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Internationally, many care-recipients and unpaid carers are not receiving the services they need to live full and independent lives, representing substantial social injustice. We explored unmet need and inequalities in receipt of long-term care services in England. Methods comprised in-depth interviews and secondary analysis of UK Household Longitudinal Study dyad data from 2017/2019. We found widespread unmet need for services overall and inequalities by sex, ethnicity, income, and area deprivation. Aspects of long-term care policy, service delivery, people’s material resources, and constrained and unconstrained choice all played a role.

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How is life in social isolation seen from the viewpoint of people who experience persistent poverty? Given the systemic denial of self-representational agency from those living in poverty and the neoliberalisation of the welfare state, this article turns to those who remained invisible to either the media or the state during the pandemic. In line with current tendencies to prioritise the voice and lived knowledge of people in poverty, we provided our interlocutors with a specifically designed diary tool to allow them to share their mundane experiences and thoughts at their own discretion. Using these diaries of women and men in poverty, and complementary interviews, this article unpacks the ways our participants deal with and understand their everyday relationships with the absent state, mostly welfare and education. Based on the themes that emerged from our interlocutors’ journals, our findings reveal the Janus-faced abandoning/monitoring state that they routinely confront. We then demonstrate how they are constantly chasing the state, struggling to receive the support they lawfully deserve. At the same time, being subjected to practices of state monitoring and surveillance often results not only in mistrust but also in withdrawing almost altogether from the welfare services and social workers, and turning to alternative support networks. We conclude by offering two insights that accentuate, on the one hand, what we and our diarists already know, namely that they count for nothing. Still, on the other hand, the act of self-documentation itself reveals the representational agency of those brave diarists who refuse to forsake their worthiness as citizens.

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Author: Matthew Cooper

Support for the unemployed in the UK has become increasingly conditional. This included enforced unpaid work, Mandatory Work Activity (MWA). This was sold as an innovative feature of ‘twenty-first century welfare’ by the 2010–15 government; however, it actually represented the restoration of older techniques of government. This article, compares MWA with enforced work regimes from the last days of the Poor Law in the 1930s. It highlights similarities between both regimes but also significant differences: in the 1930s different claimant groups were subject to different coercions, whereas in the MWA regime, claimants were treated as a homogenous category in need of discipline.

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Authors: Ben Colliver and Jane Healy

This chapter draws together some of the common themes and areas of crossover produced by the individual contributors. The chapter reflects on some of the key issues identified throughout the book that warrant further investigation, utilizing an intersectional framework to enhance our understanding of such relevant topics. The aim is to centre criminological and Criminal Justice research that is conducted and analysed intersectionally, work that often remains on the margins of criminology in the United Kingdom. This chapter reflects on some of the core tenets of intersectionality and how these have manifested within individual chapters. These chapters are situated within issues of social inequality, social context and social justice. This chapter highlights the lack of intersectional, criminological research in the United Kingdom and calls for further intersectional work to be conducted.

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Examining the Boundaries of Intersectionality and Crime
Editors: Jane Healy and Ben Colliver

This is the first collection dedicated to the use of intersectionality as theory, framework and methodology in criminological research.

It draws together contemporary British research to demonstrate the value of intersectionality theory in both familiar and innovative applications, including race, gender, class, disability, sexual orientation and age. Experts explore a range of experiences relating to harm, hate crimes and offending, and demonstrate the impacts of oppression on complex personal identities that do not fit neatly in homogenised communites.

Challenging conventional perspectives, it positions intersectionality firmly into the mainstream of criminology.

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This edited collection showcases contemporary criminological studies that utilize intersectional frameworks. The collection highlights the utility of the concept of intersectionality and also addresses the current gap in literature on applying intersectionality to contemporary criminological studies in particular. Criminology as a discipline has been slow to employ the application of intersectionality to research, analysis and theory, and yet these chapters demonstrate the contribution it makes to our understanding of victims, perpetrators and social structures. It is at the forefront of feminist studies and this collection offers the opportunity for a long-overdue recognition of it within criminology. This edited collection therefore addresses a topical issue and serves as a strong reminder and evidence that identities cannot be reduced and understood along a single axis.

