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The Safecity reporting platform, which was launched in December 2012, has been crowdsourcing anonymous stories of sexual and gender-based violence to make visible the under-reported nature of these incidents. With a data set of now 19,000+ reports, it is insightful to study the patterns and trends within the data, based on location, time of day, day of week and so forth. This provides a better understanding of the context in which sexual and gender-based violence occurs and what might contribute to the location being the comfort zone of the perpetrator. Through three case studies, one in New Delhi, India, and another in Mumbai, plus in Nairobi, Kenya, we offer here a deep dive into how the location and the cultural context contributes to sexual and gender-based violence, impacts the opportunity structure afforded women, and influences the kinds of solutions that have worked.

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Authors: Cat Morgan and Sarah Hewitt

As society becomes increasingly connected, digital spaces like Twitter have become more important. However, in this same space online abuse, such as ‘negativity, hostility and trolling’, are frequently used to silence women, particularly when discussing and responding to instances of violence against women. Although community trust and safety rules have been updated multiple times, the platform relies on users to report abusive and threatening tweets. It remains unclear why some reports are upheld where others are denied. We argue this is because Twitter has become a socially constructed ‘masculine space’, where most tech employees who enforce the rules are male. This chapter investigates why existing procedures do not work for everyone and how Twitter has created an infrastructure that is toxic to women.

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Niger, like its neighbours in the Sahel, has since the early 2010s faced increased violence and insecurity that has captured significant geopolitical attention. Niger’s armed forces are mobilized throughout the country to quell insurgencies, while a number of international forces are present under the auspices of capacity-building missions providing equipment, training, intelligence and other behind-the-scenes activities aimed at empowering the national military and state apparatus to provide protection to citizens. Simultaneously, Niger is populated by international and national non-governmental organizations and United Nations agencies, which play a role in generating discourse and practice around gender-based violence and women’s rights. As military and humanitarian actors with different methods and discourse find themselves sharing the same operating spaces, the resulting dynamic is one of simultaneous NGO-ization, in which (largely international) actors overtake the civil and discursive space for women’s rights; and militarization, which privileges violence and thus restricts the safety and agency of women and girls. This chapter argues that concurrence of these phenomena obstructs women’s participation and is productive of gender-based violence, ultimately contributing to the spiralling fragility of the country.

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The Role of Education in Bringing about Contemporary India
Authors: Marie Lall and Kusha Anand

India will soon be the world’s most populated country and its political development will shape the world of the 21st century. Yet Hindu Nationalism – at the helm of contemporary Indian politics – is not well understood outside of India, and its links to the global neoliberal trajectory have not been much explored.

This important book shows for the first time why it is education, not a failed political system, that led to the rise of Modi and the right-wing nationalist ideology of Hindutva. It provides in depth insight into contemporary Indian politics and wider societal acceptance of India’s Hindu nationalist trajectory, as well as examining the role of class.

The first five years of Modi rule failed to bring about the development that had been promised and have seen India’s rapid change from a largely inclusive society to one where minorities are denied their basic rights.

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The sixth and concluding chapter emphasizes the most important findings of the analysis, reflects upon their implications for the role of coups and illustrates their relevance for existing research and future studies. After briefly summarizing the empirical results on the analysis of the three research questions, the significance of these findings for the general role of ROs in the context of coups is discussed. In short, the chapter draws the conclusion that many ROs have successfully claimed a strong and influential role after coups. Yet central challenges, including inter-organizational differences, ambiguous and vague formulations in anti-coup provisions as well as an often opaque and not explicitly discussed mixture of democracy- and stability-related motives to respond to coups continue to impede a more consistent enforcement of the anti-coup norm. As such, ROs have a high potential to deter and combat coups but also face challenges. Finally, the chapter discusses practical and academic implications and points to avenues for future research, which could include analyses on the intra-organizational dynamics of the decision-making processes of ROs after coups and studies on inter-organizational coordination mechanisms.

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Authors: Marie Lall and Kusha Anand

India will soon be the world’s most populated country and its political development will shape the world of the 21st century. Yet Hindu Nationalism – at the helm of contemporary Indian politics – is not well understood outside of India, and its links to the global neoliberal trajectory have not been much explored. This important book provides in depth insight into contemporary Indian politics and wider societal acceptance of India’s Hindu nationalist trajectory. The authors show how education was the vehicle that linked neoliberalism with Hindu nationalism and allowed to it permeate through Indian society. Eight years of Modi rule have failed to bring about the development that had been promised yet they have seen India’s rapid change from a largely inclusive society to one where minorities are denied their basic rights.

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Authors: Marie Lall and Kusha Anand

India will soon be the world’s most populated country and its political development will shape the world of the 21st century. Yet Hindu Nationalism – at the helm of contemporary Indian politics – is not well understood outside of India, and its links to the global neoliberal trajectory have not been much explored. This important book provides in depth insight into contemporary Indian politics and wider societal acceptance of India’s Hindu nationalist trajectory. The authors show how education was the vehicle that linked neoliberalism with Hindu nationalism and allowed to it permeate through Indian society. Eight years of Modi rule have failed to bring about the development that had been promised yet they have seen India’s rapid change from a largely inclusive society to one where minorities are denied their basic rights.

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Authors: Marie Lall and Kusha Anand

The changes described in Chapters 1 to 6 indicate how Indian society has been transformed both in terms of its political outlook, with Hindu nationalism taking centre stage, as well as in its economic trajectory – led by neoliberal policies. Education reforms across schools, universities, and teacher training have been embedded through new school textbooks, new courses, and new teaching approaches. Ordinary popular views of Muslims have changed, as illustrated in Chapter 1 by the support for the Ghar Whapsi campaign and the cow slaughter ban. There also seems to have been a resultant normalization of Islamophobia, with a negative characterization of Muslims in the mainstream public domain. This chapter engages with the question of Indian citizenship and how it has been altered in light of the government’s neoliberal Hindutva trajectory over the last two decades. It looks at the rising Islamophobia across society before engaging with four recent cases of changes in Indian citizenship that show how the neoliberal Hindutva approach has become mainstream: Kashmir’s changed status, the National Register of Citizens in Assam, the Citizenship Amendment Act (and how the Delhi protests were dealt with), and the farmers’ protest movement.

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Authors: Marie Lall and Kusha Anand

The Epilogue updates the volume shortly before publication, engaging with the effects of COVID-19 on both the central government as well as state elections, such as those held in May 2021 in Assam, Karnataka, Bengal, and Tamil Nadu, and engages with the question whether COVID-19 has weakened Modi’s grip on power.

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Author: Emily Nicholls

This chapter explores the ways in which women negotiate, manage – and to a degree accept – gender-based violence (GBV) on a ‘girls’ night out’, drawing on original research conducted with young women in north-east England. With a particular focus on mainstream bar, pub and club spaces where patterns of (hetero)sexualized interaction are normalized and expected, the chapter highlights the spatial dynamics that were apparent in young women’s accounts of risk and safety when clubbing and consuming alcohol with their female friends. Specifically, it identifies a tension in the ways in which women framed GBV; it was simultaneously positioned as pervasive and inevitable (‘everywhere’) and as something that took place in certain ‘risky’ venues and parts of town (‘over there’). In this sense, risk could be imagined as confined to particular ‘rough’ or ‘working-class’ areas in the city centre, yet at the same time, a degree of GBV was regarded as an embedded and normalized part of the entire mainstream nightlife scene. This normalization of GBV across the night-time economy may help to legitimize a broader spectrum of GBV and reinforce the idea that women should both expect and accept it in their daily lives.

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