8: Environmental Policy: Climate Change and Sustainability

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Climate change is an existential crisis requiring global and domestic cooperation to secure rapid and radical policy change. There is a large gap between requirements and reality. Environmental issues receive fleeting attention, reforms have not produced the required outcomes, and other policies undermine their progress. Three approaches highlight key perspectives on these issues. Policy analysis identifies how to address environmental crises. For example, what policy instruments are technically and politically feasible? Policy studies identifies how governments address the impacts of climate change. Which policies have governments favoured, and what has been their impact? How coherent is their approach to climate change, energy, transport and food policies? Critical policy analysis identifies and challenges inequitable processes and outcomes. Does policy address climate justice as well as climate change?

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  • Cairncross, A. (1985) Years of Recovery: British Economic Policy 1945–51 (London: Methuen)

  • Cairney, P. (2002) ‘New public management and the Thatcher health care legacy’, British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 4, 3, 375398

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  • Cairney, P. (2006) ‘Venue shift following devolution: When reserved meets devolved in Scotland’, Regional and Federal Studies, 16, 4, 429445

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  • Cairney, P. (2007a) ‘The professionalisation of MPs: Refining the “politics-facilitating” explanation’, Parliamentary Affairs, 60, 2, 212233

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  • Cairney, P. (2007b) ‘A “multiple lenses” approach to policy change: The case of tobacco policy in the UK’, British Politics, 2, 1, 4568

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  • Cairney, P. (2007c) ‘Using devolution to set the agenda? Venue shift and the smoking ban in Scotland’, British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 9, 7389

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  • Cairney, P. (2008) ‘Has devolution changed the British policy style?’, British Politics, 3, 3, 350372

  • Cairney, P. (2009a) ‘Implementation and the governance problem: A pressure participant perspective’, Public Policy and Administration, 24, 4, 355377

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  • Cairney, P. (2009b) ‘The “British policy style” and mental health: Beyond the headlines’, Journal of Social Policy, 38, 4, 118

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  • Cairney, P. (2009c) ‘The role of ideas in policy transfer: The case of UK smoking bans since devolution’, Journal of European Public Policy, 16, 3, 471488

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  • Cairney, P. (2011) The Scottish Political System since Devolution: From New Politics to the New Scottish Government (Exeter: Imprint Academic)

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  • Cairney, P. (2012) ‘“Public administration in an age of austerity”: Positive lessons from policy studies’, Public Policy and Administration, 27, 3, 230247, https://doi.org/10.1177/0952076712442212

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  • Cairney, P. (2013a) ‘Territorial policy communities and the Scottish policy style: The case of compulsory education’, Scottish Affairs, 82, 1034

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  • Cairney, P. (2013b) ‘What is evolutionary theory and how does it inform policy studies?’, Policy and Politics, 41, 2, 279298

  • Cairney, P. (2015a) ‘How can policy theory have an impact on policy making?’, Teaching Public Administration, 33, 1, 2239

  • Cairney, P. (2015b) ‘Scotland’s future political system’, Political Quarterly, 86, 2, 217225

  • Cairney, P. (2016a) The Politics of Evidence-Based Policy Making (London: Palgrave Pivot)

  • Cairney, P. (2016b) ‘The Scottish government’s holistic education policy: A story of profound success or failure?’, Paul Cairney: Politics & Public Policy, 13 December, https://paulcairney.wordpress.com/2016/12/13/the-scottish-governments-holistic-education-policy-a-story-of-profound-success-or-failure/ (A: 19.09.22)

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  • Cairney, P. (2016c) ‘Early thoughts on the Iraq Inquiry/Chilcot Report: Will anyone learn any lessons?’, Paul Cairney: Politics & Public Policy, 6 July, https://paulcairney.wordpress.com/2016/07/06/early-thoughts-on-the-iraq-inquiry-chilcot-report-will-anyone-learn-any-lessons/ (A: 29.09.22)

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  • Cairney, P. (2017a) ‘5 images of the policy process’, Paul Cairney: Politics & Public Policy, 10 July, https://paulcairney.wordpress.com/2017/07/10/5-images-of-the-policy-process/ (A: 19.08.21)

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  • Cairney, P. (2017b) ‘Scottish politics in Brexit Britain: Is independence inevitable?’, Paul Cairney: Politics & Public Policy, 14 March, https://paulcairney.wordpress.com/2017/03/14/scottish-politics-in-brexit-britain-is-independence-inevitable/ (A: 19.08.22)

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  • Cairney, P. (2019a) ‘The transformation of UK tobacco control’ in Compton, M. and ‘t Hart, P. (eds) Great Policy Successes (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 84104

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  • Cairney, P. (2019b) ‘Policy styles in the UK: Majoritarian UK versus devolved consensus democracies?’ in Howlett, M. and Tosun, J. (eds) Policy Styles and Policy-Making: Exploring the National Dimension (London: Routledge), 2544

