3: Irregular Migration Towards Southern Europe

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This chapter analyses landed migrants in Spain, Italy and Greece, focusing on organizational models of smuggling and counter-migration policies. The analysis reveals the prices paid by migrants, and the routes, hubs and systems of smuggling organizations. Smugglers along western and eastern routes are organized as networks of networks and single networks. The analysis shows that smugglers cooperate with each other, without apparent conflict. Along the central route towards Libya, hierarchical smuggling groups enjoyed an oligopolistic position after the fall of Gaddafi, while convergent interests among Fezzan and north Libyan smugglers recently came to an end. The 2017 agreement between Libya and Italy led smugglers and militia on Libya’s north coast to move from smuggling to countering irregular migration thanks to financial aid from Italy and the EU. However, the main effect of migration policies has been to change and expand smuggling routes without stopping the flows towards Spain, Italy and Greece.

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