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Adult arrest records were examined for a cohort of 150 public high school males named as friends by classmates 28 years earlier. The overall adult arrest rate was 35.3%. The arrest rate for males with at least one disciplinary referral was 59.2%. Friendship data were divided into offender–offender, offender–non-offender and non-offender–non-offender dyads. The proportion of offender–offender dyads was four times greater than offender–non-offender dyads, both for those with and without disciplinary referrals. These results are interpreted as indications of the possible influence of high school friends on adult offences. Arrests were disproportionally for violent offences against females among those who shared high school friendships. An interpretation that negative attitudes, emotions and behaviour toward females formed during activities with friends in high school, leading to a trajectory of violence towards women, is presented. Recommendations are made for interventions for adolescent male anger towards females to prevent adult domestic and intimate partner violence. Suggested interventions include anger management, school violence prevention, dating violence prevention and youth mentoring programmes. Also recommended is to change punitive school policies that bring students with behaviour problems together to opportunities for positive experiences, such as through organised activities, volunteer service in the community and restorative justice practices.

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White blood cell (WBC) and mean platelet volume (MPV) counts are related to stroke events, but relationship between their combined indicator (WBC count-to-MPV count ratio (WMR)) and the risk of fatal stroke occurrence is unclear so far. In this prospective analysis, we enrolled 27,163 participants aged 50 years or older without a stroke history in the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study. After a mean follow-up time of 15.0 (SD = 2.2) years with 389,242 person-years, 816 stroke (401 ischaemic, 259 haemorrhagic and 156 unclassified) deaths were recorded. Cox’s proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and the 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Compared with those in the lowest quartile, participants with the highest WMR had different risks for fatal all stroke and fatal ischaemic stroke, respectively, although an increased risk for fatal ischaemic stroke was observed among participants in the fourth WMR quartile and further hs-CRP adjustment; those in the WMR change with 10% increase had a 36% increased risk of fatal all stroke and a 79% increased risk of fatal haemorrhagic stroke, compared to those in a stable (the WMR change between −10% and 10%). Our findings suggest that higher WMR and its longitudinal change were associated with an increased risk of fatal stroke occurrence in middle-aged to older Chinese; it may be a potential indicator for the future fatal stroke occurrence in relatively healthy elderly populations.

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Chinese entrepreneurs, whose population has been steadily growing since the Reform and Open Up in 1978, are a diverse group of people. Though previous research has analysed Chinese entrepreneurs by special cases, few have conducted a nationally representative study of their typology. And even fewer have analysed the life outcomes of the different types of entrepreneurs. Relying on two waves of the panel data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) and with the technique of sequence analysis, for the first time, we explored the heterogeneous career trajectories of Chinese entrepreneurs and their corresponding life outcomes. We successfully depicted four unique entrepreneurial trajectories in China since the 1950s, which are necessity entrepreneurs, employee entrepreneurs, persistent entrepreneurs and farmer entrepreneurs. Our empirical results can support both the cumulative disadvantage theory and the set-point theory in health-related studies. Among all the entrepreneurs, farmer entrepreneurs have the worst self-rated health in the long run, which supports the cumulative disadvantage theory. At the same time, all types of entrepreneurs have similar depressive symptoms and economic returns, which supports the set-point theory.

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Non-response is common in longitudinal surveys, reducing efficiency and introducing the potential for bias. Principled methods, such as multiple imputation, are generally required to obtain unbiased estimates in surveys subject to missingness which is not completely at random. The inclusion of predictors of non-response in such methods, for example as auxiliary variables in multiple imputation, can help improve the plausibility of the missing at random assumption underlying these methods and hence reduce bias. We present a systematic data-driven approach used to identify predictors of non-response at Wave 8 (age 25–26) of Next Steps, a UK national cohort study that follows a sample of 15,770 young people from age 13–14 years. The identified predictors of non-response were across a number of broad categories, including personal characteristics, schooling and behaviour in school, activities and behaviour outside of school, mental health and well-being, socio-economic status, and practicalities around contact and survey completion. We found that including these predictors of non-response as auxiliary variables in multiple imputation analyses allowed us to restore sample representativeness in several different settings, though we acknowledge that this is unlikely to universally be the case. We propose that these variables are considered for inclusion in future analyses using principled methods to explore and attempt to reduce bias due to non-response in Next Steps. Our data-driven approach to this issue could also be used as a model for investigations in other longitudinal studies.

Open access

At around age 60, people are approaching late adulthood and are typically going through or anticipating life transitions such as grandparenthood, retirement, or changes in health and functioning. The timing and perception of transitions are individual and based on current circumstances and earlier life history and may link to well-being. The TRAILS (Developmental Psychological Perspectives on Transitions at Age 60: Individuals Navigating Across the Lifespan) study, which is presented in the current article, examines the diversity and underlying factors of different transitions at around age 60 and how they associate with mental well-being. It also investigates whether these transitions link to personality characteristics, contextual resources, and/or societal challenges. The role of earlier life history in the studied associations requires a prospective multiwave design where the same participants are followed over time. Only a few longitudinal studies have examined the developmental pathways from childhood to the beginning of late adulthood.

