The return of the labour process: race, skill and technology in South African labour studies

View author details View Less
  • 1 University of the Witwatersrand, , South Africa
Restricted access
Get eTOC alerts
Rights and permissions Cite this article

From its beginnings, the sociology of work in South Africa has been preoccupied with three enduring themes: skill/deskilling, racism in the workplace, and Fordism/racial Fordism. With the advent of democracy in the 1990s there was a shift away from studying the labour process. We argue in this article that there has been a return to taking seriously the ways new forms of work in this postcolonial context pose new questions to the global study of work. A central preoccupation in the study of work has been the racialised reinscription of post-apartheid workplace orders, now in the context of new dynamics of externalisation and casualisation of employment. Another important theme is the shift away from studies of the formal sector workplace and toward the broader implications of the precarianisation and informalisation of labour. This focus coincided with the growth of new social movements by mostly unemployed (black) township residents around state services provision. This includes studies on working-class politics more broadly, with attention focusing on questions of organising and mobilising. More recently this interest in precarious labour has grown into studies of the gig economy, returning to earlier themes of technology and skill, as well as new forms of waged labour and wagelessness. We argue for the ongoing salience of labour process studies for understanding the specific issues of the securing and obscuring of value, and through the articulations of ‘racial capitalism’ offered by the long tradition of labour studies in South Africa.

  • Adler, G. and Webster, E. (1995) Challenging transition theory: the labour movement, radical reform and the transition to democracy, Politics and Society, 23(1): 75106. doi: 10.1177/0032329295023001004

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Alexander, P., Ceruti, C., Motseke, K., Phadi, M. and Wale, K. (2013) Class in Soweto, Scottsville: University of KwaZulu-Natal Press.

  • Anwar, M.A. and Graham, M. (2019) Hidden transcripts of the gig economy: labour agency and the new art of resistance among African gig workers, Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space, 52(7): 126991, doi: 10.1177/0308518X19894584.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ballard, R., Habib, A. and Valodia, I. (eds) (2006) Voices of Protest: Social Movements in Post-Apartheid South Africa, Scottsville: University of KwaZulu-Natal Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barchiesi, F. (2011) Precarious Liberation: Workers, the State, and Contested Social Citizenship in Postapartheid South Africa, Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Benya, A. (2015) The invisible hands: women in Marikana, Review of African Political Economy, 42(146): 54560. doi: 10.1080/03056244.2015.1087394

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Benya, A. (2017) Going underground in South African platinum mines to explore women miners’ experiences, Gender & Development, 25(3): 50922.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bezuidenhout, A. and Fakier, K. (2006) Maria’s burden: contract cleaning and the crisis of social reproduction in Post-apartheid South Africa, Antipode, 38(3): 46285. doi: 10.1111/j.0066-4812.2006.00590.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bezuidenhout, A. and Kenny, B. (1998) The Language of Flexibility and the Flexibility of Language: Post-Apartheid South African Labour Market Debates, SWOP Research paper, Sociology of Work Unit, Johannesburg: University of the Witwatersrand.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bezuidenhout, A. and Tshoaedi, M. (eds) (2017) Labour Beyond Cosatu: Mapping the Rupture in South Africa’s Labour Landscape, Johannesburg: Wits University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bischoff, C., Masondo, T. and Webster, E. (2018) Workers’ participation at plant level: the South African case, Economic and Industrial Democracy, 42(2): 37694. doi: 10.1177/0143831X18772185

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bonner, C. and Spooner, D. (2011) Organizing in the informal economy: a challenge for trade unions, International Politics and Society, IPG, 2(11): 87105.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bonnin, D. and Ruggunan, S. (2013) Towards a South African sociology of professions, South African Review of Sociology, 44(2): 16. doi: 10.1080/21528586.2013.802533

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bozzoli, B. and Nkotsoe, M. (1991) Women of Phokeng: Consciousness, Life Strategy and Migrancy in South Africa, 1900–1983, Johannesburg: Ravan Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bramble, T. and Barchiesi, F. (eds) (2003) Rethinking the Labour Movement in the ‘New South Africa’, New York: Ashgate.

