ONE: Introduction

Restricted access
Rights and permissions Cite this chapter

Chapter 1 outlines the background and context to the research. It describes the recent rise in serious youth violence (SYV) and the associated economic and societal cost that has served to increase political and populist concerns around SYV, resulting in a raft of new laws, policies and initiatives to tackle the issue. The growing body of research that has identified the disproportionate prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) among justice-involved young people, particularly those who perpetrate violent offences, is discussed. To investigate the complex relationship between ACEs and SYV, the research adopted an innovative mix of methods, including a bespoke quantitative ACEs assessment tool, qualitative interviews with youth justice workers, narrative life-story interviews with justice-involved young people, and participatory creative workshops with justice-involved young people. The chapter finishes by outlining the structure of the book.

  • Alliance for Youth Justice (2021) AYJ Response: Police, Crime, Sentencing and Courts Bill – Implications for Children and the Youth Justice System, www.ayj.org.uk/news-content/pcsc-bill-response

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • American Psychiatric Association (2013) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edition), Washington: American Psychiatric Association.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anda, R.F., Felitti, V.J., Bremner, J.D., Walker, J.D., Whitfield, C. and Perry, B.D., et al (2006) ‘The enduring effects of abuse and related adverse experiences in childhood. A convergence of evidence from neurobiology and epidemiology’, European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 256(3):174186.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anderson, S.L., Tomada, A., Vincow, E.S., Valente, E., Polcari, A. and Teicher, M.H. (2008) ‘Preliminary evidence for sensitive periods in the effect of childhood sexual abuse on regional brain development’, Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 20(3):292301.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anna Freud Centre (2022) Independent Evaluation of the Framework for Integrated Care (SECURE STAIRS), London: Anna Freud National Centre for Children and Families.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Asmussen, K., Fischer, F., Drayton, E. and McBride, T. (2020) Adverse Childhood Experiences: What We Know, What We Don’t Know, and What Should Happen Next, London: Early Intervention Foundation.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Avison Young (2022) Economic and Property Market Review March 2022, Manchester: Avison Young.

  • Baglivio, M.T., Epps, N., Swart, K., Huq, M.S., Sheer, A. and Hardt, N.S. (2014) ‘The prevalence of Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) in the lives of juvenile offenders’, Journal of Juvenile Justice, 3(2):117.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baglivio, M.T., Wolff, K.T. and Epps, N. (2021) ‘Violent juveniles’ adverse childhood experiences: differentiating victim groups’, Journal of Criminal Justice, 72(2001):101769.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bailey, S. (1996) ‘Psychiatric assessment of the violent child and adolescent: towards understanding and safe intervention’, in V. Varma (ed) Violence in Children and Adolescents, London: Jessica Kingsley.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baker, K. (2012) AssetPlus Rationale, London: Youth Justice Board.

  • Batchelor, S. and McNeill, F. (2005) ‘The young person–worker relationship’, in T. Bateman and J. Pitts (eds) The RHP Companion to Youth Justice, Lyme Regis: Russell House Publishing.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bath, H.I. (2008) ‘Calming together: the pathway to self-control’, Reclaiming Children and Youth, 16(4):4446.

  • Bauer, J.J. and McAdams, D.P. (2004) ‘Personal growth in adults’ stories of life transitions’, Journal of Personality, 72:573602.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baumeister, R.F. and Leary, M.R. (1995) ‘The need to belong: desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation’, Psychological Bulletin, 117(3):497529.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beckett, K., Farr, M., Kothari, A., Wye, L. and le May, A. (2018) ‘Embracing complexity and uncertainty to create impact: exploring the processes and transformative potential of co-produced research through development of a social impact model’, Health Research Policy and Systems, 16:118.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Billingham, L. and Irwin-Rogers, K. (2022) Against Youth Violence: A Social Harm Perspective, Bristol: Bristol University Press.

  • Bion, W.R. (1963) Elements of Psycho-Analysis, London: Karnac Books.

