This article aims to understand what happens when gender equality policies cross prison walls – a challenging domain that has traditionally been invisibilised and ignored in the scholarship on gender and politics. By analysing the formulation and post-adoption phases in Spain, four main conclusions are drawn: first, the formulation phase has been highly impacted by the absence of the feminist movement and gender experts, resulting in the adoption of traditional views about the nature and needs of women; second, the lack of knowledge about, or disagreement with, the goals of the public policies activates forms of resistance that block attempts to advance; third, the ideas included in policy documents can be ‘fixed’ in the implementation phase and can eventually shape future courses of action; and, finally, the persistent absence of the feminist movement in the post-adoption phase results in the lack of opportunities to change the course of action towards a more transformative path.
Almeda, E. (2002) Correct and Punish: The Yesterday and Today of Women’s Prisons, Barcelona: Edicions Bellaterra.
Andalusian Ombudsman (2006) Women Deprived of Liberty in Penitentiary Centers of Andalusia, Seville: Andalusian Ombudsman.
Ballesteros-Pena, A. (2017) Re-domesticity and female imprisonment in the Spanish penitentiary system: respect modules, Papers. Revista de Sociologia, 102(2): 261–85. doi: 10.5565/rev/papers.2338
Ballesteros-Pena, A. (2018 ) Responsibilisation and female imprisonment in contemporary penal policy: ‘Respect Modules’ (‘Módulos de Respeto’) in Spain, Punishment and Society, 20(4): 458–76. doi: 10.1177/1462474517710241
Ballesteros-Pena, A. and Bustelo, M. (2021) Gender equality policies confined: adopted and implemented frames in the criminal justice system in Spain, paper presented at the ECPR (European Consortium for Political Research) General Conference, 30 August–3 September.
Barañí Team (2001) Gypsy Women and Criminal System, Madrid: Metyel.
Barañí Team (2007) Notes on the situation of the Roma community in Spanish society. Myths and realities that influence the criminalisation of gypsy women, in E. Almeda and E. Bodelón (eds) Women and Punishment: A Socio-legal and Gender Approach, Madrid: Dykinson, pp 163–84.
Bardach, E. (1977) The Implementation Game: What Happens after a Bill Becomes a Law, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Bloom, B., Owen, B. and Covington, S. (2003) Gender-Responsive Strategies: Research, Practice, and Guiding Principles for Women Offenders, NIC Publication No. 018017, Washington, DC: National Institute of Corrections.
Bosworth, M. (1999) Engendering Resistance: Agency and Power in Women’s Prisons, Aldershot: Ashgate.
Bosworth, M. (2000) Confining femininity: a history of gender, power and imprisonment, Theoretical Criminology, 4(3): 265–84. doi: 10.1177/1362480600004003002
Bustelo, M. and Ortbals, C.D. (2007) The evolution of Spanish state feminism: a fragmented landscape, in J. Outshoorn and J. Kantola (eds) Changing State Feminism, Women’s Policy Agencies Confront Shifting Institutional Terrain, New York: Palgrave, pp 201–33.
Carlen, P. (1983) Women’s Imprisonment: A Study in Social Control, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Carlen, P. and Worrall, A. (2004) Analysing Women’s Imprisonment, London: Willan Publishing.
Corston, J. (2007) The Corston Report: A Review of Women with Particular Vulnerabilities in the Criminal Justice System, London: Home Office.
Covington, S.S. and Bloom, B.E. (2007) Gender responsive treatment and services in correctional settings, Women & Therapy, 29(3–4): 9–33. doi: 10.1300/J015v29n03_02
Del Val, C. and Viedma, A. (eds) (2012) Condemned to Inequality: System of Penitentiary Discrimination Indicators, Barcelona: Icaria.
De Miguel Calvo, E. (2016) Women, drug use and imprisonment. An intersectional approach, Política y Sociedad, 53(2): 529–49.
Derthick, M. (1972) New Towns In-Town: Why a Federal Program Failed, Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.
Dombos, T., Krizsán, A., Verloo, M. and Zentai, V. (2012) Critical frame analysis: a comparative methodology for the QUING Project, CPS working paper. http://pdc.ceu.hu/archive/00006845/01/cps-working-paper-critical-frame-analysis-quing-2012.pdf.
Engeli, I. and Mazur, A. (2018) Taking implementation seriously in assessing success: the politics of gender equality policy, European Journal of Politics and Gender, 1(1–2): 111–29. doi: 10.1332/251510818X15282097548558
Foucault, M. (1979) Vigilar y Castigar, Madrid: Siglo XXI.
Gea, M.J., Domínguez, M. and Sádaba, I. (2014) A Shared Conviction: A Case Study on Penal Control, Madrid: Tierradenadie editores.
Gelsthorpe, L. (1989) Sexism and the Female Offender, Aldershot: Gower.
