/07/court-frees-man-named-dog-buhari/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nugent, P. (2019). Boundaries, Communities and State-making in West Africa: The Centrality of the Margins .Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nwachukwu-Agbada, J.O. (1991). Mbari Museum Art: Covenant with a God Fulfilled. Anthropos, 86(1/3), 20713.

  • Nwankwọ, I. (2019). Incongruous Liaisons: Routes of Humour, Insult and Political (In)correctness in Nigerian Stand-up Jokes. European Journal of Humour Research, 7(2), 10015.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nwankwọ, I. (2021). Yabbing and Wording: The Artistry of Nigerian Stand-up Comedy .Makhanda: NISC Press.

  • Nwankwọ, I. (Ed) (2022a). Stand-up Comedy in Africa: Humour in Popular Languages and Media .Stuttgart: Ibidem Verlag.

  • Nwankwọ, I. (2022b). Self-censorship and Shifting Cognitions of Offence in the Stand-up Acts of Basket Mouth and Trevor Noah. Journal of African Cultural Studies, 34(2), 12942.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nwankwọ, I. (2022c). Joke Performance Mechanics in Nigerian Stand-up Comedy. South African Theatre Journal, 34(2), 99–112.

  • Nwankwọ, I. (2022d). Old Wine in a New Bottle: Stand-up Comedy and its Dispersal across Africa. In I. Nwankwọ (Ed), Stand-up Comedy in Africa: Humour in Popular Languages and Media (pp 1141). Stuttgart: Ibidem Verlag.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nwankwọ, I. (2022e). Ambivalence in the Stand-up Acts of Nigeria’s Klint da Drunk and Mr Paul. Journal of the African Literature Association, 16(2), 332–47.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nwoye, G. (1995). Eloquent Silence among the Igbo of Nigeria. In D. Tannen, & M. Saville-Troike (Eds), Perspectives on Silence (pp 18592). Norwood: Ablex Publishing Corporation.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nyamnjoh, F.B. (2009). Press Cartoons and Politics: The Case of Cameroon. In J.A. Lent (Ed), Cartooning in Africa (pp 97111). Cresskill: Hampton Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Obadare, E. (2009). The Uses of Ridicule: Humour, ‘Infrapolitics’ and Civil Society in Nigeria. African Affairs, 108(431), 24161.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Obadare, E. (2010). State of Travesty: Jokes and the Logic of Socio-Cultural Improvisation in Africa. Critical African Studies, 2(4), 92112.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Obadare, E. (2011). Revalorizing the Political: Towards a New Intellectual Agenda for African Civil Society Discourse. Journal of Civil Society, 7(4), 42742.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Obadare, E. (2016). Humor, Silence, and Civil Society in Nigeria .Rochester: University of Rochester Press.

  • Obafemi, O. (1996). Contemporary Nigerian Theatre: Cultural Heritage and Social Vision .Bayreuth: African Studies Series.

  • Ochayi, C. (2013, 1 May). Jonathan, Most Abused President, Says Nwanyanwu. Retrieved 29 March 2022, from Vanguard: https://www.vanguardngr.com/2013/05/jonathan-most-abused-president-says-nwanyanwu/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Odenbring, Y., & Johansson, T. (2021, June). Just a Joke? The Thin Line between Teasing, Harassment and Violence among Teenage Boys in Lower Secondary School. The Journal of Men’s Studies, 29(2), 17793.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ogola, G. (2011). ‘If You Rattle a Snake, Be Prepared to be Bitten’: Popular Culture, Politics and the Kenyan Media. In H. Wasserman (Ed), Popular Media, Democracy and Development in Africa (pp 12336). London and New York: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ogola, G. (2019). #Whatwouldmagufulido? Kenya’s Digital ‘Practices’ and ‘Individuation’ as a (Non)political Act. Journal of Eastern African Studies, 13(1), 12439.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Okagbue, O. (2007). African Theatres and Performances .London: Routledge.

  • Okagbue, O., & Kasule, S. (2021). Theatre and Performance in East Africa .Oxon and New York: Routledge.

  • Okolo, M.S. (2005). Reassessing the Impact of Colonial Languages on the African Identity for African Development. Africa Media Review, 13(2), 85103.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Olaniyan, T. (2002). Cartooning Nigeria Anticolonial Nationalism. In P. Landau and D. Kaspin (Eds) Images and Empires: Visuality in Colonial and Postcolonial Africa. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Olaniyan, T. (2004). Arrest the Music! Fela and His Rebel Art and Politics .Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

  • Onanuga, P. (2020). Transnationalizing Humour on Social Media: A Linguistic Analysis of Ideology, Identity and Didactics in Robert Mugabe Quotes Memes. Digital Scholarship in the Humanities, 35(2), 399416.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ottenberg, S. (1982). Illusion, Communication, and Psychology in West African Masquerades. Ethos, 10(2), 14985.