  • Boswell, G. (1996) Young and Dangerous: The Backgrounds and Careers of Section 53 offenders, Aldershot: Ashgate.

  • Bowlby, J. (1944) ‘Forty-four juvenile thieves: their characters and home-life’, The International Journal of Psycho-analysis, 25(19).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bowlby, J. (1950) ‘Research into the origins of delinquent behaviour’, British Medical Journal, 1(4653): 570573.

  • Bowlby, J. (1969) Attachment and Loss, New York: Basic Books.

  • Bowlby, J. (1980) Loss, Sadness and Depression, New York: Basic Books.

  • Bowlby, J. (1988) A Secure Base: Clinical Applications of Attachment Theory, London: Routledge.

  • Braga, T., Goncalves, L.C., Basto-Perpeira, M. and Maia, A. (2017) ‘Unraveling the link between maltreatment and juvenile antisocial behavior: a meta-analysis of prospective longitudinal studies’, Aggression and Violent Behavior, 33:3750.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Braun, V. and Clarke, V. (2006) ‘Using thematic analysis in psychology’, Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2):77101.

  • Brennan, I.R. and Moore, S.C. (2009) ‘Weapons and violence: a review of theory and research’, Aggression and Violent Behavior, 14(3):215225.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brooks, J. and King, N. (2014) Doing Template Analysis; Evaluating an End-of-Life Care Service, London: SAGE Publications.

  • Burnett, R. (2004) ‘One-to-one ways of promoting desistance: in search of an evidence base’, in R. Burnett and C. Roberts (eds) What Works in Probation and Youth Justice: Developing Evidence-Based Practice, Cullompton: Willan.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Byrne, B. and Lundy, L. (2019) ‘Children’s rights-based childhood policy: a six-P framework’, The International Journal of Human Rights, 23(3):357373.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Case, S.P. and Haines, K.R. (2015) ‘Children first, offenders second positive promotion: re-framing the prevention debate’, Youth Justice, 15(3):226239.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Catalani, C. and Minkler, M. (2010) ‘Photovoice: A review of the literature in health and public health’, Health Education and Behavior, 37(3):424451.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (n.d.) Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs), www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/aces/

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2021) Adverse Childhood Experiences Prevention Strategy, Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, www.cdc.gov/injury/pdfs/priority/ACEs-Strategic-Plan_Final_508.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chase, S.E. (2005) ‘Narrative inquiry: multiple lenses, approaches, voices’, in N.K. Denzin and Y.S. Lincoln (eds) The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cleaton, M.A.M. and Kirby, A. (2018) ‘Why do we find it so hard to calculate the burden of neurodevelopmental disorders?’, Journal of Child Developmental Disorders, 4:10.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cordis Bright (2017) Evaluation of the Enhanced Case Management Approach, Social Research Number 16/2007, Cardiff: Welsh Government.

  • Craig, J.M., Piquero, A.R., Farrington, D.P. and Ttofi, M.M. (2017a) ‘A little early risk goes a long bad way: adverse childhood experiences and life-course offending in the Cambridge study’, Journal of Criminal Justice, 53(2017):3445.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Craig, J.M., Baglivio, M.T., Wolff, K.T., Piquero, A.R. and Epps, N. (2017b) ‘Do social bonds buffer the impact of adverse childhood experiences on reoffending?’, Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 15(1):320.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Criminal Justice Joint Inspection (2021) Neurodiversity in the Criminal Justice System: A Review of Evidence, London: HM Inspectorate of Prisons and HM Inspectorate of Probation.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Curran, L. (2013) 101 Trauma-Informed Interventions: Activities, Exercises and Assignments to Move the Client and Therapy Forward, Wisconsin: PESI Publishing.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dahlberg, L.L. and Krug, E.G. (2002) ‘Violence – a global public health problem’, in E.G. Krug, L.L. Dahlberg, J.A. Mercy, A.B. Zwi and R. Lozano (eds) World Report on Violence and Health, Geneva: World Health Organization.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dempsey, M. (2021) Still Not Safe: The Public Health Response to Youth Violence, London: Children’s Commissioner for England.

