PART II: Structural Issues in Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking Practice

Restricted access
Rights and permissions Cite this chapter

There is nothing new or uniquely modern about exploitation. Yet this idea of ‘newness’ continues to dominate, with numerous exploitative practices drawn under the elastic construct of modern slavery and/or human trafficking. The image on the front cover was therefore selected not simply because it is aesthetically appealing but also because the kaleidoscope represents how this interdisciplinary volume has been drawn together. A kaleidoscope is traditionally thought of as a toy ‘consisting of a tube containing mirrors and pieces of coloured glass or paper, whose reflections produce changing patterns that are visible through an eyehole when the tube is rotated’. This creation of constantly changing patterns or the sequence of objects and elements illustrates both the issue of modern slavery and its perceived ‘newness’. The contributors interrogate the construct of modern slavery and anti-trafficking discourse which have dominated contemporary responses to and understandings of exploitation. Through providing insights and evidence we need to continue navigating a different path – beyond the racialized legacy of anti-trafficking and fears of modern slavery

  • Anderson, B. (1991) Imagined Communities, London: Verso.

  • Anderson, B. (2019) ‘New directions in migration studies: towards methodological de-nationalism’, Comparative Migration Studies, 7(36): 113.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barber, T. and Nguyen, H. (2016) ‘Becoming adult by remaining a minor: reconfigurations of adulthood and wellbeing by young Vietnamese migrants in the UK’, Becoming Adult Project, Working paper 3.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barter, C., McCarry, M., Berridge, D. and Evans, K. (2009) Partner Exploitation and Violence in Teenage Intimate Relationships, Bristol and London: University of Bristol, School for Policy Studies and NSPCC.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Belsky, J. (1993) ‘Etiology of child maltreatment: a developmental-ecological analysis’, Psychological Bulletin, 114(3): 4134. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.114.3.413

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bryman, A. (2012) Social Research Methods, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Boyd, M. (1989) ‘Family and personal networks in migration’, International Migration Review, 23(3): 63870.

  • Brodie, I., Spring, D., Hynes, P., Burland, P., Dew, J., Gani-Yusuf, L., Tan, H.T., Lenja, V. and Thurnham, A. (2019) ‘Vulnerability’ to Human Trafficking: A Study of Vietnam, Albania, Nigeria and the UK, Geneva: IOM and University of Bedfordshire.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979) The Ecology of Human Development, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

  • Brunovskis, A. and Surtees, R. (2007) Leaving the Past Behind? When Victims of Trafficking Decline Assistance, Oslo; Vienna: Fafo AIS and NEXUS Institute.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brunovskis, A. and Surtees, R. (2010) ‘Untold stories: biases and selection effects in research with victims of trafficking for sexual exploitation’, International Migration, 48(4).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carling, J. (2019) Research Ethics and Research Integrity, MIGNEX Handbook, Chapter 4 (v1), Peace Research Institute, Oslo. Available from: www.mignex.org/d013

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Castles, S. (2003) ‘Towards a sociology of forced migration and social transformation’, Sociology, 37(2): 1334.

  • Castles, S. (2004) ‘Why migration policies fail’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 27(2): 20527.

  • Child Protection Monitoring and Evaluation Reference Group (2012) Ethical Principles, Dilemmas and Risks in Collecting Data on Violence Against Children: A Review of Available Literature, New York: UNICEF.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chuang, J.A. (2014) ‘Exploitation creep and the unmaking of human trafficking law’, American Journal of International Law, 108(4): 60949.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Crawley, C. and Skleparis, D. (2018) ‘Refugees, migrants, neither, both: categorical fetishism and the politics of bounding in Europe’s “migration crisis”’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 44(1): 48–64. doi: 10.1080/1369183X.2017.1348224

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cwikel, J. and Hoban, E. (2005) ‘Contentious issues in research on trafficked women working in the sex industry: study design, ethics and methodology’, Journal of Sex Research, 42( 4): 30616.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dean, H. (1996) Ethics and Social Policy Research, Luton; London: University of Luton; Social Policy Association.

  • DoCarmo, T.E. (2019) ‘Ethical considerations for studying human trafficking’, in J. Winterdyk and J. Jones (eds) The Palgrave International Handbook of Human Trafficking, London: Palgrave.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dottridge, M. (2001) Is There Slavery in Sudan?, London: Anti-Slavery International.

  • Dottridge, M. (2018) ‘Collateral damage provoked by anti-trafficking measures’, in R. Piotrowicz, C. Rijken, and B.H. Uhl (eds) Routledge Handbook of Human Trafficking, Abingdon; New York: Routledge

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Duong, K.A. (2015) ‘Doing human trafficking in research: reflections on ethical challenges’, Journal of Research in Gender Studies, 2: 17190.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Firmin, C. and Rayment-McHugh, S. (2020) ‘Two roads, one destination: community and organizational mechanisms for contextualizing child abuse prevention in Australia and the UK’, International Journal on Child Maltreatment: Research, Policy and Practice, 3: 22947.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gallagher, A.T. (2015a) ‘Two cheers for the trafficking protocol’, Anti-Trafficking Review, 4: 1432.

  • Gallagher, A.T. (2015b) ‘Exploitation in migration: unacceptable but inevitable’, Journal of International Affairs, Spring/Summer 2015, 68(2): 5574.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Garcia-Moreno, C., Zimmerman, C., Morris-Gehring, A., Heise, L., Amin, A., Abrahams, N., Montoya, O., Bhate-Deosthali, P., Kilonzo, N. and Watts, C. (2015) ‘Addressing violence against women: a call to action’, Violence Against Women and Girls, 385(9978): 168595.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Geddes, A. (2005) ‘Chronicle of a crisis foretold: the politics of irregular migration, human trafficking and people smuggling in the UK’, British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 7: 32439.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gilligan, C. (1977) ‘In a different voice: women’s conceptions of self and morality’, Harvard Educational Review, 47(4): 481517.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Global Alliance Against Traffic in Women (GAATW) (2007) Collateral Damage: The Impact of Anti-Trafficking Measures on Human Rights around the World, Bangkok, Thailand: GAATW.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gozdziak, E.M., Graveline, G., Skippings, W. and Song, M. (2015) Bibliography of Research-Based Literature on Human Trafficking: 2008–2014, Washington, DC: Institute for the Study of International Migration.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Graham, A., Powell, M., Taylor, N., Anderson, D., and R. Fitzgerald (2013) Ethical Research Involving Children, Florence: UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Heise, L.L. (1998) ‘Violence against women: an integrated, ecological framework’, Violence Against Women, 4(3): 26290. doi: 10.1177/1077801298004003002