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This edited collection showcases contemporary criminological studies that utilize intersectional frameworks. The collection highlights the utility of the concept of intersectionality and also addresses the current gap in literature on applying intersectionality to contemporary criminological studies in particular. Criminology as a discipline has been slow to employ the application of intersectionality to research, analysis and theory, and yet these chapters demonstrate the contribution it makes to our understanding of victims, perpetrators and social structures. It is at the forefront of feminist studies and this collection offers the opportunity for a long-overdue recognition of it within criminology. This edited collection therefore addresses a topical issue and serves as a strong reminder and evidence that identities cannot be reduced and understood along a single axis.

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Authors: Katie McBride and Zoë James

This chapter examines experiences of hate within neoliberal capitalism through the lens of the critical hate studies perspective. In acknowledging the messy nature of overlapping and multiple identities integral to the formation of the self, intersectionality provides the capacity to explore lived experiences that extend beyond the assumptions bound up within narrow conceptualizations of identity and uniformity of experience within a given category. The chapter draws upon two distinct in-depth, qualitative research projects with Gypsies and Travellers, and with Trans people. Through an appreciation of the intersectional nature of individuals’ identities, this chapter illuminates how contemporary neoliberal capitalism has co-opted oversimplified ideas of one-dimensional identities to the detriment of a full appreciation of the lived realities of victimization and harm, and has therefore both obfuscated attempts at appropriate and effective responses to the issue and been the cause of further harms in and of itself.

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Author: James Pickles

There are a variety of complex ways that violence directed towards identity manifests. Ray (2018) argues that violence takes many forms that include collective violence, self-directed violence, interpersonal violence and structural violence. Indeed, it is so entwined with the social world that it appears to be part of the human condition. This conceptual chapter conceives all forms of identity-based violence as belonging to a structure of oppression and marginalization that those targeted navigate as an everyday process. The trauma of such violence on those who are victimized – specifically for the identities they hold and present – is experienced intersectionally based on their social location. For instance, feminist developments have long argued that violence against women and girls is a tool of patriarchal oppression experienced across gendered, racial and class lines (Crenshaw, 1991). While victimological and criminological discourse has posited the nature of violence per se, few have theorized the nature of healing from such violence. Indeed, De La Rue and Ortega (2019) argue that women of colour are often more likely to be blamed for their victimization than white women as they are less likely to fit into the ideal victim model (Christie, 1986). Thus, in order to heal, one must consider the multiple layers of trauma and marginalization that both victims and perpetrators of crime must navigate. This chapter examines the nature of violence enacted against identity through an intersectional lens. The historical and contemporary traumas associated with identity-based violence are then explored, and by so doing this contributes to criminological debates on social harm and identity. It is argued that intersectional healing is gained through self and communal love, which can help marginalized people move towards personal and social justice.

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Author: Ben Colliver

Issues around gender identity have gained increasing prominence in the United Kingdom within academia, politics and social life. Transgender people have become the focal point of ‘debates’ surrounding ‘sex-based rights’ vs ‘gender-based rights’. Criminology has been slow to respond to the experiences of transgender people in relation to hate crime and discrimination, and has been overshadowed by issues relating to race, religion and faith, and sexuality. Possessing multiple, marginalized identities not only impacts upon transgender people’s experiences of hate and discrimination, but it also has material consequences for what social spaces and support services people can offer. This chapter provides an analysis of transgender people’s experiences of hate, discrimination and prejudice through an intersectional lens. The analysis presented in this chapter highlights how identity characteristics are imposed on transgender people as their ‘master identity’ within the context of different social spaces. As such, it is demonstrated how transgender people may be seen firstly as transgender and secondly as religious in particular contexts, but religious first and transgender as second in other. This will highlight the complex challenges that transgender people face when experiencing hate, but also in relation to accessing support and establishing a sense of ‘community’ and ‘belonging’.

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