9: Poland: Strategies for Challenging the Growing Dominance of Right-wing Memory Politics

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This chapter starts with overview of some of the episodes from the Polish troubled past and analyses their effects in the present. It deals with two dominant competing trends/narratives in Poland’s memory politics: the so-called ‘pedagogy of shame’ versus the so-called ‘patriotic pride’. This chapter also discusses Polish memory politics regarding the Second World War and the communist past, namely the perspective where the Polish nation is a double victim – of fascism on the one hand and of communism on the other. After the methodology section, where the selection of interviewees is explained, follows the section that reconstructs the European Union’s approach to the troubled past in post-1989 Poland. This approach is divided into four main phases: the 1990s; the period 2000–4; the period 2005–15; and the post-2015 period. The chapter ends with policy recommendations for Poland in four thematic areas.

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