As policy and funding associated with informal/unpaid/family caring develops, more attention has been given to data that support and inform such policy. In particular, evidence around aspects of inequality is often expressed in geographical variations between places in terms of numbers and rates. In general, to date, research on informal caring has focused little on how such variations can be visualised and analysed. This short article looks at the mapping of data from Irish censuses between 2002 and 2016 to: first, explore and visualise patterns of caring, including high-intensity caring. A second broad aim is to use different spatial techniques, including location quotients and clustering, to provide more robust visualisations of spatial variations. Finally, some putative links are but forward between the variable geographical distributions of caring and changes in legislation and policy for carers in Ireland during that same period.
Beach, S., Kinnee, E. and Schulz, R. (2019) Caregiving and place: combining Geographic Information System (GIS) and survey methods to examine neighborhood context and caregiver outcomes, Innovation in Aging, 3(3): 1–15.
Bowlby, S. (2012) Recognising the time–space dimensions of care: caringscapes and carescapes, Environment and Planning A, 44(9): 2101–18. doi: 10.1068/a44492
CAI (Care Alliance Ireland) (2018a) Briefing Paper: Estimates for Numbers of Family Carers in Ireland, Dublin: Care Alliance Ireland.
CAI (2018b) Briefing Paper 2: Public Provision of Home Care in Ireland – Update, Dublin: Care Alliance Ireland.
Chan, E.Y.Y. et al. (2020) Characteristics and well-being of urban informal home care providers during COVID-19 pandemic: a population-based study, BMJ Open, 10: e041191.
Courtin, E., Jemiai, N. and Mossialos, E. (2014) Mapping support policies for informal carers across the European Union, Health Policy, 118(1): 84–94. doi: 10.1016/j.healthpol.2014.07.013
CSO (Central Statistics Office) (2017) Census of Population 2016 – Profile 9 Health, Disability and Carers, Dublin: CSO.
Da Roit, B., Hoogenboom, M. and Weicht, B. (2015) The gender informal care gap, European Societies, 17(2): 199–218. doi: 10.1080/14616696.2015.1007153
DEASP (Department of Employment Affairs and Social Protection) (2019) Policy Review of Carers Allowance, Dublin: Department of Employment Affairs and Social Protection.
Dempsey, S., Devine, M., Gillespie, T., Lyons, S. and Nolan, A. (2018) Coastal blue space and depression in older adults, Health & Place, 54: 110–17.
Department of Health (2012) The National Carers Strategy, Dublin: Department of Health.
England, K. (2010) Home, Work and the Shifting Geographies of Care, Ethics, Place & Environment, 13(2): 131–50.
EuroCarers (2021) Towards carer friendly societies: EuroCarers country profiles, https://eurocarers.org/country-profiles/.
Family Carers Ireland (2019) Paying the Price: The Physical, Mental and Psychological Impact of Caring, Dublin: Family Carers Ireland, RCSI and UCD.
Foley, R. (2002) Assessing the applicability of GIS in a health and social care setting: planning services for informal carers in East Sussex, England, Social Science & Medicine, 55(1): 79–96.
Foley, R. (2008) The geography of informal care in Ireland, 2002–2006, Irish Geography, 41(3): 261–78. doi: 10.1080/00750770802506949
Gleeson, J., Kitchin, R., Bartley, B., Driscoll, J., Foley, R., Fotheringham, A.S. and Lloyd, C. (2008) The Atlas of the Island of Ireland: Mapping Social and Economic Change, Maynooth: AIRO-ICLRD.
Government of Ireland (2006) Towards 2016 – Ten Year Framework Social Partnership Agreement 2006–2015, Dublin: Stationery Office.
Hanly, P. and Sheerin, C. (2017) Valuing informal care in Ireland: beyond the traditional production boundary, The Economic and Social Review, 48(3): 337–64.
Joseph, A. and Phillips, D. (1984) Accessibility and Utilization: Geographical Perspectives on Health Care Delivery, New York: Harper and Row.
Lawson, V. (2007) Geographies of care and responsibility, presidential address, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 97(1): 1–11. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8306.2007.00520.x
McEwan, C. and Goodman, M.K. (2010) Place geography and the ethics of care: introductory remarks on the geographies of ethics, responsibility and care, Ethics, Place and Environment, 13(2): 103–12. doi: 10.1080/13668791003778602
Milligan, C. (2001) Geographies of Care: Space, Place and the Voluntary Sector, Aldershot: Ashgate.
Milligan, C. (2010) There’s No Place Like Home: Place and Care in an Ageing Society, Farnham: Ashgate.
Milligan, C. and Power, A. (2010) Changing geographies of care, in T. Brown, S. McClafferty and G. Moon (eds) A Companion to Health and Medical Geography, Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, pp 567–86.
Milligan, C. and Wiles, J. (2010) Landscapes of care, Progress in Human Geography, 34(6): 736–54. doi: 10.1177/0309132510364556
National Carers Strategy Monitoring Group (2018) National Carers’ Strategy Scorecard 2017: Assessing Government’s Fifth Annual Progress Report from the Perspective of Family Carers, Dublin: Family Carers Ireland.
OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) (2017) Informal carers, in OECD (ed) Health at a Glance 2017: OECD Indicators, Paris: OECD Publishing.
ONS (Office for National Statistics) (2013) 2011 Census Analysis: Unpaid Care in England and Wales, 2011 and Comparison with 2001, London: Central Statistics Office.
ONS (2020) Coronavirus and the Impacts on Caring, London: ONS, www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/articles/morepeoplehavebeenhelpingothersoutsidetheirhouseholdthroughthecoronaviruscovid19lockdown/2020-07-09.
Parr, H. (2003) Medical geography: care and caring, Progress in Human Geography, 27(2): 212–21. doi: 10.1191/0309132503ph423pr
Power, A. and Hall, A. (2018) Placing care in times of austerity, Social & Cultural Geography, 19(3): 303–13.
Robards, J., Vlachantoni, A., Evandrou, M. and Falkingham, J. (2015) Informal caring in England and Wales – Stability and transition between 2001 and 2011, Advances in Life Course Research, 24: 21–33.
Schwiter, K., Berndt, C. and Truong, J. (2018) Neoliberal austerity and the marketisation of elderly care, Social & Cultural Geography, 19(3): 379–99.
Skinner, M. and Power, A. (2011) Voluntarism, health and place: Bringing an emerging field into focus, Health & Place, 17(1): 1–6.
Smith, D. (1998) How far should we care? On the spatial scope of beneficence, Progress in Human Geography, 22(1): 15–38. doi: 10.1191/030913298670636601
Zigante, V. (2018) Approaches to the Regulation and Financing of Home Care Services in Four European Countries, Brussels: European Commission.
|May 2022 onwards||Past Year||Past 30 Days|
|Full Text Views||46||46||0|