This chapter explores some recent studies that support the argument for an ideological or religious orientation to the crisis of expertise, including Professor Shi-Ling Hsu’s identification of anti-science ideology in the Trump administration. Such studies are helpful in showing how science can become politicized—scientists become associated with a political party—and can lose its mooring in evidence. The problem with the term “anti-science ideology,” however, is the implication that believers in consensus science have no ideology—they (allegedly) simply follow the facts. The scientific enterprise, however, issues numerous facts, sometimes inconsistent and sometimes outdated in terms of scientific progress. Even consensus scientists belong to a community of believers with values and commitments.
ABC.com (2021) “Arizona executive order bans universities from requiring students to receive COVID-19 vaccine,” June 15. Available at: www.abc15.com/news/state/gov-ducey-issues-order-for-college-students-to-not-be-mandated-to-take-covid-19-vaccine (Accessed June 22, 2022).
Abebe, R., Barocas, S., Kleinberg, J., Levy, K., Raghavan, M., and Robinson, D.G. (2019) “Roles for computing in social change,” paper presented at the ACM Conference on Fairness, Accountability, and Transparency, May 12. Available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3503029 (Accessed June 22, 2022).
Abebe, R., Hardt, M., Jin, A., Miller, J., Schmidt, L., and Wexler, R. (2022) “Adversarial scrutiny of evidentiary statistical software,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Fairness, Accountability, and Transparency. Available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4107017 (Accessed June 22, 2022).
Angner, E. (2020) “Epistemic humility—knowing your limits in a pandemic,” Behavioral Scientist, April 13. Available at: https://behavioralscientist.org/epistemic-humility-coronavirus-knowing-your-limits-in-a-pandemic/ (Accessed June 22, 2022).
Appiah, K.A. (2020) “Should I stop speaking to my Trump-supporting friends?,” The New York Times Magazine, December 6, p 20.
Axelrod, T. (2021) “Fauci describes ‘chilling’ pressure on scientists in Trump era,” The Hill, January 23. Available at: https://thehill.com/policy/healthcare/535515-fauci-describes-chilling-pressure-on-scientists-in-trump-era/ (Accessed June 22, 2022).
Backus I. (2003) “Calvin’s concept of natural and Roman law,” Calvin Theological Journal, 38: 7–26.
Bacote, V.E. (2011) “Introduction,” in J.J. Ballor and S.J. Grabill (eds) Wisdom and Wonder: Common Grace in Science and Art (trans N.D. Klossterman), Grand Rapids, MI: Christian’s Library Press, pp 23–9.
Baker, G.P. and Hacker, P.M.S. (2009a) Wittgenstein: Rules, Grammar and Necessity: Essays and Exegesis of §§ 1–184, Volume 1, 2nd edn, Oxford: Wiley Blackwell.
Baker, G.P. and Hacker, P.M.S. (2009b) Wittgenstein: Rules, Grammar and Necessity: Essays and Exegesis of §§ 185–242, Volume 2, 2nd edn, Oxford: Wiley Blackwell.
Baker, J. (2022) “Cincinnati federal judge blocks Air Force, Air National Guard globally from discharging religious vaccine refusers,” WXIX Cincinnati, July 28. Available at: www.msn.com/en-us/news/us/cincinnati-federal-judge-blocks-air-force-air-national-guard-globally-from-discharging-religious-vaccine-refusers/ar-AA102I4L (Accessed October 26, 2022).
Baumann, J. (2022) “Mask ruling appeal gets backing from former CDC directors,” Bloomberg Law, June 7. Available at: https://news.bloomberglaw.com/health-law-and-business/mask-ruling-appeal-gets-backing-from-former-cdc-directors-16 (Accessed June 22, 2022).
Bloor, D. (1983) Wittgenstein: A Social Theory of Knowledge, New York: Columbia University Press.
Bloor, D. (1992) “Left and right Wittgensteinians,” in A. Pickering (ed) Science as Practice and Culture, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, pp 266–82.
Boulware, S. Kamody, R., Kuper, L., McNamara, M., Olezeski, C., Szilagyi, N. and Alstott, A. (2022) “Biased science: the Texas and Alabama measures criminalizing medical treatment for transgender children and adolescents rely on inaccurate and misleading scientific claims,” Yale Law School Public Law Research Paper, April 28. Available at: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=4102374 (Accessed October 26, 2022).