  • Densley, J. (2020) ‘Collective violence online: when street gangs use social media’, in C.A. Ireland, M. Lewis, A.C. Lopez and J.L. Ireland (eds) The Handbook of Collective Violence: Current Developments and Understanding, Abingdon: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dent-Brown, K. and Wang, M. (2006) ‘The mechanism of story-making: a grounded theory study of the 6-part story method’, The Arts in Psychotherapy, 33:316330.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • De Zulueta, F. (2006) From Pain to Violence: The Traumatic Roots of Destructiveness, New York: Wiley.

  • Dierkhising, C., Ko, S., Woods-Jaeger, B., Briggs, E., Lee, R. and Pynoos, R. (2013) ‘Trauma histories among justice-involved youth: findings from the National Child Traumatic Stress Network’, European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 2013(4):20274.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dinkler, L., Lundström, S., Gajwani, R., Lichtenstein, P., Gillberg, C. and Minnis, H. (2017) ‘Maltreatment-associated neurodevelopmental disorders: a co-twin control analysis’, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 58(6):691701.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Duke, N.N., Pettingell, S.L., McMorris, B.J. and Borowsky, I.W. (2010) ‘Adolescent violence perpetration: associations with multiple types of adverse childhood experiences’, Pediatrics, 125(4):778786.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dwivedi, K.N. (1997) The Therapeutic Use of Story, London: Routledge.

  • Elliott, G., Kao, S. and Grant, A-M. (2004) ‘Mattering: empirical validation of a social-psychological concept’, Self and Identity, 3(4):339354.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Farrington, D.P. (1997) ‘Early prediction of violent and nonviolent youthful offending’, European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 5:5166.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Felitti, V.J., Anda, R.F., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D.F., Spitz, A.M., Edwards, V. and Marks, J.S. (1998) ‘Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) study’, American Journal of Preventative Medicine, 14(4):245258.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Firmin, C.E. and Knowles, R. (2020) The Legal and Policy Framework for Contextual Safeguarding Approaches. A 2020 Update on the 2018 legal briefing, Contextual Safeguarding Network.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fivush, R. and Merrill, N. (2016) ‘An ecological systems approach to family narratives’, Memory Studies, 9:30514.

  • Flett, G. (2018) The Psychology of Mattering: Understanding the Human Need to be Significant, London: Academic Press.

  • Fonagy, P. and Target, M. (1995) ‘Understanding the violent patient: the use of the body and the role of the father’, International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 76:487501.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fonagy, P. and Target, M. (1996) ‘Playing with reality: I. Theory of mind and the normal development of psychic reality’, International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 77(2):217233.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fonagy, P., Target, M., Steele, M., Steele, H., Leigh, T., Levinson, A. and Kennedy, R. (1997) ‘Morality, disruptive behavior, borderline personality disorder, crime and their relationship to security of attachment’, in L. Atkinson and K.J. Zucker (eds) Attachment and Psychopathology, New York: Guilford Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Foster-Fishman, P., Nowell, B., Deacon, Z., Nievar, M.A. and McCann, P. (2005) ‘Using methods that matter: the impact of reflection, dialogue, and voice’, American Journal of Community Psychology, 36:275291.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fox, B., Perez, N., Cass, E., Baglivio, M. and Epps, N. (2015) ‘Trauma changes everything: examining the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and serious, violent and chronic juvenile offenders’, Child Abuse and Neglect, 46:163173.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fraser, A. and Irwin-Rogers, K. (2021) A Public Health Approach to Violence Reduction: Strategic Briefing, Dartington: Research in Practice.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Freud, S. (1916) Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis, SE 15–6:13 –477.

  • Freud, S. (1920) ‘Beyond the pleasure principle’, in S. Freud (1955) The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Volume XVIII (1920–1922), London: The Hogarth Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Frey, W. (2018) ‘Humanizing digital mental health through social media: centering experiences of gang-involved youth exposed to high rates of violence’, Biomedical Informatics Insights, 10:15.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Garland, C. (1998) Understanding Trauma. A Psychoanalytical Approach, London: Duckworth.

