Sex trafficking is a current, severe and intense global phenomenon. Many studies have made substantial efforts to map the routes and relations between countries of origin, transit, destination, and the methods of recruitment and retention. With a focus on the role of social relationships, for this article, we conducted a literature review using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) to provide further scientific evidence of the elements and processes that push victims – primarily women and girls – into sex trafficking. The findings show that family, intimate relationships, friendships and acquaintances play a critical role in the pre-entry period before sex trafficking. Among these, family violence, abandonment and abuse emerge as severe risk factors, as well as the role of fraudulent intimate relationships. We also include additional social and individual risk factors that, together with the role of family and social relationships, have impacts on potential victims, increasing the likelihood of sex trafficking.
Ultimately, consumption drives the global economy and high levels of consumption among the wealthiest fraction of the population are responsible for a disproportionate amount of carbon emissions. Many experiences that motivate overconsumption include the pursuit of fun, a term that cuts across other conventional categories like pleasure, entertainment, leisure and play. This article surveys the scattered literature on fun and finds the concept useful in framing issues of overconsumption. Consumer capitalism is constantly finding and marketing new ways of having fun. I suggest that we should carefully assess the potential of particular kinds of fun to increase or reduce carbon emissions and use social and policy measures to discourage one and promote the other.
Facing the growing emergency of changing consumption patterns to address the environmental crisis, many scholars have been studying individual behavioural change. Acknowledging that consumption is not just an individual choice but a social practice – embedded in socioeconomic, material, affective and cultural configurations – recent work has broadened the understanding of how to address sustainable consumption. Even though sustainability issues are fundamentally time-bound, time is seldom conceptualised as a substantive element. This article aims to contribute to this debate by raising the importance of time understandings to address (un)sustainable consumption. In the first part of this article the idea that the dominant economic system has pervaded our imaginaries, our behaviours and interactions, including how we see and experience time, is discussed, drawing mainly on degrowth scholars. The main understandings of time that stem from the assumption that ‘time is money’ are highlighted through the metaphors of the clock, the arrow and the target. Drawing on a qualitative fieldwork carried out in Ireland in spring 2021 among people engaged in sustainable practices, three alternative understandings of time – the cycle, the flow and the link – are then brought forward and discussed. It is argued that these different time understandings are performative in that they open up opportunities for more sustainable consumption and that we should aim at a pluriversal understanding of time that could foster the evolution of social organisation and institutions, towards non-capitalist goals such as wellbeing and environmental preservation.
This is a commentary on ‘Care and consumption’ (). I offer my commentary to push some of the author’s points a bit further.
This study investigates how affects – uncontrollable feelings that tacitly influence humans – transform, rather than reify, intergroup relations. Taking immigrant families as a case in point, we explore the role of circulating identity-affects in shaping ethnoclass identifications and boundaries over time. Proceeding from the prevailing (Jewish-sector) identity discourse in Israel, where ethnic categories (Ashkenazi vs. Mizrahi) still frame a major culture-class divide, we analyse the affects produced by those who are regarded as the mainstream – the Ashkenazim. Given the common identification of Ashkenazi immigrants, including those of lower and lower-middle class, with the Israeli ruling class, their gradual acculturation experience and social ascent have been under-researched. Addressing this lacuna, we examine these families’ changing emotion discourse from an intergenerational perspective, to uncover phases of their integration. The analysis is based on 53 interviews with individuals in three generations of Ashkenazi families (the first generation arrived after the Second World War). Using nuanced discourse and conversation analysis, we trace changing affective patterns in these individuals’ emotion talk, corresponding with their upward mobility. Two conflicting affects shape Ashkenazi identities from the second generation onwards: counteracting the first generation’s tacit racism, coupled with intensifying class elitism towards the Mizrahim. Ethnoclass boundaries persist, yet not as a static, seemingly ‘natural’ inter-ethnic animosity. Rather, they are constructed and reconstructed through the interplay between transforming affects, conducive to the different generations’ identity and status formation as native Israelis and middle-class members.
In this article, we explore the emotionally reflexive processes by which some women build maternal futures in the unsettling context of climate change, aiming to contribute to a better understanding of reproductive (and other) future building as aided by emotions. We analyse the online testimonies of an organisation that raises awareness about the interrelationship between climate change and reproductive decision making. The findings illustrate how women’s consideration of possible futures is relational, guided by their feelings and what they know or imagine to be the feelings of their families, the wider society and future generations. This is important for interrogating how climate change might unsettle dominant maternal and familial practices but extend understandings of connection. We position cohabitability as a possible foundation for reproductive decision making but find this possibility unfulfilled. Rather, maternal future building more commonly reinforces individualised and gendered responsibility for the planet’s future.