Hyper-aeromobility: the drivers and dynamics of frequent flying

Author:
Noel Cass University of Leeds, UK

Search for other papers by Noel Cass in
Current site
Google Scholar
Close
Restricted access
Get eTOC alerts
Rights and permissions Cite this article

Flying is the most climate-impacting form of individual consumption. This article interrogates the drivers and dynamics behind ever-increasing amounts of air travel ascribable to a minority, whose flying contributes an ever-larger proportion of travel-related energy consumption and carbon emissions. Moving beyond established work on (increases in) flying, it establishes the need to focus transport emissions reduction efforts on this relatively small number of elite, hyper-aeromobile travellers. After outlining existing literature on different aspects of flying and frequent flying, which are combined in referring to hyper-aeromobility, the article reviews the many diverse explanations for its drivers and dynamics arising from different disciplinary traditions. Treating flying and frequent flying as ‘consumption behaviour’ has tended to focus on individualised behavioural explanations, but understanding and tackling rising hyper-aeromobility involves grasping expanding systems of provision, and social and cultural positive feedback loops involving socialisation, habituation and internationalisation of social practices. Understanding these requires a multidisciplinary approach analogous to the ‘needs satisfier escalator’ model relating to increasing car use which has been proposed by Brand-Correa et al (2020). The article then provides data from qualitative research on high-energy-consuming households to provide backing for the particular relevance and importance of a subset of more sociological and structural drivers as contributing to the expansion of aeromobility and its concentration in a hyper-aeromobile elite. It concludes that the current reliance on voluntary behaviour change and different forms of financial disincentives is ineffective, whereas more radical structural change, restrictions and impositions of quotas are increasingly necessary.

  • Adams, J. (2017) Hypermobility: a challenge to governance, in C. Lyall and J. Tait (eds) New Modes of Governance, Aldershot: Ashgate, pp 12337.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Árnadóttir, A. (2021) Environmentally Significant Behaviour: Spatial Distribution, Drivers, and Barriers to Change, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering thesis, Reykjavík: University of Iceland, 200 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Árnadóttir, Á., Czepkiewicz, M. and Heinonen, J. (2021) Climate change concern and the desire to travel: how do I justify my flights?, Travel Behaviour and Society, 24: 28290.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barr, S. and Prillwitz, J. (2014) A smarter choice? Exploring the behaviour change agenda for environmentally sustainable mobility, Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 32(1): 119. doi: 10.1068/c1201

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barr, S., Shaw, G., Coles, T. and Prillwitz, J. (2010) ‘A holiday is a holiday’: practicing sustainability, home and away, Journal of Transport Geography, 18(3): 47481. doi: 10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2009.08.007

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barr, S., Gilg, A. and Shaw, G. (2011) ‘Helping people make better choices’: exploring the behaviour change agenda for environmental sustainability, Applied Geography, 31(2): 71220. doi: 10.1016/j.apgeog.2010.12.003

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barros, B. and Wilk, R. (2021) The outsized carbon footprints of the super-rich, Sustainability: Science, Practice and Policy, 17(1): 31622. doi: 10.1080/15487733.2021.1949847

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Becken, S. (2007) Tourists’ perception of international air travel’s impact on the global climate and potential climate change policies, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 15(4): 35168. doi: 10.2167/jost710.0

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Becken, S. (2019) Decarbonising tourism: mission impossible?, Tourism Recreation Research, 44(4): 41933. doi: 10.1080/02508281.2019.1598042

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ben-Elia, E. and Shiftan, Y. (2013) Understanding behavioural change: an international perspective on sustainable travel behaviours and their motivations, Transport Policy, 26: 13. doi: 10.1016/j.tranpol.2013.02.003

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Böhler, S., Grischkat, S., Haustein, S. and Hunecke, M. (2006) Encouraging environmentally sustainable holiday travel, Transportation Research Part A: Policy & Practice, 40(8): 65270.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brand, C. and Boardman, B. (2008) Taming of the few: the unequal distribution of greenhouse gas emissions from personal travel in the UK, Energy Policy, 36(1): 22438. doi: 10.1016/j.enpol.2007.08.016

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brand, C., Anable, J. and Morton, C. (2019) Lifestyle, efficiency and limits: modelling transport energy and emissions using a socio-technical approach, Energy Efficiency, 12(1): 187207. doi: 10.1007/s12053-018-9678-9