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hynes, P., Gani-Yusuf, L., Burland, P., Dew, J., Olatunde, A., Thurnham, A., Brodie, I., Spring, D. and Murray, F. (2018a) ‘Vulnerability’ to Human Trafficking: A Study of Viet Nam, Albania, Nigeria and the UK: Report of a Shared Learning Event held in Lagos, Nigeria, University of Bedfordshire and International Organization for Migration (IOM), London. Available from: https://www.beds.ac.uk/trafficking/nigeria

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hynes, P., Burland, P., Dew, J., Hong Thi Tran, Priest, P., Thurnham, A., Brodie, I., Spring, D. and Murray, F. (2018b) ‘Vulnerability’ to Human Trafficking: A Study of Viet Nam, Albania, Nigeria and the UK: Report of a Shared Learning Event in Hanoi, Viet Nam: 6–7 December 2017, University of Bedfordshire and International Organization for Migration (IOM), London. Available from: www.beds.ac.uk/trafficking/vietnam

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hynes, P., Burland, P., Dew, J., Lenja, V., Gaxha, A., Thurnham, A., Brodie, I., Spring, D. and Murray, F. (2018c) ‘Vulnerability’ to Human Trafficking: A Study of Viet Nam, Albania, Nigeria and the UK: Report of a Shared Learning Event in Tirana, Albania: 24–26 October 2017, University of Bedfordshire and International Organization for Migration (IOM), London. Available from: www.beds.ac.uk/trafficking/albania

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hynes, P., Burland, P., Thurnham, A., Dew, J., Gani-Yusuf, L., Lenja, V. and Hong Thi Tran with Olatunde, A. and Gaxha, A. (2019) ‘Between Two Fires’: Understanding Vulnerabilities and the Support Needs of People from Albania, Viet Nam and Nigeria who have experienced Human Trafficking into the UK, University of Bedfordshire and International Organization for Migration (IOM), London.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • International Association for the Study of Forced Migration (2018) Code of Ethics, International Association for the Study of Forced Migration (IASFM).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ILO (2002) A Future Without Child Labour, Global Report under the Follow-up to the ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work, Geneva: International Labour Office.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Israel, M. and Hay, I. (2006) Research Ethics for Social Scientists, London; Thousand Oaks, CA; New Delhi: Sage.

  • Jacobsen, K. and Landau, L.B. (2003a) ‘The dual imperative in refugee research: some methodological and ethical considerations in social science research on forced migration’, Disasters, 27(3): 185206.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jacobsen, K. and Landau, L.B. (2003b) ‘Researching refugees: some methodological and ethical considerations in social science and forced migration’, Working Paper No. 90, New Issues in Refugee Research, Geneva: UNHCR.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lammers, E. (2005) ‘Refugees, asylum seekers and anthropologists: the taboo on giving’, Global Migration Perspectives, Geneva: Global Commission on International Migration.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LeBaron, G. and Pliley, J.R. (2021) Fighting Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Levy, N., Pisarevskaya, A., and Scholten, P. (2020) ‘Between fragmentation and institutionalisation: the rise of migration studies as a research field’, Comparative Migration Studies, 8(24): 124.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mackenzie, C., McDowell, C., and Pittaway, E. (2007) ‘Beyond “do no harm”: the challenge of constructing ethical relationships in refugee research’, Journal of Refugee Studies, 20(2): 299319.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McAdam, M., Surtees, R., and Johnson, L.S. (2019) Legal and Ethical Issues in Data Collection on Trafficking in Persons, Washington, DC: NEXUS Institute.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McDonald, B. and Rogers, P. (2014) Interviewing, Methodological Briefs: Impact Evaluation 12, Florence: UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morrison, J. (2002) Human Smuggling and Trafficking, Forced Migration Online, Oxford: University of Oxford.

  • Pearce, J., Hynes, P., and Bovarnick, S. (2013) Trafficked Young People, London; New York: Routledge.

  • Pennington, J. and Balaram, B. (2013) Homecoming: Return and Reintegration and Irregular Migrants from Nigeria London: IPPR.

  • Radford, L., Allnock, D., and Hynes, P. (2015a) Preventing and Responding to Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation: Evidence Review, New York: UNICEF.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Radford, L., Allnock, D., and Hynes, P. (2015b) Promising Programmes to Prevent and Respond to Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation, New York: UNICEF.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Radford, L. et al (2011) Child Abuse and Neglect in the UK Today, London: NSPCC.

  • Ramazanoglu, C. and Holland, J. (2002) Feminist Methodology Challenges and Choices, London, Thousand Oaks and New Delhi: SAGE Publications.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Refugee Studies Centre (2007) ‘Ethical guidelines for good research practice’, Refugee Survey Quarterly, 24(3).

  • Siegel, D. and de Wildt, R. (eds) (2016) Ethical Concerns in Research on Human Trafficking, Switzerland: Springer.

  • Surtees, R. (2014) ‘Another side of the story: challenges in research with unidentified and unassisted trafficking victims’, in S. Yea and K. Pattana (eds) Human Trafficking in Asia: Forcing Issues and Framing Agendas, London: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Surtees, R. and Craggs, S. (2010) Beneath the Surface: Methodological Issues in Trafficking Research, Washington, DC; Geneva: NEXUS Institute; IOM.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tyldum, G. (2010) ‘Limitations in research on human trafficking’, International Migration, 48(5): 113.

  • United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) (2003) Guidelines for Protection of the Rights of Children Victims Trafficking in Southeastern Europe (amended and re-issued 2004), New York: UNICEF.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • UNICEF (2006) Guidelines on the Protection of Child Victims of Trafficking, New York: UNICEF.

