The COVID-19 pandemic brought to the fore stark gendered care inequalities and the inadequacy of care provision across states. This article presents a feminist-ethics-of-care-informed discourse analysis of the representation of care that emerged at the Irish Citizens’ Assembly on Gender Equality – an innovative government-created citizen deliberation process. It identifies how care was represented as a ‘problem’ of both gender inequality and the market, and uncovers key silences, which ignored care as a universal need of all citizens and the significance of care networks to sustaining caring. We propose the necessity of ethics-of-care-based understandings to address post-pandemic care challenges.
Bacchi, C. (2009) Analysing Policy: What’s the Problem Represented to Be?, Adelaide: Pearson.
Bacchi, C. (2012) Why study problematizations? Making politics visible, Open Journal of Political Science, 2(1): 1–8. doi: 10.4236/ojps.2012.21001
Bacchi, C. (2017) Policies as gendering practices: re-viewing categorical distinctions, Journal of Women, Politics & Policy, 38(1): 20–41. doi: 10.1080/1554477X.2016.1198207
Barnes, M. (2012) Care in Everyday Life – An Ethic of Care in Practice, Bristol: Policy Press.
Cantillon, S. and Lynch, K. (2017) Affective equality: love matters, Hypatia, 32(1): 169–86. doi: 10.1111/hypa.12305
Chatzidakis, A., Hakim, J., Littler, J., Rottenberg, C. and Segal, L. (2020a) The Care Manifesto – The Politics of Interdependence, London: Verso.
Chatzidakis, A., Hakim, J., Littler, J., Rottenberg, C. and Segal, L. (2020b) From carewashing to radical care: the discursive explosions of care during COVID-19, Feminist Media Studies, 20(6): 889–95. doi: 10.1080/14680777.2020.1781435
Ciccia, R. and Bleijenbergh, I. (2014) After the male breadwinner model? childcare services and the division of labor in European countries, Social Politics, 21(1): 50–79. doi: 10.1093/sp/jxu002
Citizens’ Assembly (2021) Report of the Citizens’ Assembly on Gender Equality, Dublin: The Citizens’ Assembly.
Citizens’ Assembly (no date) 2020–2021 Citizens’ Assembly on Gender Equality, www.citizensassembly.ie/en/previous-assemblies/2020-2021-citizens-assembly-on-gender-equality/.
Cox, R. (2013) Gendered spaces of commoditised care, Social & Cultural Geography, 14(5): 491–9.
Cullen, P. (2019) The discursive politics of marketization in home care policy implementation in Ireland, Policy and Society, 38(4): 606–25. doi: 10.1080/14494035.2019.1622274
Cullen, P. and Murphy, M.P. (2021) Responses to the COVID-19 crisis in Ireland: from feminized to feminist, Gender, Work & Organization, 28(S2): 348–65. doi: 10.1111/gwao.12596
Daly, M. (2021) The concept of care: insights, challenges and research avenues in COVID-19 times, Journal of European Social Policy, 31(1): 108–18. doi: 10.1177/0958928720973923
Dukelow, F. and Considine, M. (2017) Irish Social Policy (Second Edition): A Critical Introduction, Bristol: Policy Press.
Fairclough, I. and Fairclough, N. (2012) Political Discourse Analysis: A Method for Advanced Students, Oxfordshire: Taylor & Francis Group.
Fischer, C. (2011) Re-visioning Ireland: lessons from feminist care ethics, Studies, 100(397): 63–72.
Foucault, M. (1977) Language, Counter-Memory, Practice: Selected Essays and Interviews, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Government of Ireland (1937) Bunreacht na hÉireann, Dublin: Official Publications.
Government of Ireland (2021a) Statement on the report of the Citizen’s Assembly on Gender Equality, www.gov.ie/en/press-release/cd0be-statement-on-the-report-of-the-citizens-assembly-on-gender-equality/, (Accessed: 2 Jun 2021).
Government of Ireland (2021b) Statistical spotlight #6: gender norms in Ireland, https://assets.gov.ie/207637/1ffaa942-044a-4fbb-8ded-f4f8bf479a3d.pdf.
Government of Ireland (2021c) Final report of the commission of investigation into Mother and Baby Homes, www.gov.ie/en/publication/d4b3d-final-report-of-the-commission-of-investigation-into-mother-and-baby-homes/.
Gulland, J. (2020) Households, bubbles and hugging grandparents: caring and lockdown rules during COVID-19, Feminist Legal Studies, 28: 329–39. doi: 10.1007/s10691-020-09445-z
Hanlon, N. (2012) Masculinities, Care and Equality: Identity and Nurture in Men’s Lives, London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Hanly, P. and Sheerin, C. (2017) Valuing informal care in Ireland: beyond the traditional production boundary, The Economic and Social Review, 48(3): 337–64.