Breyer, S. (1993) Breaking the Vicious Circle: Toward Effective Risk Regulation, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Burris, S. (2021) “Individual liberty, public health, and the battle for the nation’s soul,” The Regulatory Review, June 7. Available at: www.theregreview.org/2021/06/07/burris-individual-liberty-public-health-battle-for-nations-soul/ (Accessed June 22, 2022).
Calvin, J. (2006 ) Institutes of the Christian Religion (ed J.T. McNeill; trans F.L. Battles), Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press.
Castronuovo, C. (2022) “Pfizer Covid pill access stymied by ‘vague’ prescribing guidance,” Bloomberg Law (Deep Dive), June 3. Available at: https://news.bloomberglaw.com/health-law-and-business/pfizer-covid-pill-access-stymied-by-vague-prescribing-guidance (Accessed June 22, 2022).
Caudill, D.S. (2019) “Twenty-five years of opposing trends: the demystification of science in law, and the waning relativism in the sociology of science,” in D.S. Caudill, S.N. Conley, M.E. Gorman, and M. Weinel (eds) The Third Wave of Science and Technology Studies: Future Research Directions on Expertise and Experience, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, pp 17–32.
Caudill, D.S. and LaRue, L.H. (2003) “Why judges applying the Daubert trilogy need to know about the social, institutional, and rhetorical, and not just the methodological, aspects of science,” Boston College Law Review, 45: 1–53.
Caudill, D.S., Conley, S.N., Gorman, M.E. and Weinel, M. (2019) “Introduction,” in D.S. Caudill, S.N. Conley, M.E. Gorman, and M. Weinel (eds) The Third Wave of Science and Technology Studies: Future Research Directions on Expertise and Experience, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, pp 1–16.
Cavell, S. (1969) Must We Mean What We Say? A Book of Essays, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ceccarelli, L. (2011) “Manufactured scientific controversy: science, rhetoric, and public debate,” Rhetoric and Public Affairs, 14(2): 195–228.
Cheng, E.K. (2022) “The consensus rule: a new approach to scientific evidence,” Vanderbilt Law Review, 75: 407–74.
Chua, A. (2019) Political Tribes: Group Instinct and the Fate of Nations, London: Penguin Press.
CNN Business (2020) “Trump’s election-denying tweets are part of an ecosystem,” November 22. Available at: www.cnn.com/videos/business/2020/11/22/trumps-election-denying-tweets-are-part-of-an-ecosystem.cnn (Accessed June 22, 2022).
Coglianese, C. and Lai, A. (2022) “Algorithm vs. algorithm,” Duke Law Journal, 72: 1281–340.
Collins, H. (2017) Gravity’s Kiss: The Detection of Gravitation Waves, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Collins, H. (2018) “Studies of expertise and experience,” Topoi, 37(1): 67–77.
Collins, H. (2019) Forms of Life: The Method and Meaning of Sociology, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Collins, H. (2020) “Interactional Imogen: language, practice and the body,” Phenomenology and Cognitive Science, 19: 933–60. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11097-020-09679-x (Accessed June 22, 2022).
Collins, H. and Evans, R. (2002) “The Third Wave in science studies,” Social Studies of Science, 32(2): 235–96.
Collins, H. and Evans, R. (2017) Why Democracies Need Science, Cambridge: Polity Press.
Collins, H., Evans, R., Durant, D., and Weinel, M. (2020) Experts and the Will of the People: Society, Populism and Science. New York: Palgrave Pivot.
Cook, J. (2016) “Countering climate science denial and communicating scientific consensus,” Oxford Research Encyclopedias of Climate Science. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190228620.013.314 (Accessed June 22, 2022).
Davies, S.R. (2021) “An empirical and conceptual note on science communication’s role in society,” Science Communication, 43(1): 116–33.
De Jongh, E. (2000) Questions of Meaning: Theme and Motif in Dutch Seventeenth-Century Painting (ed M. Hoyle; trans M. Hoyle), Leiden: Primavera Press.
De Vries, G. (2016) Bruno Latour, Cambridge: Polity Press.
Dooyeweerd, H. (1935–1936) De wijsbegeerte der wetsidee (3 vols), Amsterdam: H.J. Paris.
