Studies of policy tools have not devoted a great deal of attention to the behavioural characteristics of the objects of policy interventions. These ‘policy targets’ are often assumed to act as simple rational utility maximisers who can be manipulated by incentives and disincentives. This has led to a focus on the calibrations of policy tools rather than on whether the mix of tools in use matches the nature of compliance and cooperation required or demanded of a policy situation. This paper proposes a new research and practice agenda focused on better understanding and matching tool resources to target behaviour.
Michael HowlettSimon Fraser University, BC Canadaand National University of Singapore, Singapore