  • Otto, B.K. (2001). Fools Are Everywhere: The Court Jester around the World .Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.

  • Pakade, N. (2020). Cracking-open Vernacular Stand-up Comedy: Reflections on Celeste Ntuli’s Work on Sexuality. Agenda, 34(3), 2231.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Paletz, D.L. (1990). Political Humor and Authority: From Support to Subversion. International Political Science Review/Revue internationale de science politique, 11(4), 48393.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Perego, E. (2018). Laughing at the Victims: The Function of Popular Jokes During Algeria’s ‘Dark Decade,’ 1991–2002. The Journal of North African Studies, 23(1–2), 191207.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pfister, M. (2002). Beckett, Barker, and Other Grim Laughters. In M. Pfister (Ed), A History of English Laughter: Laughter from Beowulf to Beckett and Beyond (pp 17589). Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Plumb, S. (2004). Politicians as Superheroes: The Subversion of Political Authority Using a Pop Cultural Icon in the Cartoons of Steve Bell. Media, Culture and Society, 26(3), 43239.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Povey, J.F. (1969). Wole Soyinka: Two Nigerian Comedies. Comparative Drama, 3(2), 12032.

  • Purcell, D., Brown, M.S., & Gokmen, M. (2010). Achmed the Dead Terrorist and Humor in Popular Geopolitics. GeoJournal, 75, 37385.

  • Purdeková, A. (2015). Making Ubumwe: Power, State and Camps in Rwanda’s Unity-Building Project .Oxford: Berghahn Books.

  • Pype, K. (2015). Funerary Comedies in Contemporary Kinshasa: Social Difference, Urban Communities and the Emergence of a Cultural Form. Africa, 85(3), 45777.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rabe, L. (2018). Four South African ‘Sunrises’, Four Cartoons, Four Eras and the Cyclical Nature of History. Historia, 63(1), 178200.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Radcliffe-Brown, A.R. (1940). On Joking Relationships. Africa, 13(3), 195210.

  • Radulescu, D. (2012). Women’s Comedic Art as Social Revolution: Five Performers and the Lessons of Their Subversive Humor .Jefferson and London: McFarland.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ramoka, B. (2018, 22 Apr). Kibaki’s Hilarious Phrases that Excited Kenyans. Retrieved 11 July 2022, from Hivisasa: https://hivisasa.com/posts/kibakis-hilarious-phrases-that-excited-kenyans

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RDM News Wire (2015, 27 May). ‘Nkandla, Nkandla, Nkandlahe heh!’: Zuma Mocks Opposition. Retrieved 12 July 2022, from Times Live: https://www.timeslive.co.za/politics/2015-05-27-nkandla-nkandla-nkandla--he-he-heh-zuma-mocks-opposition/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rehak, K., & Trnka, S. (Eds) (2019). The Politics of Joking: Anthropological Engagements .London and New York: Routledge.

  • Reynolds, V. (1958). Joking Relationships in Africa. Man, iviii(21), 2930.

  • Rico, P.S. (2019). Creating Memory and Cultural Identity in African American Trauma Fiction .Leiden and Boston: Brill Rodopi.

  • Ridanpää, J. (2009). Geopolitics of Humour: The Muhammed Cartoon Crisis and the Kaltio Comic Strip Episode in Finland. Geopolitics, 14(4), 72949.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ridanpää, J. (2014). Politics of Literary Humour and Contested Narrative Identity (of a Region with No Identity). Cultural Geographies, 21(4), 71126.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ridanpää, J. (2019). Crisis Events and the Inter-scalar Politics of Humor. GeoJournal, 84, 90115.

  • Rigby, P. (1968). Joking Relationships, Kin Categories, and Clanship among the Gogo. Africa, 38(2), 13355.