  • UNICEF (2012) Ethical Principles, Dilemmas and Risks in Collecting Data on Violence Against Children: A Review of Available Literature, New York: UNICEF.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • UNICEF (2020) Action to End Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation: A Review of the Evidence, New York: UNICEF.

  • United Nations Inter-Agency Project on Human Trafficking (2008) Guide to Ethics and Human Rights in Counter-Trafficking: Ethical Standards for Counter-Trafficking Research and Programming, Bangkok, Thailand: UNIAP.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2013) Abuse of a Position of Vulnerability and Other ‘Means’ within the Definition of Trafficking in Persons, New York: UNODC.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • van Liempt, I. and Bilger, V. (2012) ‘Ethical challenges in research with vulnerable migrants’, in C. Vargas-Silva (ed) Handbook of Research Methods in Migration, Cheltenham, UK; Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vertovec, S. (2020) ‘Two cheers for migration studies’, Comparative Migration Studies, 8(38): 13.

  • Wimmer, A. and Glick Schiller, N. (2002) ‘Methodological nationalism and beyond: nation-state building, migration and the social sciences’, Global Networks, 2(4): 30134.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wright-Mills, C. (1973) The Sociological Imagination, London: Penguin.

  • Zetter, R. (2007) ‘More labels, fewer refugees: remaking the refugee label in an era of globalization’, Journal of Refugee Studies, 20(2): 17292. doi: 10.1093/jrs/fem011

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zetter, R. (2018) ‘Conceptualising forced displacement: praxis, scholarship and empirics’, in A. Bloch and G. Dona (eds) Forced Migration: Current Issues and Debates, London: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zimmerman, C. and Watts, C. (2003) WHO Ethical and Safety Recommendations for Interviewing Trafficked Women, London: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and Daphne Programme of the European Commission.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zimmerman, C., McAlpine, A., and Kiss, L. (2016) Safer Labour Migration and Community-Based Prevention of Exploitation: The State of the Evidence for Programming, London: The Freedom Fund & London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andrijasevic, R., and Anderson, B. (2009) ‘Anti-trafficking campaigns: Decent? Honest? Truthful?’, Feminist Review, 92(1): 1515.

  • Aronowitz, A.A. (2001) ‘Smuggling and trafficking in human beings: the phenomenon, the markets that drive it and the organisations that promote it’, European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 9(2): 16395.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beale, M. (2011) ‘The trafficking in persons report: who is the United Nations to judge?’, Council on Hemispheric Affairs. Available from: www.coha.org/the-trafficking-in-persons-report-who-is-the-united-states- to-judge/#sthash.GUWhx4Zq.dpuf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boukli, A. and Renz, F. (2019) ‘Deconstructing the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender victim of sex trafficking: harm, exceptionality and religion–sexuality tensions’, International Review of Victimology, 25(1): 7190.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brennan, D. (2014). Life Interrupted: Trafficking into Forced Labor into the United States, Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

  • Breuil, B.O. (2021) ‘“Little rascals” or not-so-ideal victims: dealing with minors trafficked for exploitation in criminal activities in the Netherlands’, Anti-Trafficking Review, 16: 86103.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Broad, R. (2015) ‘“A vile and violent thing”: female traffickers and the criminal justice response’, British Journal of Criminology, 55(6): 105875.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brunovskis, A. and Skilbrei, M.-L. (2016) ‘Two birds with one stone? Implications of conditional assistance in victim protection and prosecution of traffickers’, Anti-Trafficking Review, 6: 1330.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bryant-Davis, T. and Tummala-Narra, P. (2017) ‘Cultural oppression and human trafficking: exploring the role of racism and ethnic bias’, Women and Therapy, 40(1–2): 15269.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Butler, C.N. (2015) ‘The racial roots of human trafficking’, UCLA Law Review, 62(1464): 1464–513.

  • Carrabine, E. (2004) Power, Discourse, and Resistance: A Genealogy of the Strangeways Prison Riot, Farnham: Ashgate.

  • Chan, J. and Bennett Moses, L. (2016) ‘Is big data challenging criminology?’, Theoretical Criminology, 20(1): 2139.

  • Charnysh, V., Lloyd, P., and Simmons, B.A. (2015) ‘Frames and consensus formation in international relations: the case of trafficking in persons’, European Journal of International Relations, 21(2): 32351.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Choi, K.R. (2015) ‘Risk factors for domestic minor sex trafficking in the United States: a literature review’, Journal of Forensic Nursing, 11(2): 6676.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Christie, N. (1986) ‘The ideal victim’, in E.A. Fattah (ed.) From Crime Policy to Victim Policy: Reorienting the Justice System, London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp 1730.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chuang, J. and Gallagher, A.T. (2012) ‘The use of indicators to measure government responses to human trafficking’, in J. Chuang and A.T. Gallagher (eds) Governance by Indicators: Global Power through Qualification and Ranking, Oxford: Oxford Scholarship Online.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cockbain, E. (2018) Offender and Victim Networks in Human Trafficking, Abingdon: Routledge.

  • Cockbain, E. and Bowers, K. (2019) ‘Human trafficking for sex, labour and domestic servitude: how do key trafficking types compare and what are their predictors?’, Crime, Law and Social Change, 72(1): 934.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cockbain, E. and Olver, K. (2019) ‘Child trafficking: characteristics, complexities, and challenges’, in I. Bryce, W. Petherick and Y. Robinson (eds) Child Abuse and Neglect: Forensic Issues in Evidence, Impact and Management, Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp 95116.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cockbain, E., Bowers, K., and Dimitrova, G. (2018) ‘Human trafficking for labour exploitation: the results of a two-phase systematic review mapping the European evidence base and synthesising key scientific research evidence’, Journal of Experimental Criminology, 14(3): 31960.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cockbain, E. Bowers, K., and Vernon, L. (2020) ‘Using law enforcement data in trafficking research’, in J. Winterdyk and J. Jones (eds) The Palgrave International Handbook of Human Trafficking, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, pp 170932.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dai, X. (2007) International Institutions and National Policies, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Dank, M.L. et al (2014) Estimating the Size and Structure of the Underground Commercial Sex Economy in Eight Major US Cities, Urban Institute: Washington, DC.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Davis, J. (2022) Adultification Bias within Child Protection and Safeguarding, London: Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Probation.

