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Despite their significant dedication to the remarkable economic growth, the poverty rate of older adults in Korea remains the highest among developed economies. This study utilises the Shapley decomposition to analyse the effects of socio-economic changes and recently developed welfare system on poverty heterogeneity between older old and younger old. The findings indicate that the poverty rate for younger old improved from 47.9 per cent in 2003 to 32.3 per cent in 2020, whereas the rate for older old increased from 49.8 per cent to 60.1 per cent. Specifically, the contribution-based public pension presented smaller anti-poverty effects on older old than younger old, because it was implemented later, therefore, older old could not accumulate adequate contribution periods. In addition, means-tested benefits had limited effects in reducing the poverty risk for the two old groups, as they are not well-targeted and provide insufficient benefits. Furthermore, older Korean adults are compelled to participate in the labour market to make ends meet, and earned income significantly mitigated the poverty risk of younger old. Based on these findings, this article argues that the government needs to implement more inclusive fiscal measures to alleviate the poverty threat of older old.

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This article presents the development of a measure to assess the prevalence and patterning of multidimensional child poverty in South Korea. The first goal of UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is to reduce poverty in all its dimensions, and countries are increasingly developing their own measures of multidimensional poverty. This flourishing of different measures presents challenges for international comparisons. The article applies an internationally-validated method of assessing multidimensional poverty to demonstrate its suitability for use in a high-income Asian economy. Multidimensional child poverty is assessed by combining data on child material deprivation with their household income. Using data from the 2018 Korean National Children Survey, we show that child material deprivation is higher (15%) than income poverty (12%). When measured using a combined measure of material deprivation and income, around one in every three children in Korea were found to be either poor or vulnerable to poverty. These findings show that the official monetary poverty measure on its own may understate the percentage of children unable to afford necessities in Korea, as envisioned by international targets like the SDGs. In terms of policy, analysis of individual deprivations suggests that a combination of in-kind benefits such as vouchers for leisure activities or education and asset-building programmes as well as cash transfers are needed for tackling child poverty.

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This article examines the past, present and future of income maintenance schemes in Korea. Historically, income security schemes have been built on the idea of work-centred social insurance supplemented by social assistance. This approach was based on the premise of full employment. While current schemes have achieved institutional completeness and have contributed to alleviating poverty and inequality, they have exhibited limitations in responding to the qualitative shifts of capitalism, leading to welfare blind spots. Various alternatives have been proposed, such as universal basic income (UBI), which aims for equality, and residual Safety Income (SI), which aims for efficiency. The objective of this study is to validate the effects of basic income proposals and SI as alternative income maintenance schemes emerging in Korea. We simulated and compared the poverty alleviation and income redistribution effects of the two alternatives using data from the Survey of Household Finances and Living Conditions (2019~2021). The effects of poverty alleviation and income distribution were determined by analysing the hypothetical changes in absolute and relative poverty rates, as well as the Gini coefficient. The efficiency of benefits was assessed as the ratio of the amount used to reduce the poverty gap out of the total benefit amount. The study found that while SI appeared cost-effective in addressing absolute poverty, UBI was also effective in addressing relative poverty and income inequality.

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Public awareness of social welfare policies, along with their increasing political influence, has led to growing interest in welfare attitudes. However, there has been insufficient consideration of the effects of different cohorts and social exclusion groups on attitudes to welfare in Korean society, as well as the dynamics of these effects. This article specifically examines changes in attitudes to welfare in South Korea with a focus on cohort and social exclusion perspectives. First, the study found that recent attitudes towards redistribution highlight generational perspectives on intergenerational conflict rather than a focus on social exclusion. Second, cohorts associated with democratisation and the information age displayed reluctance towards tax increases but held favourable views regarding redistributive policies and universal welfare. Third, socially excluded groups tended to favour selective welfare and tax increases. Finally, the current elderly generation, represented by the War-industrialisation cohort, exhibited relatively negative attitudes towards the welfare system compared to subsequent generations. These findings underscore the necessity for expanding government policies to enhance welfare understanding and experiences among the post-war generation and socially excluded groups. Additionally, it is crucial to address generational distributional justice and to broaden discussions on solidarity.