Dooyeweerd, H. (1948) Transcendental Problems of Philosophic Thought, Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.
Dooyeweerd, H. (1969) A New Critique of Theoretical Thought (4 vols), Philadelphia, PA: Presbyterian & Reformed Pub.
Douglas, H. (2005) “Boundaries between science and policy: descriptive difficulty and normative desirability,” Environmental Philosophy, 2(1): 14–29.
Douglas, M. (1982) Essays in the Sociology of Perception, New York: Routledge.
Douthat, R. (2020) “When you can’t just ‘trust the science’,” The New York Times, December 20, p SR9.
Durant, D. (2019) “Ignoring expertise,” in D.S. Caudill, S.N. Conley, M.E. Gorman, and M. Weinel (eds) The Third Wave in Science and Technology Studies: Future Research Directions on Expertise and Experience, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, pp 33–52.
Eagleton, T. (1991) Ideology: An Introduction, London: Verso.
Edwards, P.N. (2010) A Vast Machine: Computer Models, Climate Data, and the Politics of Global Warming, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Eyal, G. (2019) The Criss of Expertise, Cambridge: Polity Press.
Finkel, E.J., Bail, C.A., Cikara, M., Ditto, P.H., Iyengar, S. Klar, S., Mason, L., McGrath, M.C., Nyhan, B., Rand, D.G., Skitka, L.J., Tucker, J.A., Van Bavel1, J.J., Wang, C.S. and Druckman, J.N. (2020) “Political sectarianism in America: a poisonous cocktail of othering, aversion, and moralization poses a threat to democracy,” Science, 370(6516): 533–6. Available at: www.science.org/doi/abs/10.1126/science.abe1715 (Accessed June 22, 2022).
Fischer, F. (2013) “Policy expertise and the argumentative turn: toward a deliberative policy-analytic approach,” Revue fran çaise de science politique (English Edition), 63(3–4): 95–114.
Fischer, F. (2021) Truth and Post-truth in Public Policy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Fischer, F. and Gottweis, H. (2012) “Introduction,” in F. Fischer and H. Gottweis (eds) The Argumentative Turn Revisited: Public Policy as Communicative Practice, Durham, NC: Duke University Press, pp 1–27.
Foster, H. (2012) “Post-critical,” The Brooklyn Rail: Critical Perspective on Arts, Politics, and Culture, December 12–January 13. Available at: https://brooklynrail.org/2012/12/artseen/post-critical (Accessed June 22, 2022).
Fuller, S. (2016) “Embrace the inner fox: post-truth as the STS symmetry principle universalized,” Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective, December 25. Available at: https://social-epistemology.com/2016/12/25/embrace-the-inner-fox-post-truth-as-the-sts-symmetry-principle-universalized-steve-fuller/ (Accessed June 22, 2022).
Garver, N. (1994) This Complicated Form of Life: Essays on Wittgenstein, Chicago, IL: Open Court.
Gilroy-Ware, M. (2020) The Truth about Fake News, London: Repeater Books.
Gobo, G. and Sena, B. (2022) “Questioning and disputing vaccination policies. Scientists and experts in the Italian public debate,” Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society, 42(1–2): 25–38.
Goldberg, J. (2020) “Would the Republican Party consider throwing Trump overboard?,” Tribune Content Agency, December 28. Available at: www.reviewjournal.com/opinion/jonah-goldberg-would-the-republican-party-consider-throwing-trump-overboard-2069015/ (Accessed October 26, 2022).
Groppe, M. (2021) “Fauci unleashed: he says it’s ‘liberating’ that he can ‘let the science speak’ as adviser to Biden,” USA TODAY, January 22. Available at: www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/2021/01/21/anthony-fauci-speaking-covid-liberating-under-biden-vs-trump/4244169001/ (Accessed October 26, 2022).
Guess, R. (1981) The Idea of Critical Theory: Habermas and the Frankfurt School, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gustafson, A. and Rice, R.E. (2019) “The effects of uncertainty frames in three science communication topics,” Science Communication, 41(6): 679–706.
Hacker, P.M.S. (2015) “Forms of life,” Nordic Wittgenstein Review, Special Issue: 1–4.
Hadhazy, A. (2010) “Anti-vaccination groups dealt blow as Lancet study is retracted,” Popular Mechanics, February 5. Available at: www.popularmechanics.com/science/health/a5008/4344963/ (Accessed June 22, 2022).
