This article examines young people’s attitudes towards parental involvement in paid work and their association with two channels of intergenerational transmission – parents’ employment arrangements and gender ideologies – the relative importance of these channels and if young people’s gender moderates the association. The data came from a German two-wave panel study of 609 adolescents (aged 15–21) surveyed in 2018 and their mothers in 2013–15. Analyses show that young people’s preferred weekly working hours for mothers were positively related to their parents’ employment arrangements and gender ideologies four years earlier. In contrast, the more progressive their mother’s gender ideology was, the fewer working hours young people preferred for fathers. The two transmission channels were nearly equally important and their impact did not differ between female and male adolescents. Our findings suggest that the intergenerational transmission of gender roles might be one of multiple factors contributing to stalling trends in gender equality.
Adler, M.A., Lenz, K. and Stöbel-Richter, Y. (2016) Germany, in M.A. Adler and K. Lenz (eds) Father Involvement in the Early Years: An International Comparison of Policy and Practice, Bristol: Policy Press, pp 61–96.
Albert, M., Hurrelmann, K. and Quenzel, G. (2019) Youth 2019 – 18th Shell Youth Study: English Summary, Weinheim, Basel: Beltz.
Allmendinger, J., Haarbrücker, J. and Fliegner, F. (2013) Lebensentwürfe heute. Wie junge Frauen und Männer in Deutschland leben wollen [Scripts of life : how young women and men want to live in Germany], WZB Discussion Paper, P 2013-002.
Autorengruppe Bildungsberichterstattung (ed.) (2020) Bildung in Deutschland 2020. [Education in Germany 2020], Bielefeld: wbv Media.
Bandura, A. (1977) Social Learning Theory, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Bianchi, S.M., Milkie, M.A., Sayer, L.C. and Robinson, J.P. (2000) Is anyone doing the housework? Trends in the gender division of household labor, Social Forces, 79(1): 191–228. doi: 10.2307/2675569
BMFSFJ (Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth) (ed.) (2021) Neunter Familienbericht. Eltern sein in Deutschland. [Ninth Family Report. Parenting in Germany], Berlin: Bundesministerium für Familie, Senioren, Frauen und Jugend.
Bolzendahl, C.I. and Myers, D.J. (2004) Feminist attitudes and support for gender equality: opinion change in women and men, 1974-1998, Social Forces, 83(2): 759–89. doi: 10.1353/sof.2005.0005
Burt, K.B. and Scott, J. (2002) Parent and adolescent gender role attitudes in 1990s Great Britain, Sex Roles, 46(7/8): 239–45. doi: 10.1023/A:1019919331967
Bussey, K. and Bandura, A. (1999) Social cognitive theory of gender development and differentiation, Psychological Review, 106(4): 676–713. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.106.4.676
Cordero-Coma, J. and Esping-Andersen, G. (2018) The intergenerational transmission of gender roles: children’s contribution to housework in Germany, Journal of Marriage and Family, 80(4): 1005–19. doi: 10.1111/jomf.12497
Cunningham, M. (2001a) Parental influences on the gendered division of housework, American Sociological Review, 66(2): 184–203. doi: 10.2307/2657414
Cunningham, M. (2001b) The influence of parental attitudes and behaviors on children’s attitudes toward gender and household labor in early adulthood, Journal of Marriage and Family, 63: 111–22. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2001.00111.x
Daniels, R. and Rittenour, C.E. (2020) Reproducing work and family norms through daughter–parent communication, Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 37(7): 2323–41. doi: 10.1177/0265407520922912
Davis, S.N. and Greenstein, T.N. (2009) Gender ideology: components, predictors, and consequences, Annual Review of Sociology, 35(1): 87–105. doi: 10.1146/annurev-soc-070308-115920
Dawson, A., Pike, A. and Bird, L. (2016) Associations between parental gendered attitudes and behaviours and children’s gender development across middle childhood, European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 13(4): 452–71. doi: 10.1080/17405629.2015.1109507
Dermott, E. (2008) Intimate Fatherhood: A Sociological Analysis, London: Routledge.
Dotti Sani, G.M. and Quaranta, M. (2017) The best is yet to come? Attitudes toward gender roles among adolescents in 36 countries, Sex Roles, 77(1-2): 30–45. doi: 10.1007/s11199-016-0698-7
Ebner, C., Kühhirt, M. and Lersch, P. (2020) Cohort changes in the level and dispersion of gender ideology after German reunification: results from a natural experiment, European Sociological Review, 36(5): 814–28. doi: 10.1093/esr/jcaa015
Endendijk, J.J., Derks, B. and Mesman, J. (2018) Does parenthood change implicit gender‐role stereotypes and behaviors?, Journal of Marriage and Family, 80(1): 61–79. doi: 10.1111/jomf.12451
Escriche, L. (2007) Persistence of occupational segregation: the role of the intergenerational transmission of preferences, Economic Journal, 117(520): 837–57. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-0297.2007.02052.x
Evertsson, M. (2006) The reproduction of gender: housework and attitudes towards gender equality in the home among Swedish boys and girls, The British Journal of Sociology, 57(3): 415–36. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-4446.2006.00118.x
Fan, P.L. and Marini, M.M. (2000) Influences on Gender-role attitudes during the transition to adulthood, Social Science Research, 29(2): 258–83. doi: 10.1006/ssre.1999.0669
Farré, L. and Vella, F. (2013) The intergenerational transmission of gender role attitudes and its implications for female labour force participation, Economica, 80(318): 219–47.