  • Braverman, H. (1974) Labour and Monopoly Capitalism: The Degradation of Work in the Twentieth Century, New York: Monthly Review Press.

  • Buhlungu, S. (2004) The Anti-privatization Forum: A Profile of a Post-apartheid Social Movement, Durban: Centre for Civil Society and the School of Development Studies, University of KwaZulu-Natal, pp 126.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Buhlungu, S. (2010) A Paradox of Victory: COSATU and the Democratic Transformation in South Africa, Scottsville: University of KwaZulu-Natal Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Burawoy, M. (1985) Politics of Production: Factory Regimes Under Capitalism and Socialism, London: Verso.

  • Burawoy, M. (2013) Marx after Polanyi, in M. Williams and V. Satgar (eds) Marxisms in the 21st Century: Crisis, Critique and Struggle, Johannesburg: Wits University Press, pp 3452.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Byrne, S., Ulrich, N. and van der Walt, L. (2017) Red, black and gold: FOSATU, South African ‘workerism’, ‘syndacalism’ and the nation, in E. Webster and K. Pampillas (eds) The Unresolved National Question in South Africa: Left Thinking Under Apartheid, Johannesburg: Wits University Press, pp 25473.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Callinicos, L. (1980) Gold and Workers, 1886–1924, Johannesburg: Ravan Press.

  • Ceruti, C. (2011) The hidden element in the 2010 Public-sector strike in South Africa, Review of African Political Economy, 38(127): 15157. doi: 10.1080/03056244.2011.552754

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chigbu, B.I. and Nekhwevha, F.H. (2020) The extent of job automation in the automobile sector in South Africa, Economic and Industrial Democracy, 122. doi: 10.1177/0143831X20940779.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chinguno, C. (2013) Marikana: fragmentation, precariousness, strike violence and solidarity, Review of African Political Economy, 40(138): 63946. doi: 10.1080/03056244.2013.854062

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chinguno, C. (2019) Power dynamics in the gig/share economy: Uber and Bolt taxi platforms in Johannesburg, South Africa, Labour, Capital and Society, 49(2): 3165.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cock, J. (1980) Maids and Madams: Domestic Workers Under Apartheid, Johannesburg: Ravan Press.

  • Coulson, N. (2018) The role of workplace health and safety representatives and creeping responsibilisation of occupational health and safety on South African mines, Resources Policy, 56(C): 3848.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Coulson, N., Stewart, P.F. and Saeed, S. (2019) South African mineworkers’ perspectives on the right to refuse dangerous work and the constraints to worker self-regulation, Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 119(1): 2130.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Crankshaw, O. (1997) Race, Class and the Changing Division of Labour Under Apartheid, London: Routledge.

  • Davies, R. (1979) Capital, State and White Labour in South Africa, 1900–1960: An Historical Materialist Analysis of Class Formation and Class Relations, Brighton: Harvester Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dawson, M. (2010) The cost of belonging: exploring class and citizenship in Soweto's water war, Citizenship Studies, 14(4): 38194. doi: 10.1080/13621025.2010.490033

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dawson, M.C. and Beinart, W. (eds) (2010) Popular Politics and Resistance Movements in South Africa, Johannesburg: Wits University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dee, H. (2020) Central African immigrants, imperial citizenship and the politics of free movement in interwar South Africa, Journal of Southern African Studies, 46(2): 31937. doi: 10.1080/03057070.2020.1689005

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Desai, A. (2002) We Are the Poors: Community Struggles in Post-apartheid South Africa, New York: Monthly Review Press.

