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With the emphasis on children’s responsibility for the care of ageing parents, this study examined how Chinese adult children’s support provided to parents was associated with filial piety, support from parents and parent-child contact frequency. With the 2006 Chinese General Social Survey, we used structural equation modelling with 1,452 adults with two living parents and tested the model for sons and daughters separately. For both groups, the results showed that (1) filial piety was positively associated with emotional support provided to parents; (2) support received from parents was positively related to instrumental and emotional support to parents; and (3) parent-child contact frequency was linked to instrumental support. For adult daughters, financial support was positively associated with the support received from parents and negatively related to parent-child contact frequency. This study suggests that the traditional norm of filial piety may be less influential than other factors for adult children’s support behaviour.

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Author: Laurence Godin

In this article, I argue that care is a useful tool to think about consumption as embedded in social relations within and outside the market, and draw the consequences for moving towards sustainable lifestyles. To do so, I engage in a review of the literature that brings together consumption and care in its various forms. I review three main bodies of work: the literature on consumption that links care to consumer behaviour and consumption practices; the work addressing the commodifications of care and how it feeds in the neoliberal organisation of society; and the literature on climate change and the development of sustainable lifestyles. I close with a reflection on some lessons of care for academic researchers studying sustainability, consumption and a transition towards more sustainable and just societies.

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Author: Manuela Beyer

This article explores the interrelations between gender and fear, based on the hypothesis of sexual fear being produced as a feminised emotion in discourse. Empirical analyses of historically contingent constructions of sexual fears from 1961–2021 in the advice pages of the popular German youth magazine Bravo show how fear has been produced as a central technique governing feminine sexuality, by far surmounting the importance of either feminine love or desire. The results point to historically specific constructions of feminised sexual dangers, developing from premarital pregnancy in the 1960s, emotional suffering because of premature coitus in the 1980s and 1990s, to digitalised sexual practices in the 21st century. Feminised constructions of sexual risks and fears render feminine subjects as passive, vulnerable and in need of protection while simultaneously producing masculine subjects as actively sex seeking and potentially dangerous. The results also indicate that discursive delegitimisation of feminine sexual fear may equally contribute to re-establishing sexual inequality by pressuring girls to be sexually available. I argue, therefore, that it is not sufficient to analyse constructions of gendered subjects as being either fearful or fearless. Instead, the reconstruction of discursive model practices governing subjects to manage sexual fears is key to disentangling the complex nexus of gender and fear. The investigation of historical transformations of sexual fear discourses contributes to tracing both dynamics and continuities in gendered power relations, thereby illustrating the central role of fear in classic sociological research themes of inequality and power relations.

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Laurence Godin’s () piece is a very welcome and commendable attempt to provide a broader synthetisation of the current literature on care and consumption, and to generate some critical insights for future work in this area. I am drawing on Godin’s article to make some further observations. These are three-fold, pertaining to our current understandings of care, markets and consumption respectively.

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Authors: Mariana Pinho and Ruth Gaunt

This study draws on identity theory to explore parental and work-related identities by comparing primary caregivers and breadwinners. It examined how the salience and centrality of identities vary by gender and family role, and the relationships between identities and individuals’ involvement in paid work and childcare. A sample of 236 parents with young children completed extensive questionnaires. As hypothesised, primary breadwinners had more salient and central work identities than primary caregivers. However, there was no difference in parental identities, and within each role category, women had more salient and central work identities than men. Finally, the salience and centrality of parents’ work-related identities were positively related to time investment in paid work and negatively related to hours of childcare. These findings shed light on the complex relationships between family roles, gender and identities and emphasise the importance of distinguishing between identity salience and centrality as two components of self-structure.

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Author: Chizu Sato

This is a commentary on ‘Care and consumption’ (). I offer my commentary to push some of the author’s points a bit further.

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The chapter investigates how the historical intertwinement between colonialism, corporate interests and policing is mirrored in the current ways that Europe attempts to control migration from West Africa. It first considers the role of public-private relationships and surveillance during and in the aftermath of French colonization. Building on this, it goes on to explore the case of Civipol, an agency specializing in the capacity-building of African countries’ internal security co-owned by the French state and major European security companies, which has gained a prominent role as a main implementing partner of EU funds to control migration. Looking especially at Civipol’s engagement in the building of national civil registries, it is argued that colonial continuities can be traced in present mobility policing, and that corporate interests co-shape the securitization of Europe’s relations with Africa.

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This chapter considers the themes of expulsion and colonization within the Ottoman immigration story. The Ottoman Empire does not figure prominently in histories of empire and colonization, yet it offers a specific context to pose questions about forced migrants as tools in empire-building. The empire’s tenuous sovereignty in the 19th and early 20th centuries influenced patterns of inclusion and exclusion and affected how the state used migrants in its state-building efforts over time. The chapter concludes by considering what, if anything, is relevant in the Ottoman colonization story to Turkey’s treatment of Syrian refugees in the 21st century. In keeping with the insights of this volume, the chapter suggests that historicizing the present reveals patterns of exclusion, assimilation, and expulsion across regimes and through time.

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In this concluding chapter we draw together insights from the whole collection. We identify seven cross cutting themes across the chapters: the enduring power of ideas of race and racial hierarchy in responses to forced migration; postcolonial states managing mobile populations in their own interests; states seeking to spatially organize populations along modern/colonial lines; the role of private companies and non-state actors; the role of technologies for surveillance, categorization, and control; and finally the fraught politics of sanctuary and hospitality. Drawing on these contributions as well as taking a step back, our final words sketch out a research agenda to further explore what postcolonial perspectives can bring to forced migration and refugee scholarship, an agenda that seeks to consolidate the emerging literature on postcolonial approaches to forced migration so that its insights come to inform critical migration studies more broadly.

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Author: Lina Ewert

This chapter seeks to examine the social impact of surveillance humanitarianism, using the UNHCR’s biometrically induced governing of Syrian urban refugees in Jordan as a case. Drawing on interviews conducted with Syrians in 2018 in Jordan, it sheds light on how Syrians perceive the introduction of iris scans and centralized databases for identification/authentication into aid distribution. The chapter critically engages with the refugee agency’s claim of progress and improvement by contextualizing it as surveillance culture and contrasting it with the lived experiences and imaginaries about the power of new technologies on the side of refugees. The chapter shows that the practice of humanitarian surveillance is highly ambiguous, contributing both to partial empowerment of urban refugees as well as to their potential exposure to new perils and old power asymmetries and relations of extracted value from data about already marginalized groups. It argues that the governance techniques visible in forced migration and population control have long colonial and historical roots, and their emergence and operation are deeply entwined with capitalist political economy.

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