Ganzeboom, H.B.G., Graaf, P.M.de. and Treiman, D.J. (1992) A standard international Socio-Economic index of occupational status, Social Science Research, 21(1): 1–56. doi: 10.1016/0049-089X(92)90017-B
Giménez-Nadal, J.I., Mangiavacchi, L. and Piccoli, L. (2019) Keeping inequality at home: the genesis of gender roles in housework, Labour Economics, 58: 52–68.
Grunow, D., Begall, K. and Buchler, S. (2018) Gender ideologies in Europe: a multidimensional framework, Journal of Marriage and Family, 80(1): 42–60. doi: 10.1111/jomf.12453
Grunow, D. and Evertsson, M. (2021) Relationality and linked lives during transitions to parenthood in Europe: an analysis of institutionally framed Work-Care divisions, Families, Relationships and Societies, 10(1): 99–118. doi: 10.1332/204674321X16111601582694
Halimi, M., Consuegra, E., Struyven, K. and Engels, N. (2016) The relationship between youngsters’ gender role attitudes and individual, home, and school characteristics, SAGE Open, 6(3): 1–19. doi: 10.1177/2158244016656230
Halpern, P.H. and Perry-Jenkins, M. (2016) Parents’ gender ideology and gendered behavior as predictors of children’s Gender-Role attitudes: a longitudinal exploration, Sex Roles, 74(11): 527–42. doi: 10.1007/s11199-015-0539-0
Hook, J.L. (2015) Incorporating ‘class’ into Work–Family arrangements: insights from and for three worlds, Journal of European Social Policy, 25(1): 14–31. doi: 10.1177/0958928714556968
Huebner, M., Müller, K.U., Spieß, K.C. and Wrohlich, K. (2016) The parental leave benefit: a key family policy measure, one decade later, DIW Economic Bulletin, 6(49): 571–78.
Johnston, D.W., Schurer, S. and Shields, M.A. (2014) Maternal gender role attitudes, human capital investment, and labour supply of sons and daughters, Oxford Economic Papers, 66(3): 631–59. doi: 10.1093/oep/gpt039
Keijer, M.G., Liefbroer, A.C. and Nagel, I. (2018) Adolescents’ expectations about the timing of family life events: unraveling the role of value transmission and modeling, Journal of Family Issues, 39(15): 3755–77. doi: 10.1177/0192513X18792654
Keller, M. and Kahle, I. (2018) Realisierte Erwerbstätigkeit von Müttern und Vätern zur Vereinbarkeit von Familie und Beruf: [Realised employment of mothers and fathers to reconcile family and work], WISTA–Wirtschaft und Statistik, (3): 54–71.
Kroska, A. (2000) Conceptualizing and measuring gender ideology as an identity, Gender & Society, 14(3): 368–94. doi: 10.1177/089124300014003002
Kuger, S., Alt, C., Bernhardt, J., Braun, D., Gille, M., Prein, G., Quellenberg, H. and Zerle-Elsäßer, C. (2021) Aufwachsen in Deutschland: Alltagswelten Panel 2018 (AID:A Panel 2018): Aufwachsen in Deutschland: Alltagswelten, 2018. Version: 1, Berlin: DJI – The German Youth Institute. Dataset, doi: 10.17621/aida2018.
Kulik, L. (2002) Like-sex versus Opposite-Sex effects in transmission of gender role ideology from parents to adolescents in Israel, Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 31(6): 451–57. doi: 10.1023/A:1020263120774
Kühhirt, M. (2012) Childbirth and the Long-Term division of labour within couples: how do substitution, bargaining power, and norms affect parents’ time allocation in West Germany?, European Sociological Review, 28(5): 565–82.
Lechevalier, A. (2019) Dynamics of gendered employment regimes in France and Germany over the two last decades: how can they be explained?, in I. Berrebi-Hoffmann, O. Giraud, L. Renard and T. Wobbe (eds) Categories in Context: Gender and Work in France and Germany, 1900–Present, New York: Berghahn Book, pp 155–95.
Lois, D. (2020) Gender role attitudes in Germany, 1982–2016: an Age-Period-Cohort (APC) analysis, Comparative Population Studies, 45: 35–64. doi: 10.12765/CPoS-2020-02
McGinn, K.L., Ruiz Castro, M. and Lingo, E.L. (2018) Learning from mum: cross-national evidence linking maternal employment and adult children’s outcomes, Work, Employment and Society, 33(3): 374–400.