  • Gersie, A. (1992) Earthtales: Storytelling in Times of Change, London: Green Print.

  • Gilligan, J. (1996) Violence: Our Deadly Epidemic and its Causes, New York: G.P. Putnam.

  • Gilligan, J. (2003) ‘Shame, guilt and violence’, Social Research, 70(4):11491180.

  • Gilligan, J. (2019) ‘What is forensic psychotherapy? Reflections on a new discipline’, International Journal of Forensic Psychotherapy, 1(1):19.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Glendinning, F., Rodriguez, G.R., Newbury, A. and Wilmott, R. (2021) Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE) and Trauma-Informed Approaches in Youth Justice Services in Wales: An Evaluation of the Implementation of the Enhanced Case Management (ECM) project, Wales: Bangor University.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goff, A., Rose, E., Rose, S. and Purves, D. (2007) ‘Does PTSD occur in sentenced prison populations? A systematic literature review’, Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 17:152162.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gray, P. (2008) ‘Misunderstood Youth? A Psychosocial Study of Young Men Leaving Custody’, PhD thesis, Keele: Keele University.

  • Gray, P. (2010) ‘The resettlement needs of young offenders leaving custody: an emotional dimension’, Prison Service Journal, 189:2528.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gray, P. (2015) ‘“I hate talking about it”: identifying and supporting traumatised young people in custody’, The Howard Journal, 54(5):434450.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Greater Manchester Poverty Action (2022) Greater Manchester Poverty Monitor 2022, www.gmpovertyaction.org/poverty-monitor-2022/

  • Habermas, T. and Silveira, C. (2008) ‘The development of global coherence in life narratives across adolescence: temporal, causal, and thematic aspects’, Developmental Psychology, 44(3):707721.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haines, K. and Case, S. (2015) Positive Youth Justice: Children First, Offenders Second, London: Policy Press.

  • Hawkins, J.D., Herrenkohl, T.I., Farrington, D.P., Brewer, D., Catalano, R.F., Harachi, T.W. and Cothern, L. (2000) ‘Predictors of youth violence’, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Juvenile Justice Bulletin, April 2000.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Probation (2017) The Work of Youth Offending Teams to Protect the Public, Manchester: HM Inspectorate of Probation.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Herman, J.L. (2015) Trauma and Recovery: The Aftermath of Violence – from Domestic Abuse to Political Terror, New York: Basic Books.

  • Hinshelwood, R. (1989) A Dictionary of Kleinian Thought, London: Free Association Press.

  • Home Office (2018) Serious Violence Strategy, London: HM Government.

  • Home Office (2020) Violence Reduction Unit Interim Guidance, London: Home Office.

  • Home Office (2021) ‘Knife Crime Prevention Orders begin in London’, www.gov.uk/government/news/knife-crime-prevention-orders-begin-in-london

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Home Office (2022) ‘Serious Violence Reduction Orders: Police, Crime, Sentencing and Courts Act 2022’, www.gov.uk/government/publications/police-crime-sentencing-and-courts-bill-2021-factsheets/police-crime-sentencing-and-courts-bill-2021-serious-violence-reduction-orders-factsheet

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Horan, R., Jump, D. and O’Shea, S. (2019) Phase One Process Evaluation Report: The Getting Out For Good (GOFG) Project, Warrington: The Averment Group.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hudson-Sharp, N. and Runge, J. (2017 )International Trends in Insecure Work: A Report for the Trades Union Congress, London: National Institute of Economic and Social Research.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hughes, K., Hardcastle, K. and Perkins, C. (2015a) The Mental Health Needs of Gang-affiliated Young People, London: Public Health England.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hughes, N., Williams, W.H., Chitsabesan, P., Walesby, R.C., Mounce, L.T.A. and Clasby, B. (2015b) ‘The prevalence of traumatic brain injury among young offenders in custody’, Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 30(2):94105.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Irwin-Rogers, K. (2019) ‘Illicit drug markets, consumer capitalism and the rise of social media: a toxic trap for young people’, Critical Criminology, 27(4):591610.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Irwin-Rogers, K. and Harding, S. (2018) ‘Challenging the orthodoxy on pupil gang involvement: when two social fields collide’, British Educational Research Journal, 44(3):463479.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Irwin-Rogers, K. and Pinkney, C. (2017) Social Media as a Catalyst and Trigger for Youth Violence, London: Catch22.

