This chapter examines commercial vaccine exports from Chinese manufacturers, which were the majority of Chinese vaccine doses administered abroad during the first half of 2021. It first reviews the histories of the companies involved, including Sinopharm (officially known as China National Pharmaceutical Group Corporation), which is an established central state owned enterprise under the State Owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission (SASAC), and Sinovac and CanSino, which are both relatively young private firms started by entrepreneurial scientists, and were little known before the pandemic. It then describes how these companies each leveraged state support to quickly develop and bring to market their vaccine candidates. Finally, it maps patterns in Chinese vaccine sales during the initial mass vaccination rollout, which were driven both by standard market forces of supply and demand, and by clinical trial partnerships between manufacturers and host states.
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