McHale, S.M., Crouter, A.C. and Whiteman, S.D. (2003) The family contexts of gender development in childhood and adolescence, Social Development, 12(1): 125–48. doi: 10.1111/1467-9507.00225
Misra, J., Budig, M. and Boeckmann, I. (2011) Work-family policies and the effects of children on women’s employment hours and wages, Community, Work & Family, 14(2): 139–57.
Moen, P., Erickson, M.A. and Dempster-McClain, D. (1997) Their mother’s daughters? The intergenerational transmission of gender attitudes in a world of changing roles, Journal of Marriage and the Family, 59: 281–93. doi: 10.2307/353470
Nieuwenhuis, R., Need, A. and van der Kolk, H. (2012) Institutional and demographic explanations of women’s employment in 18 OECD countries, 1975–1999, Journal of Marriage and Family, 74(3): 614–30. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2012.00965.x
Nomaguchi, K. and Milkie, M.A. (2020) Parenthood and Well-being: a decade in review, Journal of Marriage and Family, 82(1): 198–223. doi: 10.1111/jomf.12646
OECD (2017) Dare to Share – Germany’s Experience Promoting Equal Partnership in Families, Paris: OECD Publishing.
Olivetti, C., Patacchini, E. and Zenou, Y. (2020) Mothers, peers, and Gender-role identity, Journal of the European Economic Association, 18(1): 266–301. doi: 10.1093/jeea/jvy050
Park, B. and Banchefsky, S. (2019) Women and men, moms and dads: leveraging social role change to promote gender equality, in J.M. Olson (ed) Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Amsterdam: Academic Press, pp 1–52.
Pepin, J.R. and Cotter, D.A. (2018) Separating spheres? Diverging trends in youth’s gender attitudes about work and family, Journal of Marriage and Family, 80(1): 7–24. doi: 10.1111/jomf.12434
Perales, F., Hoffmann, H., King, T., Vidal, S. and Baxter, J. (2020) Mother, fathers and the intergenerational transmission of Gender-role attitudes, Life Course Centre Working Paper Series, (2020-05): 1–27.
Pfau-Effinger, B. (2004) Development of Culture, Welfare States and Women’s Employment in Europe, Aldershot: Ashgate.
Pfau-Effinger, B. (2005) Welfare state policies and the development of care arrangements, European Societies, 7(2): 321–47. doi: 10.1080/14616690500083592
Platt, L. and Polavieja, J. (2016) Saying and doing gender: intergenerational transmission of attitudes towards the sexual division of labour, European Sociological Review, 32(6): 820–34. doi: 10.1093/esr/jcw037
Rauschenbach, T. and Deutsches Jugendinstitut (2018) Aufwachsen in Deutschland: Alltagswelten 2014 (AID:A 2014). Version: 1, Berlin: DJI – The German Youth Institute, Dataset, doi: 10.17621/aida2014.
Sánchez Guerrero, L. and Schober, P.S. (2021) Socialisation influences on gender ideologies of immigrant and native youth in Germany, England, Sweden and the Netherlands, Sex Roles, 85: 113–27.
Siegal, M. (1987) Are sons and daughters treated more differently by fathers than by mothers?, Developmental Review, 7: 183–209. doi: 10.1016/0273-2297(87)90012-8
Starrels, M.E. and Holm, K.E. (2000) Adolescents’ plans for family formation: is parental socialization important?, Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62: 416–29. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2000.00416.x
Tenenbaum, H.R. and Leaper, C. (2002) Are parents’ gender schemas related to their children’s gender-related cognitions? A Meta-analysis, Developmental Psychology, 38(4): 615–30. doi: 10.1037/0012-1618.104.22.1685
Valk, H.de. (2008) Parental influence on work and family plans of adolescents of different ethnic backgrounds in the Netherlands, Sex Roles, 59(9-10): 738–51. doi: 10.1007/s11199-008-9464-9
van der Lippe, T. and van Dijk, L. (2002) Comparative research on women’s employment, Annual Review of Sociology, 28(1): 221–41. doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.28.110601.140833
Weber, E. and Zimmert, F. (2018) Arbeitszeiten zwischen Wunsch und Wirklichkeit: Wie Diskrepanzen entstehen und wie man sie auflöst [Working Hours between Desire and Reality: How Discrepancies arise and how to resolve them], IAB-Kurzbericht, No. 13/2018, Nürnberg: Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB).
West, C. and Zimmerman, D.H. (1987) Doing gender, Gender and Society, 1(2): 125–51. doi: 10.1177/0891243287001002002
Zoch, G. and Hondralis, I. (2017) The expansion of Low-cost, State-subsidized childcare availability and mothers’ Return-to-work behaviour in East and West Germany, European Sociological Review, 33(5): 693–707. doi: 10.1093/esr/jcx068
|May 2022 onwards||Past Year||Past 30 Days|
|Full Text Views||194||194||83|