  • Davis, K.E., Kingsbury, B., and Merry, S.E. (2012) ‘Indicators as a technology of global governance’, Law and Society Review, 46(1): 71104.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • de Vries, I. (2019) ‘Connected to crime: an exploration of the nesting of labour trafficking and exploitation in legitimate markets’, British Journal of Criminology, 59(1): 20930.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • de Vries, I. and Dettmeijer-Vermeulen, C. (2015) ‘Extremely wanted: human trafficking statistics. What to do with the hodgepodge of numbers?’, Forum on Crime and Society, 8: 1536.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • de Vries, I. and Farrell, A. (2022) ‘Explaining the use of traditional law enforcement responses to human trafficking concerns in illicit massage businesses’, Justice Quarterly, 40(3): 337–62.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • de Vries, I. and Goggin, K.E. (2020) ‘The impact of childhood abuse on the commercial sexual exploitation of youth: a systematic review and meta-analysis’, Trauma, Violence, and Abuse, 21(5): 886903.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • de Vries, I. and Radford, J. (2021) ‘Identifying online risk markers of hard-to-observe crimes through semi-inductive triangulation: the case of human trafficking in the United States’, British Journal of Criminology, 62(3): 63958.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • de Vries, I., Farrell, A., Bouché, V., and Wittmer-Wolfe, D.E. (2020a) ‘Crime frames and gender differences in the activation of crime concern and crime responses’, Journal of Criminal Justice, 66: 101651.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • de Vries, I., Kafafian, M., Goggin, K., Bouchard, E., Goldfarb, S., and Farrell, A. (2020b) ‘Enhancing the identification of commercial sexual exploitation among a population of high-risk youths using predictive regularization models’, Child Maltreatment, 25(3): 31827.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Doezema, D.J. (2010) Sex Slaves and Discourse Masters: The Construction of Trafficking, London: Zed Books.

  • Drakulich, K.M. (2015) ‘Explicit and hidden racial bias in the framing of social problems’, Social Problems, 62(3): 391418.

  • Druckman, J.N. (2001) ‘On the limits of framing effects: who can frame?’, Journal of Politics, 63(4): 104166.

  • Dubrawski, A., Miller, K., Barnes, M., Boecking, B., and Kennedy, E. (2015) ‘Leveraging publicly available data to discern patterns of human-trafficking activity’, Journal of Human Trafficking, 1(1): 6585.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dunn, J.L. (2010) ‘Vocabularies of victimization: toward explaining the deviant victim’, Deviant Behavior, 31(2): 15983.

  • Elias, R. (1986) ‘The politics of victimization: victims, victimology, and human rights’, OUP Catalogue, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Farrell, A. and de Vries, I. (2020) ‘Measuring the nature and prevalence of human trafficking’, in J. Winterdyk and J. Jones (eds) The Palgrave International Handbook of Human Trafficking, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, pp 14762.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Farrell, A. and Fahy, S. (2009) ‘The problem of human trafficking in the US: public frames and policy responses’, Journal of Criminal Justice, 37(6): 61726.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Farrell, A., McDevitt, J., and Fahy, S. (2010) ‘Where are all the victims?: understanding the determinants of official identification of human trafficking incidents’, Criminology and Public Policy, 9(2): 20133.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Farrell, A., Owens, C., and McDevitt, J. (2014) ‘New laws but few cases: understanding the challenges to the investigation and prosecution of human trafficking cases’, Crime, Law and Social Change, 61(2): 13968.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Faulkner, E.A. (2023) The Trafficking of Children: International Law, Modern Slavery, and the Anti-Trafficking Machine, [Online] Cham: Springer.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Faulkner, E.A. and Nyamutata, C. (2020) ‘The decolonisation of children’s rights and the colonial contours of the Convention on the Rights of the Child’, International Journal of Children’s Rights, 28(1): 6688.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fehrenbacher, A.E. et al (2020) ‘Transgender people and human trafficking: intersectional exclusion of transgender migrants and people of color from anti-trafficking protection in the United States’, Journal of Human Trafficking, 6(2): 18294.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Firmin, C. (2020) Contextual Safeguarding and Child Protection: Rewriting the Rules, Milton Park: Taylor & Francis.

  • Gallagher, A. (2001) ‘Human rights and the new UN protocols on trafficking and migrant smuggling: a preliminary analysis’, Human Rights Quarterly, 23: 975–1004.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gallagher, A. (2011) ‘Improving the effectiveness of the international law of human trafficking: a vision for the future of the US Trafficking in Persons reports’, Human Rights Review, 12(3): 381400.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gallagher, A. (2012) ‘Human rights and human trafficking: a reflection on the influence and evolution of the US Trafficking in Persons reports’, in From Human Trafficking to Human Rights, Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, pp 17294.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gerasimov, B. and Breuil, B.O. (2021) ‘Trafficking in minors: confronting complex realities, structural inequalities, and agency’, Anti-Trafficking Review, 16: 19.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goffman, E. (1974) Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

  • Goździak, E.M. and Vogel, K.M. (2020) ‘Palermo at 20: a retrospective and prospective’, Journal of Human Trafficking, 6(2): 10918.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gulati, G.J. (2011) ‘News frames and story triggers in the media’s coverage of human trafficking’, Human Rights Review, 12(3): 36379.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hsu, C.-C. and Sandford, B.A. (2007) ‘The Delphi technique: making sense of consensus’, Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation, 12(1): 10.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hundman, K., Gowda, T., Kejriwal, M., and Boecking, B. (2018) Always Lurking: Understanding and Mitigating Bias in Online Human Trafficking Detection. Proceedings of the 2018 AAAI/ACM Conference on AI, Ethics and Society, pp 137–43.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ibanez, M. and Suthers, D.D. (2014) Detection of Domestic Human Trafficking Indicators and Movement Trends Using Content Available on Open Internet Sources, 2014 47th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 155665.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ILO (International Labour Organization) (2009) Operational Indicators of Trafficking in Human Beings, Geneva: ILO.