Halbfinger, D.M. (2020) “Explaining right-wing politics in America, via the Middle East,” The New York Times, December 19, p A16.
Hanson, E. (2022) “Judge orders parents to pay hefty legal fees in dismissed school mask case,” Go2Tutors, July 28. Available at: www.msn.com/en-us/news/crime/judge-orders-parents-to-pay-hefty-legal-fees-in-dismissed-school-mask-case/ar-AA104FbY (Accessed October 26, 2022).
Harambam, J. (2020) Contemporary Conspiracy Culture: Truth and Knowledge in an Era of Epistemic Instability, Abingdon: Routledge.
Harkness, G. (1958) John Calvin: The Man and His Ethics, Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press.
Hart, H. (1985) “Dooyeweerd’s Gegenstand theory of theory,” in C.T. McIntire (ed) The Legacy of Herman Dooyeweerd: Reflections on Critical Philosophy in the Christian Tradition, Lanham, MD: University Press of America, pp 143–66.
Hochschild, A.R. (2016) Strangers in Their Own Land: Anger and Mourning on the American Right, New York: The New Press.
Holling, C.S. (1982) “Myths of ecological stability,” in G. Smart and W. Stansbury (eds) Studies in Crisis Management, Montreal: Butterworth, pp 93–106.
Horst, M. (2022) “Science communication as a boundary space: an interactive installation about the social responsibility of science,” Science, Technology, & Human Values, 47(3): 459–82.
Hsu, S. (2021) “Anti-science ideology,” University of Miami Law Review, 75: 405–58.
Hunter, J.F.M. (1968) “‘Forms of life’ in Wittgenstein’s philosophical investigations,” American Philosophical Quarterly, 5(4): 233–43.
Kahan, D.M., Jenkins-Smith, H., and Braman, D. (2011) “Cultural cognition of scientific consensus,” Journal of Risk Research, 4(2): 147–74.
Keightley, A. (1976) Wittgenstein, Grammar and God, London: Epworth Press.
Knight, P. (2000) Conspiracy Culture: From the Kennedy Assassination to the X-Files, Abingdon: Routledge.
Kofman, A. (2018) “Bruno Latour, the post-truth philosopher, mounts a defense of science,” The New York Times Magazine, October 25. Available at: www.nytimes.com/2018/10/25/magazine/bruno-latour-post-truth-philosopher-science.html (Accessed June 22, 2022).
Kristof, N. (2021) “Defeating racism one conversation at a time,” The New York Times, July 10, p A13.
Kuhn, T. (1973) The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Kuyper, A. (1943) Lectures on Calvinism, Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.
Kuyper, A. (1998 ) “Sphere sovereignty (inaugural address at the dedication of the Free University Amsterdam, 1880),” in J.D. Bratt (ed) Abraham Kuyper: A Centennial Reader, Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, pp 461–90.
Latour, B. (1993) We Have Bever Been Modern (trans C. Porter), Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Latour, B. (2004) “Why has critique run out of steam? From matters of fact to matters of concern,” Critical Inquiry, 30(4): 225–48.
Latour, B. (2016) “On sensitivity: arts, science and politics in the new climatic regime,” keynote lecture at the University of Melbourne for the opening of the Performance Studies International, July 5. Available at: www.bruno-latour.fr/node/692 (Accessed June 17, 2020).
Latour, B. (2017) “What are the optimal interrelations of art, science and politics in the Anthropocene?,” Bifrost Insights, November 30. Available at: https://bifrostonline.org/bruno-latour-what-are-the-optimal-interrelations-of-art-science-and-politics-in-the-anthropocene/ (Accessed June 17, 2020).
Latour, B. (2018) Down to Earth: Politics in the New Climatic Regime (trans C. Porter), Cambridge: Polity Press.
Lee, G. (2021) “The complexities of forbearance: Augustinian insights for an age of polarization,” Comment, January 14. Available at: www.cardus.ca/comment/article/the-complexities-of-forbearance/ (Accessed June 22, 2022).
Leonhardt, D. (2022a) “What Benjamin Franklin’s vaccine experience tells us about convincing the unconvinced,” The New York Times, March 3. Available at: www.nytimes.com/2022/03/03/briefing/covid-vaccination-ben-franklin-ken-burns.html (Accessed June 22, 2022).