  • Dickinson, D. (2017) Institutionalised conflict, subaltern worker rebellions and insurgent unionism: casual workers’ organisation and power resources in the South African Post Office, Review of African Political Economy, 44(153): 41531. doi: 10.1080/03056244.2017.1322947

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Du Toit, D. (2016) ‘We cannot discriminate against someone without an eye or a leg … but I do look at obesity’: statistical discrimination in employers’ recruitment strategies in Johannesburg, South African Journal of Labour Relations, 40(1): 2541. doi: 10.25159/2520-3223/5858

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Englert, T. and Runciman, C. (2019) Challenging workplace inequality: precarious workers’ institutional and associational power in Gauteng, South Africa, Transformation, 101: 84104. doi: 10.1353/trn.2019.0038

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fakier, K. and Cock, J. (2009) A gendered analysis of the crisis of social reproduction in contemporary South Africa, International Feminist Journal of Politics, 11(3): 35371. doi: 10.1080/14616740903017679

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Forrest, K. (2011) Metal That Will Not Bend: The National Union of Metalworkers of South Africa, 1980–1995, Johannesburg: Wits University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Future of Work Research Project (2020) Digital Technologies, the Future of Work(ers) and Inequalities, Johannesburg: Southern Centre for Inequality Studies, University of the Witwatersrand, https://www.wits.ac.za/scis/research-projects/digital-technologies-the-future-of-workers-and-inequality/, (Accessed: 24 Aug 2021).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gelb, S. (1987) Making sense of the crisis, Transformation, 5: 3350.

  • Hall, S. (1980) Race, articulation and societies structured in dominance, in M. O’Callaghan (ed) Sociological Theories: Race and Colonialism, Paris: UNESCO, pp 30545.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harvey, D. (2003) The New Imperialism, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Hemson, D. (1996) Beyond the frontier of control? Trade unionism and the labour market in the Durban docks, Transformation, 30: 83114.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hlatshwayo, M. (2015) Unpacking Numsa’s responses to technological changes at the ArcleorMittal Vanderbijilprak plant, South African Review of Sociology, 46(2): 7796. doi: 10.1080/21528586.2014.999111

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hlatshwayo, M. (2018) The new struggles of precarious workers in South Africa: nascent organisational responses of community health workers, Review of African Political Economy, 45(157): 37892. doi: 10.1080/03056244.2018.1483907

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hlatshwayo, M. (2019) Precarious work and precarious resistance: a case study of Zimbabwean migrant women workers in Johannesburg, South Africa, Diaspora Studies, 12(2): 16078. doi: 10.1080/09739572.2018.1485239

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hlatshwayo, M. and Buhlungu, S. (2017) Work reorganisation and technological change: limits of trade union strategy and action at ArcelorMittal, Vanderbijlpark, African Sociological Review, 21(1): 12653.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Horn, P. (2005) New forms of collective bargaining: adapting to the informal economy and new forms of work, Labour, Capital and Society, 38(1/2): 20824.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Horwitz, F.M. and Franklin, E. (1996) Labour market flexibility in South Africa: researching recent developments, The South African Journal of Labour Relations, 19(2): 339.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hyslop, J. (2017) Southampton to Durban on the union castle line: an imperial shipping company and the limits of globality, c.1900–39, The Journal of Transport History, 38(2): 17195. doi: 10.1177/0022526617698151

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ILO (International Labour Office (2021)) Working from Home: From Invisibility to Decent work, Geneva: International Labour Office, https://www.ilo.org/global/publications/books/forthcoming-publications/WCMS_765806/lang--en/index.htm.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Johnstone, D., Nieftagodien, N. and van der Walt, L. (eds) (forthcoming) More Than a Trade Union: The ICU in Post-apartheid Perspective, Pretoria: HSRC Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Johnstone, F.A. (1976) Class, Race, and Gold: A Study of Class Relations and Racial Discrimination, London: Routledge.