  • Johnston, A., Friedman, B., and Sobel, M. (2015) ‘Framing an emerging issue: how US print and broadcast news media covered sex trafficking, 2008–2012’, Journal of Human Trafficking, 1(3): 23554.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kelley, J.G. and Simmons, B.A. (2015) ‘Politics by number: indicators as social pressure in international relations’, American Journal of Political Science, 59(1): 5570.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kempadoo, K. and Shih, E. (2022) White Supremacy, Racism and the Coloniality of Anti-Trafficking, New York: Routledge.

  • Kennedy, E. (2012) ‘Predictive patterns of sex trafficking online’, Dietrich College Honours Theses, Carnegie Mellon University. Available from: https://kilthub.cmu.edu/ndownloader/files/12212117 [Accessed 21 December 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kenway, E. (2021) The Truth about Modern Slavery, London: Pluto Press.

  • Kjellgren, R. (2022) ‘Good tech, bad tech: policing sex trafficking with Big Data’, International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy, 11(1): 14966.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Latonero, M. (2011) Human Trafficking Online: The Role of Social Networking Sites and Online Classifieds, Research Series: September 2011, Los Angeles, CA: University of Southern California.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Latonero, M., Wex, B., and Dank, M. (2015) ‘Technology and labor trafficking in a network society: general overview, emerging innovations, and Philippines case study’, Emerging Innovations, and Philippines Case Study (6 March 2015).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marchionni, D.M. (2012) ‘International human trafficking: an agenda-building analysis of the US and British press’, International Communication Gazette, 74(2): 14558.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McGrath, S. and Watson, S. (2018) ‘Anti-slavery as development: a global politics of rescue’, Geoforum, 93: 2231.

  • Merry, S.E. (2016) The Seductions of Quantification: Measuring Human Rights, Gender Violence, and Sex Trafficking, Chicago: University of Chicago Press

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Merry, S.E. (2017) ‘Counting the uncountable: constructing trafficking through measurement’, in P. Kotiswaran (ed) Revisiting the Law and Governance of Trafficking, Forced Labor and Modern Slavery, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Merry, S.E. and Conley, J.M. (2011) ‘Measuring the world: indicators, human rights, and global governance’, Current Anthropology, 52(S3).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Musto, J. (2009) ‘What’s in a name?: conflations and contradictions in contemporary US discourses of human trafficking’, Women’s Studies International Forum ,32(4): 2817.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Musto, J. (2016) Control and Protect: Collaboration, Carceral Protection, and Domestic Sex Trafficking in the United States, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Musto, J., Thakor, M., and Gerasimov, B. (2020) ‘Between hope and hype: critical evaluations of technology’s role in anti-trafficking’, Anti-Trafficking Review, 14: 114.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O’Connell Davidson, J. (2015) Modern Slavery: The Margins of Freedom, Springer.

  • Oude Breuil, B.C. (2008) ‘“Precious children in a heartless world”? The complexities of child trafficking in Marseille’, Children and Society, 22(3): 22334.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Portnoff, R.S., Huang, D.Y., Doerfler, P., Afroz, S., and McCoy, D. (2017) Backpage and Bitcoin: Uncovering Human Traffickers, KDD '17: Proceedings of the 23rd ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, pp 1595604.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reid, J.A., Baglivio, M.T., Piquero, A.R., Greenwald, M.A., and Epps, N. (2019) ‘No youth left behind to human trafficking: exploring profiles of risk’, American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 89(6): 704.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Scarpa, S. (2020) ‘UN Palermo trafficking protocol eighteen years on: a critique’, in J. Winterdyk and J. Jones (eds) The Palgrave International Handbook of Human Trafficking, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, pp 62340.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Skrivankova, K. (2010) Between Decent Work and Forced Labour: Examining the Continuum of Exploitation, York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, E. and Hattery, A.J. (2008) ‘Incarceration: a tool for racial segregation and labor exploitation’, Race, Gender and Class, 15(1/2): 7997.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, M. and Mac, J. (2018) Revolting Prostitutes: The Fight for Sex Workers’ Rights, London: Verso.

  • Spencer, J. and Broad, R. (2012) ‘The “groundhog day” of the human trafficking for sexual exploitation debate: new directions in criminological understanding’, European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 18(3): 26981.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Srikantiah, J. (2007) ‘Perfect victims and real survivors: the iconic victim in domestic human trafficking law’, Immigration and Nationality Law Review, 28: 741–98.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Straatman, J. (2019) ‘European labour trafficking victims in the United Kingdom: a quantitative analysis of the indicators’, MSc Dissertation, London: UCL.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tyldum, G. and Brunovskis, A. (2005) ‘Describing the unobserved: methodological challenges in empirical studies on human trafficking’, International Migration, 43(1–2): 1734.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • UNODC (nd) Human Trafficking Indicators. Available from: www.unodc.org/pdf/HT_indicators_E_LOWRES.pdf [Accessed 21 December 2023].