Leonhardt, D. (2022b) “The federal government is telling us two different stories about Covid vaccines for young children,” The New York Times, April 29. Available at: www.nytimes.com/2022/04/29/briefing/vaccines-kids-moderna-pfizer.html (Accessed June 22, 2022).
Leonhardt, D. (2022c) “Masks work. So why haven’t Covid mask mandates made much difference?,” The New York Times, May 31. Available at: www.nytimes.com/2022/05/31/briefing/masks-mandates-us-covid.html (Accessed June 22, 2022).
Lewandowsky, S., Ecker, U.K.H., Seifert, C., Schwarz, N. and Cook, J. (2012) “Misinformation and its correction continued influence and successful debiasing,” Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 13(3): 106–31.
Luhrmann, T.M. (2020) How God Becomes Real: Kindling the Presence of Invisible Others, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Luntz, F. (2002) The Environment: A Cleaner, Safer, Healthier America, Alexandria, VA: Luntz Research.
Mair, J. (2013) “Cultures of belief,” Anthropological Theory, 12(4): 448–66.
Malcom, N. (1976) Ludwig Wittgenstein: A Memoir, London: Oxford University Press.
Mandel, G., Braman, D., and Kahan, D. (2008) “The cultural condition of synthetic biology risks: a preliminary analysis,” Cultural Cognition Project at Yale Law School. Available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1264804 (Accessed June 22, 2022).
Mastrangelo, D. (2020) “Gingrich won’t accept Biden as president, says Democrats, Republicans ‘live in alternative worlds’,” The Hill, December 23. Available at: https://thehill.com/homenews/531261-gingrich-wont-accept-biden-as-president-says-democrats-and-republicans-live-in/ (Accessed June 22, 2022).
McLaughlin, K. and Dzhanova, Y. (2020) “Experts warn anti-vaxxer concerns about a COVID-19 vaccine could slow the end of the pandemic,” Business Insider, December 3. Available at: www.businessinsider.nl/experts-warn-anti-vaxxer-concerns-about-a-covid-19-vaccine-could-slow-the-end-of-the-pandemic/ (Accessed October 26, 2022).
Melley, T. (2000) Empire of Conspiracy: The Culture of Paranoia in Postwar America, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Mellon Seminar (2020) “Experts, publics and trust during the pandemic: sociological perspectives,” October 29. Available at: www.dropbox.com/sh/gfsut0sbu2psmnb/AAA1V9fEP5R_G2yIjV04BcXNa?dl=0&preview=GMT20201029-160134_Experts--P_1920x1080.mp4
Metropolitan Museum of Art (nd) “Browse the collection.” The New York Metropolitan Museum of Art’s iconographic viewer’s guide to Interior of the Oude Kerk, Delft. Available at: www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/438490 (Accessed June 22, 2022).
Michaels, D. (2008) Doubt Is Their Product: How Industry’s Assault on Science Threatens Your Health, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Mihelj, S., Kondor, K., and Štětka, V. (2022) “Establishing trust in experts during a crisis: expert trustworthiness and media use during the COVID-19 pandemic,” Science Communication, 44(3): 292–319.
Moffitt, B. (2016) The Global Rise of Populism: Performance, Political Style, and Representation, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Moreno, J.A. and Holmgren, B. (2014) “The Supreme Court screws up the science: there is no abusive head trauma/shaken baby syndrome ‘scientific’ controversy,” Utah Law Review, 2013(5): 1357–453.
Moyal-Sharrock, D. (2016) “Wittgenstein on forms of life, patterns of life and ways of living,” Nordic Wittgenstein Review, Special Issue: 21–42.
MSNBC (2021) “Purdue University president reacts to judge’s ruling to uphold nearby Indiana University’s vaccine mandate,” July 19. Available at: www.msnbc.com/stephanie-ruhle/watch/purdue-university-president-reacts-to-judge-s-ruling-to-uphold-nearby-indiana-university-s-vaccine-mandate-117007429838 (Accessed October 26, 2022).