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brand-Correa, L.I., Mattioli, G., Lamb, W.F. and Steinberger, J.K. (2020) Understanding (and tackling) need satisfier escalation, Sustainability: Science, Practice and Policy, 16(1): 30925. doi: 10.1080/15487733.2020.1816026

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Breedveld, K. (1998) The double myth of flexibilization: trends in scattered work hours, and differences in time-sovereignty, Time, Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 7(1): 12943. doi: 10.1177/0961463X98007001008

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brög, W., Erl, E., Ker, I., Ryle, J. and Wall, R. (2009) Evaluation of voluntary travel behaviour change: Experiences from three continents, Transport Policy, 16(6): 28192.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Büchs, M. and Schnepf, S.V. (2013) Who emits most? Associations between socio-economic factors and UK households’ home energy, transport, indirect and total CO2 emissions, Ecological Economics, 90: 11423.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Büchs, M. and Mattioli, G. (2021) Trends in air travel inequality in the UK: from the few to the many?, Travel Behaviour and Society, 25: 92101.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Burger, P., Bezençon, V., Bornemann, B., Brosch, T., Carabias-Hütter, V., Farsi, M., Hille, S.L., Moser, C., Ramseier, C. and Samuel, R. (2015) Advances in understanding energy consumption behavior and the governance of its change–outline of an integrated framework, Frontiers in Energy Research, 3: 29. doi: 10.3389/fenrg.2015.00029

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Casey, M.E. (2010) Low cost air travel: Welcome aboard?, Tourist Studies, 10(2): 17591. doi: 10.1177/1468797611403061

  • Cass, N. (2021) Social and material cogs of the needs satisfier escalator, Proceedings of the 2021 eceee Summer Study, paper 1–080, https://www.eceee.org/library/conference_proceedings/eceee_Summer_Studies/2021/1-energy-consumption-and-wellbeing/social-and-material-cogs-of-the-needs-satisfier-escalator/2021/1-080-21_Cass.pdf/.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CCC (2009) Meeting the UK aviation target: options for reducing emissions to 2050, Committee on Climate Change.

  • Cohen, S.A. and Gössling, S. (2015) A darker side of hypermobility, Environment and Planning A, 47: 166179.

  • Cohen, S.A., Higham, J.E.S. and Cavaliere, C.T. (2011) Binge flying: behavioural addiction and climate change, Annals of Tourism Research, 38(3): 107089. doi: 10.1016/j.annals.2011.01.013

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cohen, S.A., Higham, J.E.S. and Reis, A.C. (2013) Sociological barriers to developing sustainable discretionary air travel behaviour, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 21(7): 98298. doi: 10.1080/09669582.2013.809092

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cohen, S.A., Higham, J., Gössling, S., Peeters, P. and Eijgelaar, E. (2016) Finding effective pathways to sustainable mobility: bridging the science-policy gap, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 24(3): 31734. doi: 10.1080/09669582.2015.1136637

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cohen, S.A., Hanna, P. and Gössling, S. (2018) The dark side of business travel: a media comments analysis, Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 61: 40619. doi: 10.1016/j.trd.2017.01.004

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cwerner, S., Kesselring, S. and Urry, J. (2009) Aereomobilities, Oxford: Routledge.

  • Czepkiewicz, M., Heinonen, J. and Ottelin, J. (2018) Why do urbanites travel more than do others? A review of associations between urban form and long-distance leisure travel, Environmental Research Letters, 13(7): 073001. doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/aac9d2

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Czepkiewicz, M., Árnadóttir, Á. and Heinonen, J. (2019) Flights dominate travel emissions of young urbanites, Sustainability, 11(22): 6340. doi: 10.3390/su11226340

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Daramy-Williams, E., Anable, J. and Grant-Muller, S. (2019) Car use: intentional, habitual, or both? Insights from Anscombe and the mobility biography literature, Sustainability, 11(24): 7122. doi: 10.3390/su11247122

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dubois, G. and Ceron, J.P. (2009) Carbon labelling and restructuring travel systems: Involving travel agencies in climate change mitigation, in S. Gössling, C. Michael Hall and D. Weaver (eds) Sustainable Tourism Futures, New York: Routledge, pp 24259.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Faulconbridge, J. and Hui, A. (2016) Traces of a mobile field: Ten years of mobilities research, Mobilities, 11(1): 114. doi: 10.1080/17450101.2015.1103534

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Frändberg, L. (2006) International mobility biographies: a means to capture the institutionalisation of long-distance travel?, Current Issues in Tourism, 9(4–5): 32034.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gössling, S. and Peeters, P. (2007) ‘It does not harm the environment!’: an analysis of industry discourses on tourism, air travel and the environment, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 15(4): 40217.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gössling, S. and Upham, P. (2009) Climate Change and Aviation: Issues, Challenges and Solutions, London: Earthscan.

