Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 28,061 items for

The Safecity reporting platform, which was launched in December 2012, has been crowdsourcing anonymous stories of sexual and gender-based violence to make visible the under-reported nature of these incidents. With a data set of now 19,000+ reports, it is insightful to study the patterns and trends within the data, based on location, time of day, day of week and so forth. This provides a better understanding of the context in which sexual and gender-based violence occurs and what might contribute to the location being the comfort zone of the perpetrator. Through three case studies, one in New Delhi, India, and another in Mumbai, plus in Nairobi, Kenya, we offer here a deep dive into how the location and the cultural context contributes to sexual and gender-based violence, impacts the opportunity structure afforded women, and influences the kinds of solutions that have worked.

Restricted access
Authors: Cat Morgan and Sarah Hewitt

As society becomes increasingly connected, digital spaces like Twitter have become more important. However, in this same space online abuse, such as ‘negativity, hostility and trolling’, are frequently used to silence women, particularly when discussing and responding to instances of violence against women. Although community trust and safety rules have been updated multiple times, the platform relies on users to report abusive and threatening tweets. It remains unclear why some reports are upheld where others are denied. We argue this is because Twitter has become a socially constructed ‘masculine space’, where most tech employees who enforce the rules are male. This chapter investigates why existing procedures do not work for everyone and how Twitter has created an infrastructure that is toxic to women.

Restricted access

Niger, like its neighbours in the Sahel, has since the early 2010s faced increased violence and insecurity that has captured significant geopolitical attention. Niger’s armed forces are mobilized throughout the country to quell insurgencies, while a number of international forces are present under the auspices of capacity-building missions providing equipment, training, intelligence and other behind-the-scenes activities aimed at empowering the national military and state apparatus to provide protection to citizens. Simultaneously, Niger is populated by international and national non-governmental organizations and United Nations agencies, which play a role in generating discourse and practice around gender-based violence and women’s rights. As military and humanitarian actors with different methods and discourse find themselves sharing the same operating spaces, the resulting dynamic is one of simultaneous NGO-ization, in which (largely international) actors overtake the civil and discursive space for women’s rights; and militarization, which privileges violence and thus restricts the safety and agency of women and girls. This chapter argues that concurrence of these phenomena obstructs women’s participation and is productive of gender-based violence, ultimately contributing to the spiralling fragility of the country.

Restricted access

The sixth and concluding chapter emphasizes the most important findings of the analysis, reflects upon their implications for the role of coups and illustrates their relevance for existing research and future studies. After briefly summarizing the empirical results on the analysis of the three research questions, the significance of these findings for the general role of ROs in the context of coups is discussed. In short, the chapter draws the conclusion that many ROs have successfully claimed a strong and influential role after coups. Yet central challenges, including inter-organizational differences, ambiguous and vague formulations in anti-coup provisions as well as an often opaque and not explicitly discussed mixture of democracy- and stability-related motives to respond to coups continue to impede a more consistent enforcement of the anti-coup norm. As such, ROs have a high potential to deter and combat coups but also face challenges. Finally, the chapter discusses practical and academic implications and points to avenues for future research, which could include analyses on the intra-organizational dynamics of the decision-making processes of ROs after coups and studies on inter-organizational coordination mechanisms.

Restricted access
Author: Emily Nicholls

This chapter explores the ways in which women negotiate, manage – and to a degree accept – gender-based violence (GBV) on a ‘girls’ night out’, drawing on original research conducted with young women in north-east England. With a particular focus on mainstream bar, pub and club spaces where patterns of (hetero)sexualized interaction are normalized and expected, the chapter highlights the spatial dynamics that were apparent in young women’s accounts of risk and safety when clubbing and consuming alcohol with their female friends. Specifically, it identifies a tension in the ways in which women framed GBV; it was simultaneously positioned as pervasive and inevitable (‘everywhere’) and as something that took place in certain ‘risky’ venues and parts of town (‘over there’). In this sense, risk could be imagined as confined to particular ‘rough’ or ‘working-class’ areas in the city centre, yet at the same time, a degree of GBV was regarded as an embedded and normalized part of the entire mainstream nightlife scene. This normalization of GBV across the night-time economy may help to legitimize a broader spectrum of GBV and reinforce the idea that women should both expect and accept it in their daily lives.