National Research Council Committee on Identifying the Needs of the Forensic Sciences Community (2009) Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward, Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
National Research Council Committee on the Science of Science, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education (2017) Communicating Science Effectively: A Research Agenda, Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
National Research Council Committee on the Use of Social Science Knowledge in Public Policy, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education (2012) Using Science as Evidence in Public Policy (eds K. Prewitt, T.A. Schwandt, and M.L. Straf), Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
Nilsen, E. (2022) “Supreme Court hears case that could limit EPA’s authority to regulate planet-warming emissions from power plants,” CNN Politics, February 28. Available at: www.cnn.com/2022/02/28/politics/supreme-court-hears-epa-power-plant-emissions-case-climate/index.html (Accessed October 26, 2022).
Nunez, S. (2020) What Are You Going Through, New York: Penguin Random House.
O’Connor, J. (2020) Shadowplay: A Novel, New York: Europa Editions.
Olena, A. (2020) “2020 in scientists’ own words,” The Scientist, December 23. Available at: www.the-scientist.com/news-opinion/2020-in-scientists-own-words-68307 (Accessed October 26, 2022).
Oreskes, N. (2019) Why Trust Science?, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Paine, T. (1804) “Of the word religion, and other words of uncertain signification,” The Prospect, March 3. Available at: www.thomaspaine.org/essays/religion/prospect-papers.html (Accessed June 22, 2022).
Pariser, E. (2011) The Filter Bubble: How the New Personalized Web Is Changing What We Read and How We Think, London: Penguin Books.
Pasquale, F. (forthcoming) “Battle of the experts: the strange career of MetaExpertise,” in G. Eyal and T. Medvetz (eds) Oxford Handbook of Expertise and Democratic Politics, London: Oxford University Press.
Richard, R. (2020) “Dueling chyrons: CNN, Fox News report from alternate universes during Trump’s bizarre coronavirus briefing,” Mediaite, April 13. Available at: www.mediaite.com/news/dueling-chyrons-cnn-fox-news-report-from-alternate-universes-during-trumps-bizarre-coronavirus-briefing/ (Accessed June 22, 2022).
Richards, J. (2010) “When to doubt a scientific ‘consensus’,” American Enterprise Institute, March 16. Available at: www.aei.org/articles/when-to-doubt-a-scientific-consensus/ (Accessed October 26, 2022).
Riddell, S., Goldie, S., Hill, A., Eagles, D., and Drew, T. (2020) “The effect of temperature on persistence of SARS-CoV-2 on common surfaces,” Virology Journal, 17(art 145): 1–7.
Satta, M. and Davidson, L. (2019) “Pernicious epistemically justified distrust and public health skepticism,” Bill of Health, April 6. Available at: https://blog.petrieflom.law.harvard.edu/2019/04/06/pernicious-epistemically-justified-distrust-and-public-health-skepticism/ (Accessed June 22, 2022).
Schama, S. (1987) The Embarrassment of Riches: An Interpretation of Dutch Culture in the Golden Age, New York: Alfred K. Knopf.
Schutte, G. (2005) Groen Van Prinsterer: His Life and Work (trans H. van Dijk), Neerlandia: Inheritance Publications.
Schwarz, M. and Thompson, M. (1990) Divided We Stand: Redefining Politics, Technology and Social Choice, Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Shalizi, C. (2017) “Review of Collins and Evans’ Why Democracies Need Science,” in The Bactra Review: Occasional and Eclectic Book Reviews (No. 166), June 25. Available at: http://bactra.org/reviews/collins-evans.html(Accessed October 25, 2022).
Sharfstein, J. (2017) “Science and the Trump administration,” The JAMA Forum, October 10. Available at: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2656798 (Accessed June 22, 2022).
Skillen J. (2014) The Good of Politics: A Biblical, Historical, and Contemporary Introduction, Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic.
Smith, S. (2018) Pagans and Christians in the City: Culture Wars from the Tiber to the Potomac, Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing.
Spivak, G.C. (1990) “Strategy, identity, writing,” in S. Harasym (ed) The Post-colonial Critic: Interviews, Strategies, Dialogues, New York: Routledge, pp 35–49.
Stelter, B. (2021) “Fauci and Birx tell interviewers about the ‘nonsense’ of the Trump years,” CNN BUSINESS. Available at: www.cnn.com/2021/01/25/media/fauci-brix-trump-reliable-sources/index.html (Accessed June 22, 2022).
Tavernise, S. (2020) “‘It hurts’: family rifts deepen in Trump years,” The Washington Post, November 28, p A14.