  • Irwin-Rogers, K., Densley, J. and Pinkney, C. (2018) ‘Social media and gang violence’, in J.L. Ireland, P. Birch and C.A. Ireland (eds) International Handbook on Aggression, Abingdon: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Irwin-Rogers, K., Muthoo, A. and Billingham, L. (2020) Youth Violence Commission Final Report.

  • Jacobson, J., Bhardwa, B., Gyateng, T., Hunter, G. and Hough, M. (2010) Punishing Disadvantage: A Profile of Children in Custody, London: Prison Reform Trust.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jahanshahi, B., Murray, K. and McVie, S. (2022) ‘ACEs, places and inequality: understanding the effects of adverse childhood experiences and poverty on offending in childhood’, The British Journal of Criminology, 62(3):751772.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Joliffe, D., Farrington, D.P., Loeber, R. and Pardini, D. (2016) ‘Protective factors for violence: results from the Pittsburgh Youth Study’, Journal of Criminal Justice, 45:3240.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jump, D. (2014) ‘Fighting for Change: Narrative accounts on the appeal and desistance potential of boxing’, PhD thesis, Manchester: University of Manchester.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jump, D. (2020) The Criminology of Boxing, Violence and Desistance, Bristol: Bristol University Press.

  • Jump, D. and Horan, R. (2021) Getting Out for Good: Preventing Gangs through Participation, Academic Insights 2021/12, Manchester: HM Inspectorate of Probation.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jump, D. and Smithson, H. (2020) ‘Dropping your guard: the use of boxing as a means of forming desistance narratives amongst young people in the criminal justice system’, The International Journal of Sport and Society, 11(2):5669.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kirby, A. (2021) Neurodiversity – A Ehole-Child Approach for Youth Justice, Academic Insights 2021/08, Manchester: HM Inspectorate of Probation.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kirby, A., Clasby, B., Williams, H. and Megan-Cleaton, M. (2020) ‘Young men in prison with neurodevelopmental disorders: missed, misdiagnosed and misinterpreted’, Prison Service Journal, 251:4658.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lammy Review (2017) An independent review into the treatment of, and outcomes for, Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic individuals in the Criminal Justice System, https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/643001/lammy-review-final-report.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J., Arata, C., O’Brien, N., Bowers, D. and Klibert, J. (2006) ‘Sensitive research with adolescents: just how upsetting are self-report surveys anyway?’, Violence and Victims, 21(4):425444.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lemma, A. and Young, L. (2022) ‘Working with traumatized adolescents: a framework for intervention’, in J. Stubley and L. Young (eds) Complex Trauma. The Tavistock Model, Abingdon: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Levinson, A. and Fonagy, P. (2004) ‘Offending and attachment: the relationship between interpersonal awareness and offending in a prison population with psychiatric disorder’, Canadian Journal of Psychoanalysis, 12(2):225251.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liddle, M., Boswell, G., Wright, S. and Francis, V. (2016) Trauma and Young Offenders: A review of the research and practice literature, London: Beyond Youth Custody.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lubit, R., Rovine, D., Defrancisci, L. and Eth, S. (2003) ‘Impact of trauma on children’, Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 9(2):128138.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Maas, C., Herrenkohl, T. and Sousa, C. (2008) ‘Review of research on child maltreatment and violence in youth’, Trauma, Violence and Abuse, 9(1):5667.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martin, A., Nixon, C., Watt, C.L., Taylor, A. and Kennedy, P. (2021) ‘Exploring the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences in secure children’s home admissions’, Child Youth Care Forum.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • May, R. (1998) Power and Innocence, London: W.W. Norton and Company.