Restricted access

The fifth chapter addresses the question why ROs strive for differential post-coup solutions by conducting a comparative case study of four selected cases. First, details on the case selection and methods are provided before presenting the empirical findings. Following the principle of a diverse case design, cases with different post-coup solutions pursued by ROs were chosen. These include a power-sharing agreement (Madagascar in 2009), the formation of a new government through elections (Niger in 2010), the reinstatement of the ousted government (Burkina Faso in 2015) and the acceptance of the coup plotters as new state leaders (Zimbabwe in 2017). Case studies were conducted using inter alia materials and data from official RO statements, speeches, declarations and press interviews from diverse actors, reports by research institutes, NGOs and election observers, as well as newspaper coverage. In all four cases not only the question of whether a leader change was unequivocally identified as a coup, but also democracy- and stability-related factors were decisive in shaping the choice of post-coup solutions by ROs. The findings of the cases studies provide strong empirical support for the theoretical expectation that the choice of post-coup-solutions by ROs is strongly influenced by considerations related to democracy and stability.

Restricted access

The fourth chapter examines the question why some coups are much more likely to evoke strong RO responses such as economic sanctions or military interventions, whereas others are only mildly criticized or evade negative reactions altogether. The results of the statistical analysis show that three groups of factors drive the strength of responses. First, the characteristics of the RO at hand, for instance its democracy level and its financial and military capacities, second, democracy-related aspects of the state affected by a coup and third considerations about domestic and regional stability. Further analyses indicate that irrespective of their composition ROs show noteworthy parallels in their weighing of the importance of these factors. However, there are also interesting and important differences between organizations and regions, with one remarkably exception being the EU. All essential findings are illustrated in a series of tables and graphs and their implications for the role of ROs in the context of coups are discussed in detail.

Restricted access

In this chapter, we outline some Italian feminist reflections and practices relating to the link between urban space and gender-based violence, focusing on the shift from an idea of security towards one of self-determination in public space. In order to map the Italian debate through our theoretical and empirical work, we will sketch out three meaningful dimensions. First, we outline the shift in the literature on women and LGBTQIA+ subjectivities and the city from an understanding of security to self-determination, by redefining the notion of gender-based violence. Then, we will describe certain feminist and transfeminist movements’ activities in urban spaces as an example of self-determination from below. Finally, we will propose some emerging insights from the contemporary pandemic context. By combining the experiences and contributions that we collected, we aim to provide a picture of a feminist city.

Restricted access

Since the 1980s there has been a rapid increase in the available evidence about the prevalence, causes, impacts and responses to gender-based violence (GBV). Despite the explosion of research in this field – and vital contributions from feminist geographers – space and place remain important, yet overlooked, elements of GBV. This edited collection provides an inter- and multidisciplinary international collection of chapters that foregrounds space and place in the analysis of gender-based violence. Contributors examine core questions relating to the role(s) that space and place-based factors might play in facilitating and producing experiences of violence, with attendant implications for prevention and intervention. Contributions to this collection consider how space and place may be productive in the perpetration of gendered violence, as well as shaping how gendered violence is lived and understood by survivors. With an analytic focus spanning the local, national and transnational, this volume brings together diverse perspectives and ways of understanding the interconnections between space, place and gender-based violence.

Restricted access

Since the 1980s there has been a rapid increase in the available evidence about the prevalence, causes, impacts and responses to gender-based violence (GBV). Despite the explosion of research in this field – and vital contributions from feminist geographers – space and place remain important, yet overlooked, elements of GBV. This edited collection provides an inter- and multidisciplinary international collection of chapters that foregrounds space and place in the analysis of gender-based violence. Contributors examine core questions relating to the role(s) that space and place-based factors might play in facilitating and producing experiences of violence, with attendant implications for prevention and intervention. Contributions to this collection consider how space and place may be productive in the perpetration of gendered violence, as well as shaping how gendered violence is lived and understood by survivors. With an analytic focus spanning the local, national and transnational, this volume brings together diverse perspectives and ways of understanding the interconnections between space, place and gender-based violence.

Restricted access