  • Kenny, B. (2001) ‘We are nursing these jobs’: the impact of labour market flexibility on South African retail sector workers, in N. Newman and J. Pape and H. Jansen (eds) Is There an Alternative? South African Workers Confronting Globalisation, Cape Town: ILRIG, pp 90107.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kenny, B. (2007) Claiming workplace citizenship: ‘worker’ legacies, collective identities and divided loyalties of South African contingent retail workers, Qualitative Sociology, 30(4): 481500. doi: 10.1007/s11133-007-9066-9

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kenny, B. (2011) Reconstructing the political?: mall committees and South African precarious retail workers, Labour, Capital and Society, 44(2): 4469.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kenny, B. (2018) Retail Worker Politics, Race and Consumption in South Africa: Shelved in the Service Economy, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kenny, B. (2020) The South African labour movement a fragmented and shifting terrain, Tempo Social, 32(1): 11936. doi: 10.11606/0103-2070.ts.2020.166288

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kenny, B. and Bezuidenhout, A. (1999) Contracting, complexity and control: an overview of the changing nature of subcontracting in the South African mining industry, Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 99(4): 18591.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kenny, B. and Webster, E. (1998) Eroding the core: flexibility and the re-segmentation of the South African labour market, Critical Sociology, 24(3): 21643. doi: 10.1177/089692059802400304

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Klerck, G. and Naidoo, L. (2003) In search of greener pastures: trade unionism in the agricultural sector, in F. Barchiesi and T. Bramble (eds) Rethinking the Labour Movement in the ‘New’ South Africa, Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, pp 15067.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kraak, A. (1996) Transforming South Africa’s economy: from racial-Fordism to neo-Fordism, Economic and Industrial Democracy, 17(1): 3974. doi: 10.1177/0143831X96171003

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Legassick, M. and Hemson, D. (1976) Foreign Investment and the Reproduction of Racial Capitalism in South Africa, London: Anti-Apartheid Movement.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leger, J. (1992) ‘Talking Rocks’: An Investigation of the Pit Sense of Rockfall Accidents Amongst Underground Gold Miners, Unpublished PhD thesis, Johannesburg: University of Witwatersrand.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lewis, J. (1984) Industrialisation and Trade Union Organisation in South Africa, 1924–55: The Rise and Fall of the South African Trades and Labour Council, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Luckett, T. and Munshi, N. (2017) Rebuilding a workers’ movement, Jacobin Magazine, 15 May, https://jacobinmag.com/2017/05/south-africa-trade-unions-saftu-numsa-anc-zuma.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lund, F. (2002) Social security and the changing labour market: access for non-standard and informal workers in South Africa, Social Dynamics, 28(2): 177206. doi: 10.1080/02533950208458737

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Machinya, J. (2019) Undocumented Zimbabweans in South Africa: working in a constant fear of arrest and deportation, Labour, Capital and Society, 49(2): 90114.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Magoqwana, B. and Matatu, S. (2012) Local government call centres: challenge or opportunity for South African labour?, in M. Williams and S. Mosoetsa (eds) Labour in the Global South, Geneva: ILO Press, pp 6586.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mashilo, A.M. (2019) Auto Production in South Africa and Components Manufacturing in Gauteng Province, Working Paper, No 58, Geneva: International Labour Organization (ILO).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Masondo, T., Orkin, M. and Webster, E. (2015) Militants or Managers? COSATU and democracy in the workplace, in R. Southall and V. Satgar (eds) COSATU and the Future of Labour Fragmentation or Revitalisation?, Johannesburg: KPM.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McDonald, D. (ed) (2008) Electric Capitalism: Recolonising Africa on the Power Grid, Pretoria: HSRC Press.

  • McDonald, D.A. and Pape, J. (2002) Cost Recovery and the Crisis of Service Delivery in South Africa, London: Zed Books.

  • Money, D. and van Zyl-Hermann, D. (eds) (2020) Rethinking White Societies in Southern Africa, 1930s – 1990s, London and New York: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moodie, D. (2020) Using E.P. Thompson to think about South African history: notes on a personal journey, Social History, 45(4): 41226. doi: 10.1080/03071022.2020.1812297

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moodie, D. and Ndatshe, V. (1994) Going for Gold: Men, Mines and Migration, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

  • Mosoetsa, S. (2011) Eating from One Pot: The Dynamics of Survival in Poor South African Households, Johannesburg: Wits University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Motala, S. (2008) Organising capabilities of street traders particularly women, Agenda, 22(78): 20819.