  • McAdams, D.P. (1995) ‘What do we know when we know a person?’, Journal of Personality, 63:363396.

  • McAdams, D.P. and McLean, K.C. (2013) ‘Narrative identity’, Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22(3):233238.

  • McAdams, D.P. and Pals, J.L. (2006) ‘A new Big Five: fundamental principles for an integrative science of personality’, American Psychologist, 61:204217.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCartan, K.F. (2020) Trauma-informed Practice, Academic Insights 2020/05, Manchester: HM Inspectorate of Probation.

  • Meek, R. (2018) A Sporting Change: An Independent Review of Sport in Youth and Adult Prisons, London: Ministry of Justice.

  • Mehta, M.A., Golembo, N.I., Nosarti, C., Colvert, E., Mota, A. and Williams, S.C.R., et al (2009) ‘Amygdala, hippocampal and corpus callosum size following severe early institutional deprivation: the English and Romanian Adoptees Study pilot’, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50(8):943951.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meltzer, H., Doos, L., Vostanis, P., Ford, T. and Goodman, R. (2009) ‘The mental health of children who witness domestic violence’, Child and Family Social Work, 14:491501.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mendoza, K. and Bradley, L. (2021) ‘A model of storytelling: working with traumatically abused children’, Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 1–18.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mercy, J.A., Butchart, A., Farrington, D. and Cerdá, M. (2002) ‘Youth violence’, in E.G. Krug, L.L. Dahlberg, J.A. Mercy, A.B. Zwi and R. Lozano (eds) World Report on Violence and Health, Geneva: World Health Organization.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mersky, J.P., Lee, C.T.P. and Gilbert, R.M. (2019) ‘Client and provider discomfort with an adverse childhood experiences survey’, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 57(2):5158.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government (2019) The English Indices of Deprivation 2019, London: Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ministry of Justice (2020) Knife and Offensive Weapon Sentencing Statistics, England and Wales: Year ending September 2019, London: Ministry of Justice.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ministry of Justice and Youth Justice Board (2019) Standards for Children in the Youth Justice System 2019, London: Youth Justice Board.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Minsky, R. (1998) Psychoanalysis and Culture: Contemporary States of Mind, Cambridge: Polity.

  • Moylan, C.A., Herrenkohl, T.I., Sousa, C., Tajima, E.A., Herrenkohl, R.C. and Russo, M.J. (2010) ‘The effects of child abuse and exposure to domestic violence on adolescent internalizing and externalizing behavior problems’, Journal of Family Violence, 25:5363.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Overstreet, S. and Braun, S. (2000) ‘Exposure to community violence and post-traumatic stress symptoms: mediating factors’, The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 70(2):263271.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ozer, E.J. (2016) ‘Youth-led participatory action research’, in L. Jason and D. Glenwick (eds) Handbook of Methodological Approaches to Community-Based Research: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods, New York: Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Palombo, D.J., McKinnon, M.C., McIntosh, A.R., Anderson, A.K., Todd, R.M. and Levine B. (2016) ‘The neural correlates of memory for a life-threatening event: an fMRI study of passengers from flight AT236’, Clin Psychol Sci, 4(2):312319.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Parsons, M. (2009) ‘The roots of violence: theory and implications for technique with children and adolescents’, in M. Lanyado and A. Horne (eds) The Handbook of Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy. Psychoanalytic Approaches (Second edition), Abingdon: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Perera, J. (2020) How Black Working-Class Youth are Criminalised and Excluded in the English School System: A London Case Study. London: Institute of Race Relations.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Perez, N.M., Jennings, W.G. and Baglivio, M.T. (2018) ‘A path to serious, violent, chronic delinquency: the harmful aftermath of adverse childhood experiences’, Crime and Delinquency, 64(1):325.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Perry, B.D. and Szalavitz, M. (2007) The Boy who was Raised as a Dog: What Traumatized Children Can Teach Us About Loss, Love and Healing, New York: Basic Books.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Prilleltensky, I. (2020) ‘Mattering at the intersection of psychology, philosophy, and politics’, American Journal of Community Psychology, 65(1–2):1634.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reuben, A., Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, A., Belsky, D.W., Harrington, H. and Schroeder, F., et al (2016) ‘Lest we forget: comparing retrospective and prospective assessments of adverse childhood experiences in the prediction of adult health’, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 57(10):11031112.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Riggs, D. and Palasinski, M. (2011) ‘Tackling knife violence. Young men view things differently’, British Medical Journal, 342:d2903.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rogers, A. and Budd, M. (2015) ‘Developing safe and strong foundations: the DART framework’, in A. Rogers, J. Harvey and H. Law (eds) Young People in Forensic Mental Health Settings: Psychological Thinking and Practice, London: Palgrave.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ryan, T. and Mitchell, P. (2011) ‘A collaborative approach to meeting the needs of adolescent offenders with complex needs in custodial settings: an 18-month cohort study’, Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology, 22(3):43754.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Salzburg Global Seminar (2022) Global Innovations on Youth Violence, Safety and Justice, https://reports.salzburgglobal.org/youth-justice