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  • Cairney, P. (2019c) ‘The UK government’s imaginative use of evidence to make policy’, British Politics, 14, 1, 122, https://doi.org/10.1057/s41293-017-0068-2

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  • Cairney, P. (2020a) Understanding Public Policy (London: Red Globe)

  • Cairney, P. (2020b) ‘Policy analysis in 750 words: Complex systems and systems thinking’, Paul Cairney: Politics and Public Policy, 23 December, https://paulcairney.wordpress.com/2019/12/23/policy-analysis-in-750-words-complex-systems-and-systems-thinking/ (A: 14.07.22)

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  • Cairney, P. (2021a) The Politics of Policy Analysis (London: Palgrave)

  • Cairney, P. (2021b) ‘Evidence-informed COVID-19 policy: What problem was the UK government trying to solve?’ in Bryson, J. Andres, L., Ersoy, A. and Reardon, L. (eds) Living with Pandemics: Places, People and Policy (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar), 250–261

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  • Cairney, P. (2021c) ‘The UK government’s COVID-19 policy: Assessing evidence-informed policy analysis in real time’, British Politics, 16, 1, 90116, https://doi.org/10.1057/s41293-020-00150-8

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  • Cairney, P. (2021d) ‘The UK government’s COVID-19 policy: What does “guided by the science” mean in practice?’, Frontiers in Political Science, 3, 114, doi: 10.3389/fpos.2021.624068

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  • Cairney, P. (2022) ‘Why is there high support for, but low likelihood of, drug consumption rooms in Scotland?’, Paul Cairney: Politics & Public Policy, 31 May, https://paulcairney.wordpress.com/2022/05/31/why-is-there-high-support-for-but-low-likelihood-of-drug-consumption-rooms-in-scotland/ (A: 16.09.22)

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  • Cairney, P. (2023a) ‘What does policy making look like?’, Paul Cairney: Politics & Public Policy, 13 February, https://paulcairney.wordpress.com/2023/02/13/what-does-policymaking-look-like/ (A: 19.04.23)

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  • Cairney, P. (2023b) ‘Evidence-based policy making’ in Tosun, J. and Graziano, P. (eds) Encyclopedia of European Union Public Policy (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar)

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  • Cairney, P. and McGarvey, N. (2013) Scottish Politics, 2nd edn (London: Palgrave)

  • Cairney, P. and Studlar, D. (2014) ‘Public health policy in the United Kingdom: After the war on tobacco, is a war on alcohol brewing?’, World Medical and Health Policy, 6, 3, 308323

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  • Cairney, P. and Geyer, R. (2015) ‘Introduction: A new direction in policy making theory and practice?’ in Geyer, R. and Cairney, P. (eds) Handbook on Complexity and Public Policy (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar), 8399

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  • Cairney, P. and Jordan, G. (2015) ‘Theories of the policy process: What is British and what is universal?’, British Politics, 10, 4, 486492, https://doi.org/10.1057/bp.2015.32

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  • Cairney, P. and Weible, C. (2015) ‘Comparing and contrasting Peter Hall’s paradigms and ideas with the advocacy coalition framework’ in Howlett, M. and Hogan, J. (eds) Policy Paradigms in Theory and Practice (Basingstoke: Palgrave), 8389

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  • Cairney, P. and Kwiatkowski, R. (2017) ‘How to communicate effectively with policymakers: Combine insights from psychology and policy studies’, Palgrave Communications, 3, 37, https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-017-0046-8

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  • Cairney, P. and St Denny, E. (2020) Why Isn’t Government Policy More Preventive? (Oxford: Oxford University Press)

  • Cairney, P. and Wellstead, A. (2021) ‘COVID-19: Effective policy making depends on trust in experts, politicians, and the public’, Policy Design and Practice, 4, 1, 114, https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/25741292.2020.1837466

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  • Cairney, P. and Kippin, S. (2022) ‘The future of education equity policy in a COVID-19 world: A qualitative systematic review of lessons from education policymaking’, Open Research Europe, 1, 78, https://doi.org/10.12688/openreseurope.13834.2

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  • Cairney, P. and Toth, F. (2023) ‘The politics of COVID-19 experts: Comparing winners and losers in Italy and the UK’, Policy and Society, 114, https://doi.org/10.1093/polsoc/puad011

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  • Cairney, P., Studlar, D. and Mamudu, H. (2012) Global Tobacco Control: Power, Policy, Governance and Transfer (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan)

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  • Cairney, P., Fischer, M. and Ingold, K. (2016) ‘Hydraulic fracturing policy in the UK: Coalition, cooperation and opposition in the face of uncertainty’ in Weible, C., Heikkila, T., Ingold, K. and Fischer, M. (eds) Comparing Coalition Politics: Policy Debates on Hydraulic Fracturing in North America and Western Europe (London: Palgrave), 81114

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  • Cairney, P., Wilson, A. and Keating, M. (2016) ‘Solving the problem of social background in the UK