  • Naidoo, P. (2007) Struggles around the commodification of daily life in South Africa, Review of African Political Economy, 34(111): 5766. doi: 10.1080/03056240701340340

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Naidoo, P. and Veriava, A. (2005) Re-membering movements: trade unions and new social movements in Neoliberal South Africa, in From Local Processes to Global Forces, Centre for Civil Society Research Reports, Vol 1, Durban: University of KwaZulu-Natal, pp 2762.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nattrass, N. and Seekings, J. (2019) Inclusive Dualism: Labour Intensive Development, Decent Work, and Surplus Labour in Southern Africa, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ngwane, T. (2012) Labour strikes and community protests: is there a basis for unity in post-apartheid South Africa, in M. Dawson and L. Sinwell (eds) Contesting Transformation: Popular Resistance in Twenty-first Century South Africa, London: Pluto Press, pp 12542.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Paret, M. (2013) Precarious labor politics: unions and the struggles of the insecure working class in the USA and South Africa, Critical Sociology, 41(4–5): 75784. doi: 10.1177/0896920513483149

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Phakathi, S.T. (2018) Production, Safety and Teamwork in a Deep-level Mining Workplace Perspectives from the Rock-Face, Bingley: Emerald Publishing Limited.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rees, R. (1997) Flexible labour: meeting the challenge, The South African Labour Bulletin, 21(5): 306.

  • Samson, M. (2019) Trashing solidarity: the production of power and the challenges to organizing informal reclaimers, International Labor and Working-Class History, 95(Spring): 3448. doi: 10.1017/S0147547919000036

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schmalz, S., Ludwig, C. and Webster, E. (2018) The power resources approach: developments and challenges, Global Labour Journal, 9(2): 11334.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Scully, B. (2016) From the shop floor to the kitchen table: the shifting centre of precarious workers’ politics in South Africa, Review of African Political Economy, 43(148): 295311. doi: 10.1080/03056244.2015.1085378

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Seekings, J. and Nattrass, N. (2005) Class, Race and Inequality in South Africa, Pietermaritzburg: University of KwaZulu-Natal Press.

  • Silver, B.J. (2003) Forces of Labor: Workers’ Movements and Globalization Since 1870, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Sinwell, L. and Mbatha, S. (2016) The Spirit of Marikana: The Rise of Insurgent Trade Unionism in South Africa, London: Pluto Press.

  • Sitas, A. (1983) African Workers Responses to Changes in the Metal Industry on the East Rand, 1960-1980, Unpublished PhD thesis, Johannesburg: University of Witwatersrand.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Standing, G., Sender, J. and Weeks, J. (1996) Restructuring the Labour Market: The South African Challenge, Geneva: International Labour Office.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stewart, P. (2016) The centrality of labor time in South African gold mining since 1886, Labor History, 57(2): 17092. doi: 10.1080/0023656X.2016.1161137

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stewart, P. (2020) The ‘auto’-biography of Mandlenkosi Makhoba, an illiterate South African migrant worker: 1980–2020, Italian Studies in Southern Africa, 33(2): 3154.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stewart, P. and Nite, D.K. (2017) From fatalism to mass action to incorporation to neoliberal individualism: worker safety on South African mines, c.1955–2016, Review of African Political Economy, 44(152): 25271. doi: 10.1080/03056244.2017.1342234

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Theron, J. (2005) Employment is not what it used to be: the nature and impact of the restructuring of work in South Africa, in E. Webster and K. von Holdt (eds) Beyond the Apartheid Workplace: Studies in Transition, Scottsville: University of KwaZulu-Natal Press, pp 293316.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thompson, P. and Vincent, S. (2010) Labour process theory and critical realism, in P. Thompson and C. Smith (eds) Renewing Labour Process Analysis, Houndmills: Palgrave Press, pp 4769.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ulrich, N. (2013) International radicalism, local solidarities: the 1797 British naval mutinies in Southern African waters, International Review of Social History, 58 (S21: Mutiny and Maritime Radicalism in the Age of Revolution: A Global Survey) 6185. doi: 10.1017/S0020859013000266