  • US Department of State (2001) Trafficking in Persons Report. Available from: https://2009-2017.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2001/3929.htm [Accessed 21 December 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van Dijk, J. and Klerx-Van Mierlo, F. (2014) ‘Quantitative indices for anti-human trafficking policies: based on reports of the US State Department and the Council of Europe’, Crime, Law and Social Change, 61(2): 22950.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vandergeest, P. and Marschke, M. (2020) ‘Modern slavery and freedom: exploring contradictions through labour scandals in the Thai fisheries’, Antipode, 52(1): 291315.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vaughn, L. (2019) ‘Doing Risk’: Practitioner Interpretations of Risk of Childhood Radicalisation and the Implementation of the HM Government PREVENT Duty. PhD Thesis, Liverpool: University of Liverpool.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Venkatesh, S. (2011) ‘How tech tools transformed New York’s sex trade’, Wired, [online] 1 January. Available from: www.wired.com/2011/01/ff_sextrade/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Volodko, A., Cockbain, E., and Kleinberg, B. (2019). ‘“Spotting the signs” of trafficking recruitment online: exploring the characteristics of advertisements targeted at migrant job-seekers’, Trends in Organized Crime, 23: 735.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Williamson, S.H. (2017) ‘Globalization as a racial project: implications for human trafficking’, Journal of International Women’s Studies, 18(2): 7488.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wilson, M. and O’Brien, E. (2016) ‘Constructing the ideal victim in the United States of America’s annual trafficking in persons reports’, Crime, Law and Social Change, 65(1–2): 2945.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andrevski, H., Larsen, J., and Lyneham, S. (2013) ‘Barriers to trafficked persons’ involvement in criminal justice proceedings: an Indonesian case study’, Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, 451. Canberra, Australia: Australian Institute of Criminology. Available from: www.aic.gov.au/publications/tandi/tandi451 [Accessed 21 December 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anti-Trafficking Monitoring Group (ATMG) (2018) Before the Harm Is Done: Examining the UK’s Response to the Prevention of Trafficking. Available from: www.antislavery.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/Before-the-Harm-is-Done-report.pdf [Accessed 21 December 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barrick, K., Lattimore, P.K., Pitts, W.J., and Zhang, S.X. (2014) ‘When farmworkers and advocates see trafficking, but law enforcement does not: challenges in identifying labor trafficking in North CarolinaCrime, Law, and Social Change, 61(2): 20514.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Belser, P. (2005) Forced Labour and Human Trafficking: Estimating the Profit, Geneva: International Labour Organization. Available from: https://www.ilo.org/global/topics/forced-labour/publications/WCMS_081971/lang--en/index.htm [Accessed 21 December 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bjelland, H.F. (2016) ‘Identifying human trafficking in Norway: a register-based study of cases, outcomes and police practices’, European Journal of Criminology, 14(5): 52242. doi: 10.1177/1477370816677619

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bjelland, H.F. (2018) ‘Conceptions of success: understanding of successful policing of human trafficking’, Policing: A Journal of Police and Practice. doi: 10.1093/police/pay073

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Block, L. (2008) ‘Combating organised crime in Europe: practicalities of police cooperation’, Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management, 2(1): 7481.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bouche, V., Farrell, A., and Wittmer, D. (2016) Identifying Effective Counter-Trafficking Programs and Practices in the U.S.: Legislative, Legal And Public Opinions Strategies that Work. Available from: www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/249670.pdf [Accessed 21 December 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brayley, H., Cockbain, E., and Laycock, G. (2011) ‘The value of crime scripting: deconstructing internal child sex trafficking’, Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, 5(2): 13243.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brewster, B., Polovina, S., Rankin, G., and Andrews, S. (2014) ‘Knowledge management and human trafficking: using conceptual knowledge representation, text analytics and open-source data to combat organized crime’, in N. Hernandez, R. Jäschke, and M. Croitoru (eds) Graph-Based Representation and Reasoning, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 8577, Cham: Springer, pp 10417. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-08389-6_10

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brunovskis, A. and Skilbrei, M. (2016) ‘Two birds with one stone? Implications of conditional assistance in victim protection and prosecution of traffickers’, Anti-Trafficking Review, 6: 1330. doi: https://doi.org/10.14197/atr.20121662

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Campana, P. (2016) ‘The structure of human trafficking: lifting the bonnet on a Nigerian transnational network’, British Journal of Criminology, 56(1): 6886.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clawson, H., Dutch, N., and Cummings, M. (2006) Law Enforcement Response to Human Trafficking and the Implications for Victims: Current Practices and Lessons Learned. Available from: www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/216547.pdf [Accessed 21 December 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cockbain, E. and Bowers, K. (2019) ‘Human trafficking for sex, labour and domestic servitude: how do key trafficking types compare and what are their predictors?’, Crime, Law and Social Change, 72(1): 934.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cockbain, E. and Brayley-Morris, H. (2018) ‘Human trafficking and labour exploitation in the casual construction industry: an analysis of three major investigations in the UK involving Irish Traveller offending groups’, Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, 12(2): 12949.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cockbain, E., Brayley, H., and Laycock, G. (2011) ‘Exploring internal child sex trafficking networks using social network analysis’, Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, 5(2): 14457.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • College of Policing (2022) Major Investigation and Public Protection: Modern Slavery. Available from: www.app.college.police.uk/app-content/major-investigation-and-public-protection/modern-slavery/ [Accessed 21 December 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dandurand, Y. (2017) ‘Human trafficking and police governance’, Police, Practice and Research: An International Journal, 18(3): 32236.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • David, F. (2007) ‘Law enforcement responses to trafficking in persons: challenges and emerging good practice’, Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, 347. Canberra, Australia: Australian Institute of Criminology. Available from: https://www.aic.gov.au/publications/tandi/tandi347 [Accessed 21 December 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • David, F. (2008) ‘Trafficking of women for sexual purposes’, Research and Public Policy Series, 95. Canberra, Australia: Australian Institute of Criminology. Available from: www.dss.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/05_2012/rrp95_trafficking_of_women.pdf [Accessed 21 December 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Duijn, P.A.C., Kashirin, V., and Sloot, P.M.A. (2015) ‘The relative ineffectiveness of criminal network disruption’, Scientific Reports, 4(4238): 115. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/srep04238

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Farrell, A. and Pfeffer, R. (2014) ‘Policing human trafficking: cultural blinders and organizational barriers’, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 653(1): 4664. doi: 10.1177/0002716213515835