  • Gössling, S. and Nilsson, J.H. (2010) Frequent flyer programmes and the reproduction of aeromobility, Environment & Planning A, 42(1): 24152.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gössling, S. and Humpe, A. (2020) The global scale, distribution and growth of aviation: Implications for climate change, Global Environmental Change, 65: 102194.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gössling, S., Broderick, J., Upham, P., Ceron, J.P., Dubois, G., Peeters, P. and Strasdas, W. (2007) Voluntary carbon offsetting schemes for aviation: efficiency, credibility and sustainable tourism, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 15(3): 22348.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gössling, S., Ceron, J.P., Dubois, G. and Hall, C.M. (2009) Hypermobile travellers, in S. Gössling and P. Upham (eds) Climate Change and Aviation, London: Earthscan, pp.13150.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gössling, S., Nilsson, J.H.J.E. and A, P. (2010) Frequent flyer programmes and the reproduction of aeromobility, Environment & Planning A, 42(1): 24152.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gössling, S., Hanna, P., Higham, J., Cohen, S. and Hopkins, D. (2019) Can we fly less? Evaluating the ‘necessity’of air travel, Journal of Air Transport Management, 81: 101722.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hares, A., Dickinson, J. and Wilkes, K. (2010) Climate change and the air travel decisions of UK tourists, Journal of Transport Geography, 18(3): 46673. doi: 10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2009.06.018

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harrison, G., Grant-Muller, S.M. and Hodgson, F.C. (2021) A review of transport-health system dynamics models, Journal of Transport & Health, 22: 101138.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Higham, J., Cohen, S.A., Cavaliere, C., Reis, A. and Finkler, W. (2016) Climate change, tourist air travel and radical emissions reduction, Journal of Cleaner Production, 3: 33647. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.10.100

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Higham, J., Ellis, E. and Maclaurin, J. (2019) Tourist aviation emissions: a problem of collective action, Journal of Travel Research, 58(4): 53548. doi: 10.1177/0047287518769764

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hitchings, R. (2012) People can talk about their practices, Area 44(1): 617. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-4762.2011.01060.x

  • HM Government (2021) Net Zero Strategy: Build Back Greener, London: HMSO.

  • Høyer, K.G. (2009) A conference tourist and his confessions: an essay on a life with conference tourism, aeromobility and ecological crisis, Tourism and Hospitality Planning & Development, 6(1): 5368.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • IEA (2020) Tracking Transport 2020, Paris: International Energy Agency.

  • Ivanova, D., Barrett, J., Wiedenhofer, D., Macura, B., Callaghan, M. and Creutzig, F. (2020) Quantifying the potential for climate change mitigation of consumption options, Environmental Research Letters, 15(9): 093001. doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/ab8589

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Javaid, A., Creutzig, F. and Bamberg, S. (2020) Determinants of low-carbon transport mode adoption: Systematic review of reviews, Environmental Research Letters, 15(10): 103002. doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/aba032

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jaworski, A. and Thurlow, C. (2017) Mediatizing the ‘super-rich’, normalizing privilege, Social Semiotics, 27(3): 27687. doi: 10.1080/10350330.2017.1301792

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, I., Faulconbridge, J., Marsden, G. and Anable, J. (2018) Demanding business travel: the evolution of the timespaces of business practice, in A. Hui, R. Day and G. Walker (eds) Demanding Energy: Space, Time and Change, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 25777.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jovanovic, M.M. and Vracarevic, B.R. (2016) Challenges ahead: mitigating air transport carbon emissions, Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 25(5): 197584. doi: 10.15244/pjoes/62700

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kantenbacher, J., Hanna, P., Cohen, S., Miller, G. and Scarles, C. (2019) Public attitudes about climate policy options for aviation, Environmental Science Policy, 81: 4653. doi: 10.1016/j.envsci.2017.12.012