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Valodia, I. (2001) Economic policy and women’s informal work in South Africa, Development and Change, 32(5): 87192. doi: 10.1111/1467-7660.00230

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van der Walt, L., Bolsmann, C., Johnson, B. and Martin, L. (2003) Globalisation, the market university and support service outsourcing in South Africa: class struggle, convergence and difference, 1994–2001, Society in Transition, 34(2): 27294. doi: 10.1080/21528586.2003.10419097

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van Onselen, C. (1976) Chibaro: African Mine Labour in Southern Rhodesia, 1900–1933, London: Pluto Press.

  • Von Holdt, K. (2002) Social movement unionism: the case of South Africa, Work, Employment and Society, 16(2): 283304. doi: 10.1177/095001702400426848

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Von Holdt, K. (2003) Transition from Below: Forging Trade Unionism and Workplace Change in South Africa, Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Webster, E. (1985) Cast in a Racial Mould: Labour Process and Trade Unionism in the Foundries, Johannesburg: Ravan Press.

  • Webster, E. (2002) South Africa, in D. Cornwall and R. Hodson (eds) Worlds of Work: Building an International Sociology of Work, New York: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp 17797.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Webster, E. (2011) Organizing in the informal economy: Ela Bhatt and the self-employed women’s association of India, Labour, Capital and Society, 44(1): 98125.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Webster, E. (2020) The Uberisation of work: the challenge of regulating platform capitalism: a commentary, International Review of Applied Economics, 34(4): 51221. doi: 10.1080/02692171.2020.1773647

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Webster, E. and Buhlungu, S. (2004) Between marginalisation and revitalisation? The state of trade unionism in South Africa, Review of African Political Economy, 31(100): 22945. doi: 10.1080/0305624042000262266

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Webster, E. and Englert, T. (2020) New dawn or end of labour? From South Africa’s East Rand to Ekurhuleni, Globalizations, 17(2): 27993. doi: 10.1080/14747731.2019.1652465

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Webster, E. and Francis, D. (2019) The paradox of inequality in South Africa: a challenge from the workplace, Transformation, 101: 1135. doi: 10.1353/trn.2019.0035

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Webster, E. and Masikane, F. (2020) ‘I Just Want to Survive’: The Case of Food Delivery Couriers in Johannesburg, Report of FES and SCIS, Johannesburg: University of Witwatersrand.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Webster, E. and O’Brien, R. (2020) Ten years of the Global Labour Journal: reflecting on the the rise of global labour studies, Global Labour Journal, 11(1): 414. doi: 10.15173/glj.v11i1.4166

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Webster, E. and von Holdt, K. (eds) (2005) Beyond the Apartheid Workplace, Scottsville: University of KwaZulu-Natal Press.

  • Webster, E., Britwum, A. and Bhowmik, S. (eds) (2017) Crossing the Divide: Precarious Work and the Future of Labour, Pietermaritzburg: University of KwaZulu-Natal Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Webster, E., Lambert, R. and Bezuidenhout, A. (2008) Grounding Globalization: Labour in the Age of Insecurity, Oxford: Blackwell.

  • Webster, E., Ludwig, C., Masikane, F. and Spooner, D. (2021) Beyond traditional trade unionism: innovative worker responses in three African cities, Globalisations, doi: 10.1080/14747731.2021.1874253.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wilderman, J. (2017) From flexible work to mass uprising: the Western Cape farm workers’ struggle, in E. Webster, A. Britwum and S. Bhowmik (eds) Crossing the Divide: Precarious Work and the Future of Labour, Scottsville and Pietermaritzburg: University of KwaZulu-Natal Press, pp 7496.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wolpe, H. (1972) Capitalism and cheap labour power in South Africa: from segregation to apartheid, Economy and Society, 1(4): 42556. doi: 10.1080/03085147200000023

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 1 University of the Witwatersrand, , South Africa

Content Metrics

May 2022 onwards Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 22 22 20
PDF Downloads 20 20 18

Altmetrics

Dimensions