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People seeking asylum often have a range of complex social, emotional and economic needs that may be exacerbated by the hostile reception that they often receive. These needs and the stress of navigating asylum systems leave asylum seekers vulnerable to crisis, with refused asylum seekers particularly vulnerable. Even after receiving settled status of some form, barriers to accessing employment or housing and other services remain, as do the impacts of trauma, abuse, and loss sustained in the country of origin, during flight, or during the wait to receive settled status, again leaving refugees vulnerable to crisis. Early action can both have benefits for the individual asylum seeker and reduce the need for costly crisis interventions. This scoping review explores best practice in early action in the voluntary sector, while identifying gaps in the evidence base.

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This article reflects on the recent ‘turn to lived experience’ within academia and the third sector in the UK and discusses some issues arising. It then focuses on ways in which these issues might be addressed – including through a methodology employed by ATD Fourth World, an international human rights-based anti-poverty organisation founded after the Second World War that works in partnership with people affected by poverty. ATD developed the ‘merging of knowledge and practice’ to bring together different kinds of expertise, including that acquired from lived experience, to create a richer form of knowledge and better-informed practice. The article discusses this method and suggests various ways in which the lived experience of poverty can be embedded in public debate, policy and practice. People with experience of poverty can be involved in examining and conveying the many dimensions of that experience; providing training for officials dealing with people in poverty; and designing and evaluating relevant policies.

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Research on disability issues should be done with or by Persons with Disabilities as experts with lived experience. As such, a collaboration that uses participatory methods is significant to ensure Persons with Disabilities can meaningfully participate in research co-production. This chapter shares reflections and takeaways of co-researching with Persons with Disabilities as co-researchers in Indonesia in a post-disaster context through dialogue. The authors met via videoconferencing and had collaborative conversations to reflect on co-researching processes, including expectations, successes, challenges, impacts of co-research, and the learning from using participatory methods. The authors write with six individual voices to emphasise different positionalities and experiences. By using a dialogical approach, the authors seek to demonstrate the dynamics of managing a participatory co-production of research, which entails some complexities in shared decision-making and power relations among collaborators from different backgrounds.

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This chapter narrates the lived experience of the author, a researcher who publicly identifies as a transwoman/transfemme or Thirunangai (Tamil equivalent of transwoman) from Chennai, India. Using an autoethnographic approach, the author acts against the universalisation and homogenisation of sexual and gender diversity and trans and gender diverse lived experience. Estelle first establishes her positionality as related to lived experience-led research and how such approaches can be decolonised and disrupted. Then, she talks about her experiences at different stages of her life and explains her reasons for wanting and choosing to become a researcher on sexual and gender diversity and trans and gender diverse people. Finally, Estelle shares her lived experience as a researcher. She takes a stand on research ethics and the current issues in relation to research on sexual and gender diversity and provides suggestions for researchers who may be interested in pursuing research on these topics.

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How can knowledge based on lived experience dismantle norms in the academy about what counts as expertise and whose perspectives are valued? This book aims to disrupt dominant approaches to researching lived experience and rethink what constitutes knowledge. People with direct experiences of social injustices know the nuances and complexities of their experiences and are best placed to speak about them and contribute expertise on problems and solutions. However, the unique and subjective insights grounded in lived experience-led knowledge are still undervalued. The chapters in this edited collection re-value lived experience as a rich form of knowledge that can lead research, teaching and advocacy efforts towards social justice. The contextual insights in each chapter firmly position lived experience-led scholarship as an ethical and meaningful pathway to decolonise and disrupt dominant approaches. Using diverse methodologies, the authors contribute to reversing the overreliance on the perspectives of privileged scholars and researchers with limited experiences or knowledge of the issues about which they claim to have expertise. The chapters outline culturally safe and trauma-informed approaches to create spaces where experts by experience can exercise agency in social justice-focused initiatives. Rather than claiming a singular ‘truth’ about lived experience-led expertise, the authors take readers along a journey of understanding complexities and messiness to inform ethical and collaborative practices. Collectively, we challenge readers to consider how they value knowledge grounded in lived experiences and how they should engage with lived experience-led research and scholarship.

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