Taylor, B. (2020) Real Life, New York: Riverhead Books.
Thompson, D. (2021) “Hygiene theater is still a huge waste of time,” The Atlantic, February 8. Available at: www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2021/02/hygiene-theater-still-waste/617939/ (Accessed June 22, 2022).
Tomsick, E. (2020) “The public health demand for revoking non-medical exemptions to compulsory vaccination statutes,” Journal of Law and Health, 34(1): 129–56.
Toner, P. (2017) “Wittgenstein on forms of life: a short introduction,” E-Logos—Electronic Journal for Philosophy, 24(1): 13–18.
Tufekci, Z. (2020) “Why telling people they don’t need masks backfired (opinion),” The New York Times, March 20. Available at: www.nytimes.com/2020/03/17/opinion/coronavirus-face-masks.html?campaign_id=9&emc=edit_nn_20210118&instance_id=26125&nl=the-morning®i_id=100596401&segment_id=49584&te=1&user_id=4f435818fe714149705b758320ac43f9 (Accessed June 22, 2022).
Van Dijk, H. (1975) “Foreword,” in G. Groen van Prinsterer, Unbelief and Revolution: A Series of Lectures in History, Lectures VIII and IX (ed and trans H. van Dijk), Groen van Amsterdam: Prinsterer Fund, pp v–x.
Van Peursen, C.A. (1969) Ludwig Wittgenstein: An Introduction to His Philosophy (trans R. Ambler), London: Faber and Faber.
Van Prinsterer, G. (1989 ) Unbelief and Revolution: A Series of Historical Lectures, 2nd edn (trans H. Van Dyke), Jordon Station, Ontario: Wedge Publishing.
Vanhaelen, A. (2005) “Iconoclasm and the creation of images in Emanuel de Witte’s ‘Old Church in Amsterdam,’” The Art Bulletin, 87(2): 251.
Wall Street Journal (2021) “To mandate or not to mandate vaccines: the FDA should move faster on final approval to reassure public,” July 27. Available at: www.wsj.com/articles/to-mandate-or-not-to-mandate-vaccines-11627425858?page=1 (Accessed June 22, 2022).
Weinel, M. (2019) “Recognizing counterfeit scientific controversies in science policy contexts: a criteria-based approach,” in D.S. Caudill, S.N. Conley, M.E. Gorman, and M. Weinel (eds) The Third Wave in Science and Technology Studies: Future Research Directions on Expertise and Experience, London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp 53–70.
Winberg, O. (2017) “Insult politics: Donald Trump, right-wing populism, and incendiary language,” European Journal of American Studies, 12(2): Art 4.
Winch, P. (1970) “Nature and convention,” in P. Winch, Ethics and Action, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, pp 50–72.
Winch, P. (1990) The Idea of a Social Science and Its Relation to Philosophy, 2nd edn, London: Routledge.
Witte, J., Jr (2008) The Reformation of Rights: Law, Religion and Human Rights in Early Modern Calvinism, Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press.
Wittgenstein, L. (1958) Philosophical Investigations, 3rd edn (trans G.E.M. Anscombe), New York: Macmillan.
Wittgenstein, L. (1966) Lectures and Conversations on Aesthetics, Psychology, and Religious Beliefs (ed C. Barnett), Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
Wittgenstein, L. (1969) On Certainty (eds G.E.M. Anscombe and G.H. von Wright; trans D. Paul and G.E.M. Anscombe), Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
Wittgenstein, L. (1971) “Remarks on Frazer’s ‘Golden Bough,’” The Human World, 3: 29–30.
Wittgenstein, L. (1980) Culture and Value (ed G.H. von Wright; trans P. Winch), Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Wood, J. (2020) “Creating God,” The New Yorker, November 9, p 64.
Wynne, B. (1989) “Sheep farming after Chernobyl: a case study in communicating scientific information,” Environment Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, 31(2): 10–39.
Zylstra, B. (1975) “Introduction,” in L. Kalsbeek, Contours of Christian Philosophy: An Introduction to Herman Dooyeweerd’s Thought (eds B. Zylstra and J. Zylstra), Toronto: Wedge Publishing Foundation, pp 14–33.
|May 2022 onwards||Past Year||Past 30 Days|
|Full Text Views||0||0||0|