Hearn, J. and McKie, L. (2018) Gendered policy and policy on gender: the case of ‘domestic violence’, Policy & Politics, 36(1): 75–91.
Held, V. (2006) The Ethics of Care: Personal, Political, and Global, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Held, V. (2007) The ethics of care, in D. Copp (ed) The Oxford Handbook of Ethical Theory, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp 537–66.
Hick, R. and Murphy, M. (2021) Common shock, different paths? Comparing social policy responses to COVID-19 in the UK and Ireland, Social Policy & Administration, 55: 312–25.
Hill Collins, P. (2017) The difference that power makes: intersectionality and participatory democracy, Investigaciones Feministas, 8(1): 19–39. doi: 10.5209/INFE.54888
Hoang, L. and Yeoh, B. (2011) Breadwinning wives and ‘Left-behind’ husbands: men and masculinities in the Vietnamese transnational family, Gender & Society, 25(6): 717–39. doi: 10.1177/0891243211430636
Hughes, Z. and O’Sullivan, L. (2017) Defining and profiling family carers: reflections from Ireland, International Journal of Care and Caring, 1(3): 421–7. doi: 10.1332/239788217X15018372247977
Irish Times (2021) The Irish Times view on gender equality: a manifesto for change, 27 April, www.irishtimes.com/opinion/editorial/the-irish-times-view-on-gender-equality-a-manifesto-for-change-1.4549245.
Keller, J. and Kittay, E. (2017) Feminist ethics of care, in A. Garry et al. (eds) The Routledge Companion to Feminist Philosophy, London: Routledge, pp 540–55.
Kittay, E. (2020) Love’s Labor, 2nd edn, London: Routledge.
Lewis, J. (2000) Gender and welfare regimes, in G. Lewis, S. Gewirtz and J. Clarke (eds) Rethinking Social Policy, London: Sage, pp 37–51.
Lynch, K. (2022) Care and Capitalism, Cambridge: Polity.
Lynch, K. and Lyons, M. (2009) Love labouring: nurturing rationalities and relational identities, in K. Lynch, J. Baker, M. Lyons, M. Feeley, N. Hanlon, M. O’Brien, J. Walsh and S. Cantillon (eds) Affective Equality: Love, Care and Injustice, London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp 54–77.
Lynch, K. and Walsh, J. (2009) Love, care and solidarity: what is and is not commodifiable, in K. Lynch, J. Baker, M. Lyons, M. Feeley, N. Hanlon, M. O’Brien, J. Walsh and S. Cantillon (eds) Affective Equality: Love, Care and Injustice, London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp 35–53.
Lynch, K., Lyons, M. and Cantillon, S. (2009) Love labouring: power and mutuality, in K. Lynch, J. Baker, M. Lyons, M. Feeley, N. Hanlon, M. O’Brien, J. Walsh and S. Cantillon (eds) Affective Equality: Love, Care and Injustice, London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp 114–31.
Lynch, K., Kalaitzake, M. and Crean, M. (2021) Care and affective relations: social justice and sociology, The Sociological Review, 69(1): 53–71. doi: 10.1177/0038026120952744
Mohammed, S., Peter, E., Killackey, T. and Maciver, J. (2021) The ‘nurse as hero’ discourse in the COVID-19 pandemic: a poststructural discourse analysis, International Journal of Nursing, 117: 103887, doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2021.103887.
Robinson, F. (2020) Resisting hierarchies through relationality in the ethics of care, International Journal of Care and Caring, 4(1): 11–23. doi: 10.1332/239788219X15659215344772
Rothstein, B. (2012) The reproduction of gender inequality in Sweden, Gender, Work & Organisation, 19(3): 324–44. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-0432.2010.00517.x
Russell, H., Grotti, R., McGinnity, F. and Privalko, I. (2019) Caring and Unpaid Work in Ireland, Dublin: IHREC and ESRI.
Seanad Éireann (2019) Final resolution, www.oireachtas.ie/en/debates/debate/seanad/2019-07-11/13/.
Tronto, J. (1993) Moral Boundaries: A Political Argument for an Ethic of Care, London: Routledge.
Tronto, J. (2013) Caring Democracy – Markets, Equality, and Justice, New York: New York University Press.
Tronto, J. (2017) There is an alternative: homines curans and the limits of neoliberalism, International Journal of Care and Caring, 1(1): 27–43. doi: 10.1332/239788217X14866281687583
Van Aswegen, J., Hyatt, D. and Goodley, D. (2019) A critical discourse problematization framework for (disability) policy analysis: ‘good cop/bad cop’ strategy, Qualitative Research Framework, 19(2): 185–98. doi: 10.1108/QRJ-12-2018-0004
Williams, F. (2018) Care: intersections of scales, inequalities and crises, Current Sociology Monograph, 66(4): 547–61. doi: 10.1177/0011392118765206
|May 2022 onwards||Past Year||Past 30 Days|
|Full Text Views||302||302||89|