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SAMHSA (2014) SAMHSA’s Concept of Trauma and Guidance for a Trauma-Informed Approach, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Trauma and Justice Strategic Initiative.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schaefer, C.E. (ed) (2011) Foundations of Play Therapy, Hoboken: John Wiley and Sons.

  • Siegel, D.J. (2001) ‘Toward an interpersonal neurobiology of the developing mind: attachment relationships, “mindsight” and neural integration’, Infant Mental Health Journal, 22(1–2):6794.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sitnick, S.L., Shaw, D.S., Weaver, C.M., Shelleby, E.C., Choe, D.E. and Reuben, J.D., et al (2017) ‘Early childhood predictors of severe youth violence in low-income male adolescents’, Child Development, 88(1):2740.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Skar, A.M.S., Ormhaug, S.M. and Jensen, T.K. (2019) ‘Reported levels of upset in youth after routine trauma screening at mental health clinics’, JAMA Network Open, 2(5):194003194003.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Skuse, T. and Matthew, J. (2015) ‘The trauma recovery model: sequencing youth justice interventions for young people with complex needs’, Prison Service Journal, 220:1625.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smithson, H. and Jones, A. (2021) ‘Co-creating youth justice practice with young people: tackling power dynamics and enabling transformative action’, Children and Society, 35(3):348362.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smithson H., Gray, P. and Jones, A. (2021) ‘“They really should start listening to you”: the benefits and challenges of co-producing a participatory framework of youth justice practice’, Youth Justice, 21(3):321337.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smithson, H., Ralphs, R. and Williams, P. (2013) ‘Used and abused: the problematic usage of gang terminology in the United Kingdom and its implications for ethnic minority youth’, British Journal of Criminology, 53(1):113128.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stern, D.N. (1985) ‘Affect attunement’, Frontiers of Infant Psychiatry, 2.

  • Stubley, J. (2022a) ‘Complex trauma: the initial consultation’, in J. Stubley and L. Young (eds) Complex Trauma: The Tavistock Model, Abingdon: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stubley, J. (2022b) ‘The Tavistock Trauma Service’, in J. Stubley and L. Young (eds) Complex Trauma: The Tavistock Model, Abingdon: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stubley, J. and Young, L. (eds) (2022) Complex Trauma: The Tavistock Model, Abingdon: Routledge.

  • Taylor, J., Shostak, L., Rogers, A. and Mitchell, P. (2018) ‘Rethinking mental health provision in the secure estate for children and young people: a framework for integrated care (SECURE STAIRS)’, Safer Communities, 17(4):193201.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Teicher, M.H. (2002) ‘Scars that won’t heal: the neurobiology of child abuse’, Scientific American, 286(3):6885.