  • Routledge, P. (2019). Dawn of the Debt: Tactical Performance, Humour and the Practice of Alter-Geopolitics. Political Geography, 68, 14653.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RSF (2015, 10 Mar). The Ever More Dangerous Profession of Cartoonist. Retrieved 12 July 2022, from Reporters without Borders: https://ifex.org/the-ever-more-dangerous-profession-of-a-cartoonist/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RSF (2021, 8 Oct). Tanzanian Cartoonist Detained over Cartoon of President. Retrieved 21 January 2022, from Reporters without Borders: https://rsf.org/en/news/tanzanian-cartoonist-detained-over-cartoon-president

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sahara Reporters (2020, 17 July). How Ex-Nigerian President, Goodluck Jonathan, Got University Student Who Created Parody Twitter Account In His Name Detained For 54 Days . Retrieved 5 December 2021, from Sahara Reporters: http://saharareporters.com/2020/07/17/how-ex-nigerian-president-goodluck-jonathan-got-university-student-who-created-parody

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sall, A. (2014). Presentation and Analysis of a Mechanism of Conflict Prevention: The SANANKOUYA (Joking Kinships) in West Africa. Retrieved 2 April 2022, from Digital Collections: Capstone Collection 2696: https://digitalcollections.sit.edu/capstones/2696/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Samanga, R. (2020, 22 May). Tanzanian Comedian Idris Sultan Arrested for ‘Cyber-Bullying’ President. Retrieved 7 July 2022, from OkayAfrica: https://www.okayafrica.com/idris-sultan-tanzania-arrested-for-bullying-president/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sasson-Levy, O., Levy, Y., & Lomsky-Feder, E. (2011). Women Breaking the Silence: Military Service, Gender, and Antiwar Protest. Gender & Society, 25(6), 74063.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Scheub, H. (1985). A Review of African Oral Traditions and Literature. African Studies Review, 28(2/3), 172.

  • Scott, J.C. (1985). Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance .New Haven: Yale University Press.

  • Scott, S. (2009). Making Sense of Everyday Life .Cambridge: Polity Press.

  • Seirlis, J.K. (2011). Laughing all the Way to Freedom?: Contemporary Stand-up Comedy and Democracy in South Africa. Humor, 24(4), 51330.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Selaiha, N. (2013). The Fire and the Frying Pan: Censorship and Performance in Egypt. TDR (1988–), 57(3), 2047.

  • Shirky, C. (2011). The Political Power of Social Media: Technology, the Public Sphere, and Political Change. Foreign Affairs, 90(1), 2841.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Siziba, G., & Ncube, G. (2015). Mugabe’s Fall from Grace: Satire and Fictional Narratives as Silent Forms of Resistance in/on Zimbabwe. Social Dynamics: A Journal of African Studies, 41(3), 51639.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, É. (2004). Les cousinages de plaisanterie en Afrique de l’Ouest, entre particularismes et universalismes. Raisons politiques, 13(1), 15769.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, J. (2008, 18 Dec). Zuma Exacts Defamation Action on Media. Retrieved 26 January 2022, from IOL: https://www.iol.co.za/news/politics/zuma-exacts-defamation-action-on-media-429327

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sobel, M., & McIntyre, K. (2019). The State of Journalism and Press Freedom in Postgenocide Rwanda. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 96(2), 55878.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sogoba, M. (2018, 18 May). Joking Relationships. Retrieved 25 February 2021, from Cultures of West Africa: https://www.culturesofwestafrica.com/joking-relationships/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sorensen, R. (2009). Hearing Silence: The Perception and Introspection of Absences. In M. Nudds, & C. O’Callaghan (Eds), Sounds and Perception: New Philosophical Essays (pp 12645). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Southall, R. (2020). Donald Trump and Jacob Zuma as Charismatic Buffoons. Safundi, 21(4), 38293.

  • Stephen, O. (2022, 2 June). 2023: Psquare, Chidi Mokeme, Okey Bakassi Endorse Peter Obi for Presidency. Retrieved 12 July 2022, from Premium Times: https://www.premiumtimesng.com/news/top-news/534323-2023-psquare-chidi-mokeme-okey-bakassi-endorse-peter-obi-for-presidency.html

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stephenson, P.H. (1980). The Significance of Silence: On the Dialectical Evolution of Human Communication. Dialectical Anthropology, 5(1), 4755.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stevens Jr, P. (1978). Bachama Joking Categories: Toward New Perspectives in the Study of Joking Relationships. Journal of Anthropological Research, 34(1), 4771.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Swart, S. (2009). ‘The Terrible Laughter of the Afrikaner’: Towards a Social History of Humor. Journal of Social History, 42(4), 889917.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Takovski, A. (2020). Coloring Social Change: Humor, Politics, and Social Movements. Humor, 33(4), 485511.

  • Tamale, S. (2011). Researching and Theorizing Sexualities in Africa. In S. Tamale (Ed), African Sexualities: A Reader (pp 1136). Cape Town: Pambazuka Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tamari, T. (2006). Joking Pacts in Sudanic West Africa: A Political and Historical Perspective. Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, 131(2), 21543.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tavory, I. (2014). The Situations of Culture: Humor and the Limits of Measurability. Theory and Society, 43(3/4), 27589.

