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  • New Horizons in Criminology x
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Through an examination of idols and icons this chapter continues the discussion of making real and actualizing the virtual through overcoming metaphysical violence

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This chapter takes a phenomenological approach to understanding Girard’s theory of mimetic desire and the function of the scapegoat mechanism in relation to criminal justice

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You know how it is. You go to write something, a letter, an essay, an article, a book, or you start working with a new and challenging service user. In your mind, you are clear what you are doing, you are excited having glimpsed the possibilities to do good work. Waking up of a morning your crepuscular semi-conscious state has made wonderful connections, you glimpse ‘the thing in itself’ its haecceity, you are up for the challenge. You go to work, make that cup of coffee, sit down with a blank piece of paper or computer screen, talk to colleagues, meet the service users, but then it’s gone! You seem to be dragged in by the complexity of the challenges, with the connections not quite so vivid or obvious – the enargeia is dissipated. Why is this? In part because the reductionist and calculating mind, in needing to try to make sense of the intuition, its content, presentation and acceptability to others, loses the whole picture. This is not helped by working in bureaucratized neoliberal institutions (including universities), where your work is shaped and performance managed, subjected to endless reviews, the demands of file keeping, and supervision. The risk is that despite the importance of the work and our own motivation, as with Brideshead Revisited and Charles Ryder’s sojourn with the army, we are stripped of all enchantment (Waugh, 1964).

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This chapter identifies forgiveness as the starting point of redemption rather than an end point. Forgiveness is the suspension of judgement, which enables the spaces of possibilities where new possibilities can be discussed and energies appropriated.

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This chapter argues that through forgiveness we provide the other with the possibility to engage and repent. This gift is based on embracing the other as other and embodying the difference.

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This chapter argues for accepting the individual person as they are, in and of themself through poiesis. Poiesis is the apprehension of the other without seeking causality or judgement. In moving away from causal and reductionist thought spaces of possibility emerge that make creative thought and actions possible.

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This chapter introduces the key themes of the book and articulates the approach taken to redemption, positioning the authors within the tradition of peacemaking criminology. A contrast between redemptive and non-redemptive criminology is outlined

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Drawing on criminology, philosophy and theology, this text develops a theory of ‘redemptive criminology’ for practice in criminal justice settings. The therapeutic impulse for the text is a focus on the individual practitioner’s ability to embrace difference with the other, to resist harsh penal measures and to bring about change from ‘the bottom up’.

By challenging concepts and practices of rehabilitation, the authors argue for the possibility of redemption and for forgiveness as the starting point. Using real-life examples and an interpretative approach, it explores the connections between victims, perpetrators and the community. The text articulates challenges for the justice system and offers new insights into punishment and retribution.

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In the light of Dietrich Bonhoeffer’s New Theology this chapter explores being-for-others, speaking truth from the heart in overcoming both our own and the violence of others.

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Author: Bill McClanahan

Of all of the social problems associated with crime and justice, perhaps none occupies space on the registers of visual culture like the problem of drugs. Long a central site and locus of criminological inquiry, drugs and the related issues they give rise to have always been essential characters in the drama of crime and justice, and those dramas largely play themselves out in the field of the visual image. From the menacing image of the crazed marijuana user immortalized in the film Reefer Madness (1936) to contemporary visual productions like popular ‘Faces of Meth’ campaigns, drug trends and associated issues and problems are constructed and communicated, reified, and even fabricated and cut from the whole cloth of the visual. The visual world(s) of drugs is also perhaps the best and most salient available example to illustrate the sort of flexibility and ‘unfixedness’ of images and aesthetics, the way that images and visual cultures have their meanings negotiated by the social processes that constitute the practice of seeing.

This chapter surveys the various ways in which drugs are given life and meaning in the visual registers of crime and culture, what might be learned or uncovered from those meanings, and the various—and, in the case of drugs, considerable—moments in which an explicitly visual criminology has already begun to engage with the specter of drugs. Among the most immediately relevant dimensions of drugs in visual culture, for a visual criminology, are important questions of ethics, representation, framing, power, and meaning, and so those are the questions to which we now turn.

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