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Farrell, A., McDevitt, J., and Fahy, S. (2008) Understanding and Improving Law Enforcement Responses to Human Trafficking. Available from: www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/222752.pdf [Accessed 21 December 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Farrell, A., McDevitt, J., and Fahy, S. (2010) ‘Where are all the victims? Understanding the determinants of official identification of human trafficking incidents’, Criminology and Public Policy, 9(2): 20133.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Farrell, A., Owens, C., and McDevitt, J. (2014) ‘New laws but few cases: understanding the challenges to the investigation and prosecution of human trafficking cases’, Crime, Law and Social Change, 61: 13968.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Farrell, A., Pfeffer, R., and Brighuman, K. (2015) ‘Police perceptions of human trafficking’, Journal of Crime and Justice, 38(3): 31533.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Farrell, A., DeLateur, M.J., Owens, C., and Fahy, S. (2016) ‘The prosecution of state level human trafficking cases in the United States’, Anti-Trafficking Review, 6: 4870.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Farrell, A., Dank, M., de Vries, I., Kafafian, M., Hughes, A., and Lockwood, S. (2019) ‘Falling victims? Challenges of the police response to human trafficking’, Criminology and Public Policy, 18(3): 64973.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Farrell, A. et al (2012) Identifying Challenges to Improve the Investigation and Prosecution of State and Local Human Trafficking Cases. Available from: https://www.ojp.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/238795.pdf [Accessed 21 December 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fischer, H., Vestby, A., and Bjelland, H. (2017) ‘“It’s about using the full sanction catalogue”: on boundary negotiations in a multi-agency organised crime investigation’, Policing and Society, 27(6): 65570.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fisher, R.P. and Geiselman, R.E. (1992) ‘The complexity of eyewitness memory’, in F.R. Fisher and R.E. Geiselman (eds) Memory Enhancing Techniques for Investigative Interviewing: The Cognitive Interview, Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, pp 1116 .

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fox, C. and Butler, G. (2004) ‘Partnerships: where next?’, Safer Communities, 3(3): 3644.

  • Friesendorf, C. (2009) Strategies Against Human Trafficking: The Role of the Security Sector. Available from: https://documentation.lastradainternational.org/lsidocs/Trafficking+Complete[1].pdf [Accessed 21 December 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gabbert, F., Hope, L., and Confrey, M. (2018) ‘Witness testimony’, in A. Griffiths and R. Milne (eds) The Psychology of Criminal Investigation: From Theory to Practice, London: Routledge, pp 11329.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gallagher, A. and Holmes, P. (2008) ‘Developing an effective criminal justice response to human trafficking: lessons from the front line’, International Criminal Justice Review, 18(3): 31843.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gardner, A., Northall, P., and Brewster, B. (2021) ‘Building slavery-free communities: a resilience framework’, Journal of Human Trafficking, 7(3): 33853.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gerassi, L., Nichols, A., and Michelson, E. (2017) ‘Lessons learned: benefits and challenges in interagency coalitions addressing sex trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation’, Journal of Human Trafficking, 3(4): 285302.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Group of Experts on Actions against Trafficking in Human Beings (GRETA) (2016) 6th General Report on GRETA’s Activities. Available from: https://rm.coe.int/1680706a42 [Accessed 21 December 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haughey, C. (2016) The Modern Slavery Act Review. Available from: www.gov.uk/government/publications/modern-slavery-act-2015-review-one-year-on [Accessed 21 December 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harvey, J.H., Hornsby, R.A., and Sattar, Z. (2015) ‘Disjointed service: an English case study of multi-agency provision in tackling child trafficking’, British Journal of Criminology, 55(3): 494513.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Helfferich, C., Kavemann, B., and Rabe, H. (2011) ‘Determinants of the willingness to make a statement of victims of human trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation in the triangle offender-police-victim’, Trends in Organised Crime, 14(125). doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12117-011-9125-1

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HM Government (2014) The Modern Slavery Strategy. Available from: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/383764/Modern_Slavery_Strategy_FINAL_DEC2015.pdf [Accessed 21 December 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HM Government (2019) 2019 UK Annual Report on Modern Slavery. Available from: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/840059/Modern_Slavery_Report_2019.pdf [Accessed 21 December 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HM Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire and Rescue Services (HMICFRS) (2017) Stolen Freedom: The Policing Response to Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking. Available from: www.justiceinspectorates.gov.uk/hmicfrs/wp-content/uploads/stolen-freedom-the-policing-response-to-modern-slavery-and-human-trafficking.pdf [Accessed 21 December 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huff-Corzine, L., Sacra, S.A., Corzine, J., and Rados, R. (2017) ‘Florida’s task force approach to combat human trafficking: an analysis of county-level data’, Police Practice and Research: An International Journal, 18(3): 24558.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hyland, K. (2016) Independent Anti-Slavery Commissioner: Annual Report 2015–2016. Available from: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/559571/IASC_Annual_Report_WebReadyFinal.pdf [Accessed 21 December 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Independent Anti-Slavery Commissioner (IASC) and University of Nottingham (2020) Partnership for Freedom: Improving Multi-Agency Collaboration on Modern Slavery. Available from: https://iasctoolkit.nottingham.ac.uk/download/partnerships-for-freedom-improving-multi-agency-collaboration-on-modern-slavery/ [Accessed 21 December 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • International Organization for Migration (IOM) (2018) Investigating Human Trafficking Cases Using a Victim-Centred Approach: A Trainer’s Manual on Combating Trafficking in Persons for Capacity-Building of Law Enforcement Officers in Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, Jamaica, and Trinidad and Tobago. Available from: https://publications.iom.int/books/investigating-human-trafficking-cases-using-victim-centred-approach-trainers-manual-combating [Accessed 21 December 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ioannou, M. and Oostinga, M.S.D. (2015) ‘An empirical framework of control methods of victims of human trafficking for sexual exploitation’, Global Crime, 16(1): 3449.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, L., Engstrom, D., Hilliard, P., and Sungakawan, D. (2011) ‘Human trafficking between Thailand and Japan: lessons in recruitment, transport and control’, International Journal of Social Welfare, 20(2): 20311.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jurek, L. and King, W.R. (2020) ‘Structural responses to gendered social problems: police agency adaptations to human trafficking’, Police Quarterly, 23(1): 2554.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Katona, N. (2020) ‘Combating trafficking of Hungarian women to Western Europe: a multi-level analysis of the international law enforcement cooperation’, Trends in Organized Crime, 23(2): 11542.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kirby, S. and Nailer, L. (2013) Using a Prevention and Disruption Model to Tackle a UK Organsied Crime Group, London: Home Officer.