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kroesen, M. (2013) Exploring people’s viewpoints on air travel and climate change: Understanding inconsistencies, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 21(2): 27190. doi: 10.1080/09669582.2012.692686

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lavelle, M.J. and Fahy, F. (2021) Creating context for corridors of consumption: the case of Ireland, Sustainability: Science, Practice and Policy, 17(1): 6276. doi: 10.1080/15487733.2020.1864966

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee, D.S., Fahey, D., Skowron, A., Allen, M., Burkhardt, U., Chen, Q., Doherty, S., Freeman, S., Forster, P. and Fuglestvedt, J. (2021) The contribution of global aviation to anthropogenic climate forcing for 2000 to 2018, Atmospheric Environment, 244: 117834. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2020.117834

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lyle, C. (2018) Beyond the ICAO’s CORSIA: towards a more climatically effective strategy for mitigation of civil-aviation emissions, Climate Law, 8(1–2): 10427. doi: 10.1163/18786561-00801004

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Manderscheid, K. (2014) The movement problem, the car and future mobility regimes: Automobility as dispositif and mode of regulation, Mobilities, 9(4): 60426. doi: 10.1080/17450101.2014.961257

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Markham, F., Young, M., Reis, A. and Higham, J. (2019) Does carbon pricing reduce air travel? Evidence from the Australian ‘Clean Energy Future’policy, July 2012 to June 2014, Journal of Transport Geography, 70: 20614. doi: 10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2018.06.008

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mattioli, G. (2020) Towards a mobility biography approach to long-distance travel and mobility links, in J. Scheiner and H. Rau (eds) Mobility and Travel Behaviour Across the Life Course, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 8299.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mattioli, G. and Scheiner, J. (2022) The impact of migration background, ethnicity and social network dispersion on air and car travel in the UK, Travel Behaviour & Society, 27: 6578. doi: 10.1016/j.tbs.2021.12.001

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mattioli, G., Morton, C. and Scheiner, J. (2021) Air travel and urbanity: the role of migration, social networks, airport accessibility, and ‘Rebound’, Urban Planning, 6(2): 23245. doi: 10.17645/up.v6i2.3983

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mattioli, G., Scheiner, J. and Holz-Rau, C. (2022) Generational differences, socialisation effects and ‘mobility links’ in international holiday travel, Journal of Transport Geography, 98: 103263. doi: 10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2021.103263

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Millward-Hopkins, J. (2022) Inequality can double the energy required to secure universal decent living, Nature Communications, 13(1): 5028. doi: 10.1038/s41467-022-32729-8

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Monbiot, G. (2021) Make extreme wealth extinct: it’s the only way to avoid climate breakdown, Guardian, Wed 10 Nov 2021, https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2021/nov/10/extreme-wealth-polluting-climate-breakdown-rich

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morten, A., Gatersleben, B. and Jessop, D.C. (2018) Staying grounded? Applying the theory of planned behaviour to explore motivations to reduce air travel, Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 55: 297305. doi: 10.1016/j.trf.2018.02.038

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nielsen, K.S., Nicholas, K.A., Creutzig, F., Dietz, T. and Stern, P.C. (2021) The role of high-socioeconomic-status people in locking in or rapidly reducing energy-driven greenhouse gas emissions, Nature Energy, doi: 10.1038/s41560-021-00900-y.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Oswald, L. and Ernst, A. (2020) Flying in the face of climate change: quantitative psychological approach examining the social drivers of individual air travel, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 29(1): 6886. doi: 10.1080/09669582.2020.1812616

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Oswald, Y., Steinberger, J.K., Ivanova, D. and Millward-Hopkins, J. (2021) Global redistribution of income and household energy footprints: a computational thought experiment, Global Sustainability, 4: e4. doi: 10.1017/sus.2021.1

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pearce, P.L. and Lee, U.I. (2005) Developing the travel career approach to tourist motivation, 43(3): 22637.

