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Studies show that the number of illegal wolf theriocides in Poland is significant and increasing. According to research, between 2002 and 2020 there were 91 cases of killings. On the other hand, between 1922 and 2022 we were able to identify only nine rulings related to the wolf crimes. It should be noticed that this situation is not justified by the official state approach to killing wolves in Poland. These animals have been a strictly protected species ever since 1998 and since then there has been no issuing of state licences for general population reduction. The chapter focuses on the social and legal factors influencing the effectiveness of combating the illegal killing of wolves in Poland. Our main argument is that these factors are, at the same time, the greatest problems for law enforcement authorities to effectively counteract the illegal wolf theriocides, especially when it comes to not only anthropogenic but also financial approaches in criminal law.

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Collectively, dissection photographs demonstrate a pervasive attribute of aberration that breeds frequent visual and cultural misunderstandings over the color and tonal value of a cadaver’s skin. For example, during the era of the dissection photograph, red was recorded by the camera as near black. Thus, using the cadaver’s photographic appearance as the sole means of determining a cadaver’s race is a method replete with error and misconception. Complications are compounded once we include additional variables, such as improper embalming techniques, or the body’s natural processes of decomposition. This chapter explores how photography is not an entirely truthful medium, and why caution should be taken when using extant dissection photographs as a reliable witness of racist acts toward communities of color in the dissecting room.

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Media and political attention relating to people seeking asylum has increased, particularly during the lead up to and now in the aftermath of Brexit. Practitioners are faced with the challenge of providing services to meet the needs of a more culturally plural service user group. This chapter deals with critical practice with children and families seeking refuge or having refugee status in the UK because of major threats to their welfare and lives in their countries of origin. It emphasises anti-oppressive care rather than control and reminds practitioners of the universal needs of children and families, including speaking out against the violation of human rights and thereby staying true to principles of social justice and service to humanity.

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This concluding chapter reinforces and build on a key message of the book: the relevance and value of theory to the practice of social policy as well as to the study of it. To do this it explores how theory can be used to understand and analyse the recent COVID-19 pandemic. It then looks at the relationship between theory and the pursuit of social change. The chapter concludes with an exploration of the theorisation of hope and its place within social policy analysis and work.

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This chapter discusses visualizing student life and dissecting room culture during a period of climactic upheaval in the photographic industry: the introduction of amateur handheld cameras. It focuses on the formation of student identity by way of single dissector snapshots. Until the 1890s, photographically commemorating a one-on-one relationship between student and cadaver was virtually unheard of. Moreover, handheld cameras led to an increase in representative agency; providing the next level of self-representation and self-awareness – critical awareness – which provided students with an opportunity to pass judgment on each other, in part, through the quality of their skills taking and developing photographs. By the early 1910s, the commercial availability of camera technology, such as those manufactured by Eastman Kodak, influenced both ability and convention, leading to a steady rise in single-dissector portraiture. Many took the form of real photo postcards. Although the convention never reached the same level of production as group shots by the genre’s ‘end’ in the 1930s, single-dissector snapshots had become fully integrated into the larger genre’s iconography.

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This chapter highlights how practice with children and families, where there might be child welfare/safety concerns, has become more proceduralised and bureaucratised, with monitoring and surveillance often dominating rather than genuine help and support. It is a move from a concern with therapy and welfare to surveillance and control and involves completing bureaucracy speedily rather than relationship building. Such comments equally apply to the recent emergence of contextual safeguarding of children and young people beyond the family home. Nevertheless, critical social work possibilities remain in the form of ‘critical child protection’, a humane practice with children and families which addresses issues such as poverty and inequality which impinge on parenting.

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The precariousness of children and families’ lives associated with the neoliberal world means that practice with children in need and those with mental health issues faces considerable challenges. Practice with the former, in effect preventative social work, is increasingly less in evidence than it once was, while children with mental health issues have and are facing the brunt of austerity cuts to Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services. However, this is precisely why critical social work is much needed in both areas. Such practice involves being continually alert to, and attempting to counteract, the influence of wider socio–economic factors effecting children and families by, for example, utilising empowerment and advocacy strategies.

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This chapter contributes to the debate on CITES with a reflection on its adaptability to the new vision adopted by its States Parties, which calls to ‘[c]onserve biodiversity and contribute to its sustainable use by ensuring that no species of wild fauna or flora is or remains subject to unsustainable exploitation through international trade’. Attempts to update CITES have been the source of interesting reforms in Spain, including the restructuring of CITES authorities and the adoption of a national plan that developed the EU Action Plan on Wildlife Trafficking. CITES implementation and case law in Spain shows that it is necessary to adapt to the new challenges posed by wildlife trafficking in the digital world. Thus, the introduction of digital permits and means of traceability will facilitate law enforcement and international cooperation. Spain has also adopted an exemplary practice regarding the destination of seized live animals, based on recovery and reintroduction that goes beyond CITES recommendations.

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This chapter explores the concept of citizenship, which has been central to key social policy debates. It also introduces two concepts related to citizenship: community and human rights. As citizenship is closely connected to membership of a community, this chapter also explores the concept of community itself as well as the meaning of membership. The chapter also discusses citizenship rights, together with human rights and the notion of citizenship as an ideal.

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This book provides an introduction to the key theories and concepts that are important in the study of social policy. It fleshes these out with insight from contemporary events, drawing on examples to show how theory matters and helps us in understanding everyday life. This updated second edition includes a new chapter, which explores disability, environmentalism and sexuality.

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