  • Thomas, H.E. (1995) ‘Experiencing a shame response as a precursor to violence’, Bulletin American Academy Psychiatry Law, 23(4):587593.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tiratelli, M., Quinton, P. and Bradford, B. (2018) ‘Does stop and search deter crime? Evidence from ten years of London-wide data’, The British Journal of Criminology, 58(5):12121231.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Traynor, P. (2016) ‘Closing the “Security Gap”: Young people, “street life” and knife crime’, PhD thesis, Leeds: University of Leeds.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Turner, D., Wolf, A.J., Barra, S., Muller, M., Hertz, P.G. and Huss, M., et al (2021) ‘The association between adverse childhood experiences and mental health problems in young offenders’, European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30:11951207.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van der Kolk, B. (2014) The Body Keeps the Score: Mind, Brain and Body in the Transformation of Trauma, New York: Penguin.

  • Vaughan, C. (2014) ‘Participatory research with youth: idealising safe social spaces or building transformative links in difficult environments?’, Journal of Health Psychology, 19(1):184192.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vaughn, M.G., Salas-Wright, C.P., DeLisi, M. and Perron, B. (2014) ‘Correlates of traumatic brain injury among juvenile offenders: a multi-site study’, Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 24(3):188203.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Walsh, D., McCartney, G., Smith, M. and Armour, G. (2019) ‘Relationship between childhood socioeconomic position and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs): a systematic review’, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 73:10871093.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weaver, C.M., Borkowski, J.G. and Whitman, T.L. (2008) ‘Violence breeds violence: childhood exposure and adolescent conduct problems’, Journal of Community Psychology, 36(1):96112.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Welfare, H. and Hollin, C. (2012) ‘Involvement in extreme violence and violence-related trauma: a review with relevance to young people in custody’, Legal and Criminological Psychology, 17:89104.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Widom, C.S. (1989) ‘The cycle of violence’, Science, 244(4901):160166.

  • Wilkinson, D. (2001) ‘Violent events and social identity: specifying the relationship between respect and masculinity in inner-city youth violence’, Sociological Studies of Children and Youth, 8:231265.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Williams, P. (2015) ‘Criminalising the other: challenging the race–gang nexus’, Race and Class, 56(3):1835.

  • Williams, W.H., Chitsabesan, P., Fazel, S., McMillan, T., Hughes, N., Parsonage, M. and Tonks, J. (2018) ‘Traumatic brain injury: a potential cause of violent crime?’, Lancet Psychiatry, 5(10):836844.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wolff, K.T., Baglivio, M.T., Klein, H.J., Piquero, A.R., DeLisi, M. and Howell, J.C. (2020) ‘Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) and gang involvement among juvenile offenders: assessing the mediation effects of substance use and temperament deficits’, Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 18(1):2453.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • World Health Organization (2015) Preventing Youth Violence: An Overview of the Evidence, Geneva: World Health Organization.

  • World Health Organization (2022) ICD-11 – International Classification of Diseases 11th Revision, www.who.int/standards/classifications/classification-of-diseases

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wright, S., Liddle, M. and Goodfellow, P. (2016) Developing Trauma-Informed Resettlement for Young Custody Leavers. A Practitioner’s Guide, London: Nacro.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yakeley, J. (2018) ‘Psychodynamic approaches to violence’, BJPsych Advances, 24(2):8392.

  • Yakeley, J. and Adshead, G. (2013) ‘Locks, keys, and security of mind: Psychodynamic approaches to forensic psychiatry’, Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 41:3845.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Youth Justice Board (2014) AssetPlus Model Document, London: Youth Justice Board.

  • Youth Justice Board (2020) Business Plan 2020/21, London: Youth Justice Board.

  • Youth Justice Board (2021) Strategic Plan 2021–2024, London: Youth Justice Board.

  • Youth Justice Board and Ministry of Justice (2022) Youth Justice Statistics 2020/21 England and Wales, London: Ministry of Justice.

Content Metrics

May 2022 onwards Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 153 139 2
Full Text Views 2 0 0
PDF Downloads 2 0 0

Altmetrics