  • Peeters, P., Higham, J., Kutzner, D., Cohen, S. and Gössling, S. (2016) Are technology myths stalling aviation climate policy?, Transportation Research Part D: Transport & Environment, 44: 3042. doi: 10.1016/j.trd.2016.02.004

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Peeters, P., Higham, J., Cohen, S., Eijgelaar, E. and Gössling, S. (2019) Desirable tourism transport futures, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 27(2): 17388. doi: 10.1080/09669582.2018.1477785

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Randles, S. and Mander, S. (2009) Aviation, consumption and the climate change debate: ‘Are you going to tell me off for flying?’, Technology Analysis Strategic Management, 21(1): 93113. doi: 10.1080/09537320802557350

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schatzki, T. (1996) Social Practices: A Wittgensteinian Approach to Human Activity and the Social, New York: Cambridge University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schwanen, T., Banister, D. and Anable, J. (2012) Rethinking habits and their role in behaviour change: the case of low-carbon mobility, Journal of Transport Geography, 24: 52232. doi: 10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2012.06.003

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shove, E. (2010) Beyond the ABC: climate change policy and theories of social change, Environment and Planning A, 42(6): 127385. doi: 10.1068/a42282

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shove, E., Watson, M. and Pantzar, M. (2012) The Dynamics of Social Practice, London: SAGE.

  • Smith, T., Haßler, A., Dwarkasing, C., Reckmann, E., Sekulova, F., Schneider, F. et al. (2019) Degrowth of Aviation: Reducing Air Travel in a Just Way, Wien: Stay Grounded/Kollektiv Periskop. https://stay-grounded.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/Degrowth-Of-Aviation_2019.pdf.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sovacool, B.K. and Brisbois, M.C. (2019) Elite power in low-carbon transitions: a critical and interdisciplinary review, Energy Research & Social Science, 57: 101242.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Strasdas, W. (2007) Voluntary offsetting of flight emissions: an effective way to mitigate the environmental impacts on long-haul tourism. https://www.academia.edu/en/18349463/Voluntary_Offsetting_of_Flight_Emissions_An_effective_way_to_mitigate_the_environmental_impacts_of_long_haul_tourism

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Upham, P., Butlin, S., Davis, M., Nilsson, U. and Smith, T. (2005) Allocating aircraft carbon dioxide emissions to airports on the basis of passenger share: scenarios for Manchester Airport, World Transport Policy & Practice, 11(1): 512.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Urry, J. (2002) Mobility and proximity, Sociology, 36(2): 25574. doi: 10.1177/0038038502036002002

  • Urry, J. (2004) The ‘system’ of automobility, Theory, Culture & Society, 21(4–5): 2539. doi: 10.1177/0263276404046059

  • Vagena, A. (2021) Digital nomads and tourism industry, Academia Letters, doi: 10.20935/AL765.

  • Volden, J.R. (2019) Flying through a perfect moral storm: how do Norwegian environmentalists negotiate their aeromobility practices?, Centre for Development and the Environment, Oslo: Oslo University, pp 159.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Warde, A. (2005) Consumption and theories of practice, Journal of Consumer Culture, 5(2): 13153. doi: 10.1177/1469540505053090

  • Whitmarsh, L., Capstick, S., Moore, I., Köhler, J. and Le Quéré, C. (2020) Use of aviation by climate change researchers: structural influences, personal attitudes, and information provision, Global Environmental Change, 65: 102184. doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2020.102184

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Whitmarsh, L., Poortinga, W. and Capstick, S. (2021) Behaviour change to address climate change, Current Opinion in Psychology, doi: 10.1016/j.copsyc.2021.04.002.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wormbs, N. and Wolrath Söderberg, M. (2021) Knowledge, fear, and conscience: Reasons to stop flying because of climate change, Urban Planning, 6(2): 31424. doi: 10.17645/up.v6i2.3974

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Young, M., Higham, J.E. and Reis, A.C. (2014) ‘Up in the air’: a conceptual critique of flying addiction, Annals of Tourism Research, 49: 5164. doi: 10.1016/j.annals.2014.08.003

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Young, M., Markham, F., Reis, A.C. and Higham, J.E. (2015) Flights of fantasy: a reformulation of the flyers’ dilemma, Annals of Tourism Research, 54: 115. doi: 10.1016/j.annals.2015.05.015

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Noel Cass University of Leeds, UK

Search for other papers by Noel Cass in
Current site
Google Scholar
Close

Content Metrics

May 2022 onwards Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 875 553 28
Full Text Views 1231 737 2
PDF Downloads 570 281 2

Altmetrics

Dimensions