  • Leman, J., and Janssens, S. (2008) ‘The Albanian and post-soviet business of trafficking women for prostitution: structural developments and financial modus operandi’, European Journal of Criminology, 5(4): 43351.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mapp, S., Hornung, E., D’Almeida, M., and Juhnke, J. (2016) ‘Local law enforcement officer’s knowledge of human trafficking: ability to define, identify and assist’, Journal of Human Trafficking, 2(4): 32942.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mason, J. (2002) Qualitative Researching (2nd edn), Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • Matos, M., Gonçalvez, M., and Maia, A. (2018) ‘Human trafficking and criminal proceedings in Portugal: discourses of professionals in the justice system’, Trends in Organized Crime, 21(4): 370400.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Matos, M., Gonçalvez, M., and Maia, A. (2019) ‘Understanding the criminal justice process in human trafficking cases in Portugal: factors associated with successful prosecutions’, Crime, Law and Social Change, 72(5): 50125. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10611-019-09834-9

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCreadie, C., Mathew, D., Filinson, R., and Askham, J. (2008) ‘Ambiguity and cooperation in the implementation of adult protection policy’, Social Policy and Administration, 42(3): 24866.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meshkovska, B., Mickovski, N., Bos, A., and Siegel, M. (2016) ‘Trafficking of women for sexual exploitation in Europe: prosecution, trials and their impact’, Anti-Trafficking Review, 6: 7190. doi: https://doi.org/10.14197/atr.20121665

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Newton, P.J., Mulcahy, T.M., and Martin, S.E. (2008) Finding Victims of Human Trafficking. Available from: www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/224393.pdf [Accessed 21 December 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nichols, A.J. and Heil, E. (2015) ‘Challenges to identifying and prosecuting sex trafficking cases in the Midwest United States’, Feminist Criminology, 10(1): 735.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) (2010) Analysing the Business Model of Trafficking in Human Beings to Better Prevent the Crime. Available from: www.osce.org/secretariat/69028?download=true [Accessed 21 December 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) (2014) Leveraging Anti-Money Laundering Regimes to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings. Available from: www.osce.org/secretariat/121125?download=true [Accessed 21 December 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pajόn, L. and Walsh, D. (2020) ‘Proposing a theoretical framework for the criminal investigation of human trafficking crimes’, Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, 14(2): 493511.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pajόn, L. and Walsh, D. (2022) ‘The importance of multi-agency collaborations during human trafficking criminal investigations’, Policing and Society. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/10439463.2022.2106984

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Raphael, J., Reichert, J.A., and Powers, M. (2010) ‘Pimp control and violence: domestic sex trafficking of Chicago women and girls’, Women and Criminal Justice, 20(1–2): 89104.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reichel, P.L. (2008) Cross-National Collaboration to Combat Human Trafficking. Learning from the Experience of Others. Available from: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/1b6e/e65e0fe8a316508753c07a6b5975347e24d0.pdf [Accessed 21 December 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rosenbaum, D.P. (2002) ‘Evaluating multi-agency anti-crime partnerships: theory, design and measurement issues’, Crime Prevention Studies, 14: 171225.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Russell, A. (2018) ‘Human trafficking: a research synthesis on human-trafficking literature in academic journals from 2000–2014’, Journal of Human Trafficking, 4(2): 11436.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Salt, J. (2000) ‘Trafficking and human smuggling: a European perspectiveInternational Migration, 38(3): 3156.

  • Serious and Organized Crime Strategy (2018). Available from: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/752850/SOC-2018-web.pdf [Accessed 21 December 2023].

  • Severns, R., Paterson, C., and Brogan, S. (2020) ‘The transnational investigation of organised modern slavery: a critical review of the use of joint investigation teams to investigate and disrupt transnational modern slavery in the United Kingdom’, International Journal of Crisis Communication, 4: 1122.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sheldon-Sherman, J. (2012) ‘The missing “P”: prosecution, prevention, protection, and partnership in the Trafficking Victims Protection Act’, Penn State Law Review, 117: 443501.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tangen, J. (2020) ‘Timescapes in public policy – constructing the “victim of trafficking”’, Journal of Borderlands Studies, 37(3): 47592.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC) (2006) Toolkit to Combat Trafficking in Persons, Global Programme Against Trafficking in Human Beings. Available from: www.unodc.org/documents/human-trafficking/HT-toolkit-en.pdf [Accessed 21 December 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC) (2014) Global Report on Trafficking in Persons 2014. Available from: www.unodc.org/documents/data-and-analysis/glotip/GLOTIP_2014_full_report.pdf [Accessed 21 December 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • United States Department of State (2019) Trafficking in Persons Report, June 2019. Available from: www.state.gov/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/2019-Trafficking-in-Persons-Report.pdf [Accessed 21 December 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van der Watt, M. and Van der Westhuizen, A. (2017) ‘(Re)configuring the criminal justice response to human trafficking: a complex-systems perspective’, Police Practice and Research: An International Journal, 18(3): 21899.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van Dyck, R. and Brachou, A. (2021) What Looks Promising for Tackling Modern Slavery: A Review of Practice-Based Research. Available from: www.antislaverycommissioner.co.uk/media/1565/modern-slavery-report-what-looks-promising-a4-brochure-21-031-feb21-proof-2.pdf [Accessed 21 December 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Verhoeven, M. and Van Gestel, B. (2011) ‘Human trafficking and criminal investigation strategies in the Amsterdam Red Light District’, Trends in Organized Crimes, 14(2/3): 14864.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Viuhko, M. and Jokinen, A. (2009) Human Trafficking and Organised Crime: Trafficking for Sexual Exploitation and Organised Procuring in Finland, Publication Series no. 62, European Institute for Crime Prevention and Control (HEUNI).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wheaton, E.M., Schauer, E.J., and Galli, T.V. (2010) ‘Economics of human trafficking’, International Migration, 48(4): 11441.

  • Wilson, J. and Dalton, E. (2008) ‘Human trafficking in the Heartland: variations in law enforcement awareness response’, Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 24(3): 296313.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zainal, Z. (2007) ‘Case study as research method’, UTM Jurnal Kemanusiaan, 5(1): 16.