The TRAILS study continues the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Personality and Social Development (JYLS). The JYLS was initiated in 1968 and includes earlier data collected from ages 8 to 50. At age 61, in 2020–21, 206 of the JYLS participants (of the initial 369 children) took part in TRAILS. The data collection included a Life Situation Questionnaire, a psychological interview, self-report inventories, a health examination and physical activity surveillance covering major areas of adult life. TRAILS extends the JYLS study to over 52 years of follow-up time and provides unique opportunities for studying individual development throughout the lifespan.

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Children in social care report poor outcomes in many aspects of their later lives. Less is known about differences by ethnicity.


We examined the health, socio-economic, family and living arrangements across the first three decades of adult life by the intersection of ethnicity (White, Black, South Asian) with social care.

Participants and setting

Linked census and life events data for a 1% sample of the population of England and Wales in the ONS Longitudinal Study. Participants were dependent children in 1971–2001 (analytic sample n = 669,474).


Categorical regression models compared health, socio-economic circumstances, living arrangements and relationships, controlling for country of birth, childhood census year, childhood and adult age in years, gender, and head of household social class, qualifications, employment status and marital status.


Adverse adult outcomes following social care in childhood were conditional on the interaction of social care with ethnicity, mainly in the socio-economic domain. For some outcomes the White group had the poorest outcomes: for example, 15% lower probability of being employed than other White people (65% versus 80%). Black adults with a history of social care did not differ from other Black adults, except for the lowest probability of acquiring their own home, while care-experienced South Asian adults did not differ from other South Asian adults.


Minority ethnicity moderated the social care to adult outcomes relationship in both positive and negative ways. Overall, there was little evidence of intersectionality for Black children in social care affecting their life chances.

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In the United Kingdom, the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 and 2021 led to two extended periods of school closures. Research on inequality of learning opportunity as a result of these closures used a single indicator of socio-economic status, neglecting important determinants of remote learning. Using data from the Understanding Society (USoc) COVID-19 surveys we analysed the levels and differentials in the uptake of remote schoolwork using parental social class, information technology (IT) availability in the home and parental working patterns to capture the distinct resources that families needed to complete remote schoolwork. This is also the first study to assess the extent to which the differentials between socio-economic groups changed between the first and second school-closure periods caused by the pandemic. We found that each of the three factors showed an independent association with the volume of remote schoolwork and that their effect was magnified by their combination. Children in families where the main parent was in an upper-class occupation, where both parents worked from home and where the children had their own IT spent more time doing remote schoolwork than other groups, particularly compared to children of single parents who work from home, children in families where the main parent was in a working-class occupation, where the child had to share IT, and where the parents did not work regularly from home. The differentials between socio-economic groups in the uptake of schoolwork were found to be stable between the two school-closure periods.

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This study aims to evaluate the temporal trend in the quality of cause-of-death data and garbage code profiles and to determine its association with socio-economic status in Serbia. A longitudinal study was assessed using data from mortality registers from 2005 to 2019. Computer application Analysis of Causes of National Deaths for Action (ANACONDA) calculates the distribution of garbage codes by severity and composite quality indicator: Vital Statistics Performance Index for Quality (VSPI(Q)). A relationship between VSPI(Q) and country development was estimated by analysing two socio-economic indicators: the Socio-demographic Index and the Human Development Index (HDI). Serbia indicates progress in strengthening cause-of-death statistics. The steady upward trend of the VSPI(Q) index has risen from 55.6 (medium quality) to 70.2 (high quality) over the examined years. Significant reduction of ‘Insufficiently specified causes with limited impact’ (Level 4) and an increase in the trend of ‘High-impact garbage codes’ (Levels 1 to 3) were evident. Decreased deaths of no policy value (annual percentage change of −1.41%) have manifested since 2014. A strong positive association between VSPI(Q) and socio-economic indicators was assessed, where the HDI has shown a stronger association with VSPI(Q). Improved socio-economic conditions on the national level are followed by enhanced cause-of-death data quality. Upcoming actions to improve quality should be directed at high-impact garbage codes. The study underlines the need to prioritise the education and training of physicians with a crucial role in death certification to overcome many cause-of-death quality issues identified in this assessment.

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This chapter examines some of the double binds or contradictions which shape Roma lives, particularly those of women. These contradictions became particularly susceptible to analysis during the COVID-19 pandemic: borne at the junction between structural constraints from without and norms and hierarchies from within, these double binds have been made more salient by the strengthening of rules and by the rampant antigypsyism that the pandemic engendered. However, contradictions warrant further attention even in less ‘exceptional’ times, as they reveal connections and breaking points between the various layers of social belonging – statal, ethnic and familial – that ethnographic work captures. The chapter focuses on a conservative or ‘traditional’ Roma group in southern Romania, both before, in situ and remotely, during the COVID-19 pandemic. It shows how members interiorize and attempt to solve the contradictions that encroach onto their lives under the guise of ‘capability’, an emic term signifying one’s resourcefulness to navigate competing demands even at great personal cost and under the permanent threat of ‘trouble.’

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