Gelsthorpe, L. and Russell, J. (2018) Women and penal reform: two steps forwards, three steps backwards?, The Political Quarterly (London. 1930), 89(2): 227–36. doi: 10.1111/1467-923X.12508
Haney, L. (2010) Offending Women: Power, Punishment, and the Regulation of Desire, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Hannah-Moffat, K. (2001) Punishment in Disguise: Criminal Governance and Federal Imprisonment of Women in Canada, Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Hannah-Moffat, K. and Shaw, M. (2000) An Ideal Prison? Critical Essays on Women’s Imprisonment in Canada, Halifax: Fernwood Publishing.
Heidensohn, F.M. (1985) Women and Crime, London: Macmillan.
Lipsky, M. (1980) Street-Level Bureaucracy: Dilemmas of the Individual in Public Services, New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Lombardo, E., Meier, P. and Verloo, M. (2013) Policy making, in G. Waylen, K. Celis, J. Kantola and S. L. Weldon (eds) The Oxford University Press Handbook on Gender and Politics, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp 677–700.
Manzanos, C. and Balmaseda, J. (2003) Situation of Women in Prisons in the Basque Country, Donostia-San Sebastián: Basque Government.
Mazur, A.G. (2017) Toward the systematic study of feminist policy in practice: an essential first step, Journal of Women, Politics & Policy, 38(1): 64–83. doi: 10.1080/1554477X.2016.1198210
McBride, D. and Mazur, M.G. (2010) The Politics of State Feminism: Innovation in Comparative Research, Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
McCorkel, J. (2004) Criminally dependant? Gender, punishment, and the rhetoric of welfare reform, Social Politics, 11(3): 386–410. doi: 10.1093/sp/jxh042
MIP Project (Mujer, integración y prisión) (2005) Mujeres, Integración y Prisión, Barcelona: Aurea Editores.
Miranda, M.J. and Martín, M.T. and Vega, C. (eds) (2005) Offenses and Borders, Madrid: Editorial Complutense.
Owen, B., Wells, J. and Pollock, J. (2017) In Search of Safety: Confronting Inequality in Women’s Imprisonment, Oakland, CA: University of California Press.
Player, E. (2014) Women in the criminal justice system: the triumph of inertia, Criminology & Criminal Justice, 14(3): 276–97.
Pressman, J.L. and Wildavsky, A. (1973) Implementation: How Great Expectations in Washington Are Dashed in Oakland, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Ribas, N., Almeda, E. and Bodelón, E. (2005) Tracking the Invisible Foreign Women in Prisons, Barcelona: Anthropos.
Ruiz-García, M. and Castillo-Algarra, J. (2014) Experiences of foreign women in Spanish prisons, Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 53(8): 587–99.
Squires, J. (2005) Is mainstreaming transformative? Theorizing mainstreaming in the context of diversity and deliberation, Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State and Society, 12(3): 366–88. doi: 10.1093/sp/jxi020
TFFSW (Task Force on Federally Sentenced Women) (1990) Report of the Task Force on Federally Sentenced Women – Creating Choices, Ottawa: Ministry of the Solicitor General.
Urra Grimal, D. (2017) Transgression behind bars: factors of vulnerability in Barcelona’s prison system, Athenea Digital, 17(2): 175–200. doi: 10.5565/rev/athenea.1803
Valenzuela-Vela, L. and Alcázar-Campos, A. (2020) Gendered carceral logics in social work: the blurred boundaries in gender equality policies for imprisoned and battered women in Spain, Affilia, 35(1): 73–88. doi: 10.1177/0886109919889035
Valiente, C. (1995) The power of persuasion: the Instituto de la Mujer in Spain, in D.M. Stetson and A.G. Mazur (eds) Comparative State Feminism, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp 221–36.
Verloo, M. (2005) Mainstreaming gender equality in Europe. A frame analysis approach, The Greek Review of Social Research, 117 (Special issue: ‘Differences in the framing of gender inequality as a policy problem across Europe’), pp 11–34.
Verloo, M. and Lombardo, E. (2007) Contested gender equality and policy variety in Europe: introducing a critical frame analysis approach, in M. Verloo (ed) Multiple Meanings of Gender Equality: A Critical Frame Analysis of Gender Policies in Europe, Budapest: Central European University Press, pp 21–51.
Walby, S. (2005) Gender mainstreaming: productive tensions in theory and practice, Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State and Society, 12(3): 321–43. doi: 10.1093/sp/jxi018
Woodward, A.E. (2015) Travels, triangles and transformations, Tijdschrift Voor Gender Studies, 18(1): 5–18. doi: 10.5117/TVGN2015.1.WOOD
Yagüe, C. (2006) Mothers in Prison: History of Women’s Prisons through Their Maternal Side, Granada: Comares.
Yagüe, C. (2012) Gender policies and prison in Spain, in C. del Val and A. Viedma (eds) Condemned to Inequality: System of Penitentiary Discrimination Indicators, Barcelona: Icaria, pp 29–59.
|May 2022 onwards||Past Year||Past 30 Days|
|Full Text Views||210||210||163|