This chapter discusses criticisms of socialism and how it can respond. The ways socialism can respond to criticisms are categorized into several types. The chapter outlines communism and other types of socialism. The case is made for socialism as collective ownership and economic equality. The chapter outlines communism in theory. It says that problems in attempts at communism can be responded to by the development of socialist forms within capitalism and means of change that are non-statist and bottom-up, while with a role for the state too – that is, pluralist socialism. The chapter discusses Right-wing green and feminist criticisms of socialism. It argues that socialism can adapt to the deficiencies exposed by green and feminist criticisms and that expansion of adjusted socialism can help deal with ecological problems and non-class inequality. It is suggested that liberal and neoliberal criticisms require adaptation, expansion to help meet liberal goals, but also self-limitation of socialism. A pluralist socialism is argued for – not pluralism or liberalism with socialism, but a socialism with liberalism and pluralism.
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