  • Tesnohlidkova, O. (2021). Humor and Satire in Politics: Introducing Cultural Sociology to the Field. Sociology Compass, 15(1), 1–12.

  • Thiong’o, N.W. (1981). Decolonising the Mind: The Politics of Language in African Literature .Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tivenga, D. (2022). Laughter in the Face of Police Brutality: An Analysis of Satirical Memes on Police Brutality in Zimbabwe on August 16, 2019. Social Dynamics: A Journal of African Studies, 48(3), 491–508.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tju, L.C. (2004). Political Cartoons in Singapore: Misnomer or Redefinition Necessary? The Journal of Popular Culture, 34(1), 7783.

  • Tomaselli, K. (2009). Repositioning African Media Studies: Thoughts and Provocations. Journal of African Media Studies, 1(1), 921.

  • Tsakona, V., & Popa, D.E. (Eds) (2011). Studies in Political Humour: In between Political Critique and Public Entertainment .Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tshuma, L.A., Msimanga, M.J., & Tshuma, B.B. (2022). Laughing through the Stomach: Satire, Humour and Advertising in Sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of Asian and African Studies, 1–19.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tulibaleka, P.O., Tumwesigye, K., & Nakayima, L.S. (2021). Urbanization in Africa: Integrating Multiculturalism in Urban Development in Uganda. Journal of African Studies and Development, 13(4), 7480.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tully, M., & Ekdale, B. (2014). The Team Online: Entertainment-Education, Social Media, and Cocreated Messages. Television & New Media, 15(2), 13956.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Utoh-Ezeajuh, T. (2008). Traditional Body Design Idioms and Multimedia Application: The Igbo ‘Uli’ Art Form. African Performance Review, 2(2–3), 6584.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vanyoro, K.P., & Vanyoro, K.P. (2019). Exploring the Use of Humour, Vulgarity and Allegory in Social Media Discourses: The Case of Oscar Pistorius and Reeva Steenkamp. Africanus, 49(1).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vergès, M.D. (2022, 16 June). ‘A Real Culture of Newspaper Cartooning is Developing across the Region’: Kenyan Politicians under Gado’s Fierce Pen. Retrieved 12 July 2022, from Le Monde: https://www.lemonde.fr/en/culture/article/2022/06/16/a-real-culture-of-newspaper-cartooning-is-developing-across-the-region-kenyan-politicians-under-gado-s-fierce-pen_5986925_30.html

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Verwoerd, W., & Verwoerd, M. (1994). On the Injustices of (Un)just Joking. Agenda: Empowering Women for Gender Equality, 10(23), 6778.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Walker, C. (1982[1991]). Women and Resistance in South Africa .Cape Town and Johannesburg: David Philip Publishers.

  • Wedderburn, A. (2021). Humour, Subjectivity and World Politics .Manchester: Manchester University Press.

  • Wedeen, L. (2013). Ideology and Humor in Dark Times: Notes from Syria. Critical Inquiry, 39(4), 84173.

  • Wegru, J.Y. (2000). The Dagaaba-Frafra Joking Relationship. Folklore, 14, 8697.

  • Wichroski, M.A. (1996). Breaking Silence: Some Fieldwork Strategies in Cloistered and Non-Cloistered Communities. Qualitative Sociology, 19(1), 15370.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Willems, W. (2011). Comic Strips and ‘the Crisis’: Postcolonial Laughter and Coping With Everyday Life in Zimbabwe. Popular Communication, 9(2), 12645.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wittenberg, H. (2014). The Boer and the Jackal: Satire and Resistance in Khoi Orature. Critical Arts: South-North Cultural and Media Studies, 28(4), 593609.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wittig, M. (1992). The Straight Mind and Other Essays .Boston: Beacon Press.

  • Wood, L., Spuy, A.V., Jayakrishnan, L., & Pienaar, V. (2018). Humour in Multicultural South African Texts: Finding Common Ground. Athens Journal of Mass Media and Communications, 4(3), 17992.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yékú, J. (2022). Cultural Netizenship: Social Media, Popular Culture, and Performance in Nigeria .Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Young, D.G. (2017). Theories and Effects of Political Humor: Discounting Cues, Gateways, and the Impact of Incongruities. In K. Kenski, & K.H. Jamieson (Eds), The Oxford Handbook of Political Communication (pp 87184). Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zapiro (