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  • Goal 10: Reduced Inequalities x
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This chapter exposes how an employer’s use of automated job candidate screening technologies (algorithms and artificial intelligence) creates risks of discrimination based on class and social background. This includes risks of ‘social origin’ discrimination in Australian and South African law. The chapter examines three recruitment tools: (1) contextual recruitment systems (CRS); (2) Hiretech such as Asynchronous Video Interviewing (AVI); and (3) gamification.

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This chapter provides the foundation knowledge needed to understand discrimination based on class and social background, and subsequent chapters of this book. It provides readers with: an overview of leading class theories, including those of Marx, Weber, Bourdieu, and Durkheim; a discussion of social psychology and discrimination; an analysis of class in Australia, South Africa and Canada; and an explanation of discrimination law concepts, including intersectionality.

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Mapping Inequality in the Digital Age
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This book exposes how inequalities based on class and social background arise from employment practices in the digital age. It considers instances where social media is used in hiring to infiltrate private lives and hide job advertisements based on locality; where algorithms assess socio-economic data to filter candidates; where human interviewers are replaced by artificial intelligence with design that disadvantages users of classed language; and where already vulnerable groups become victims of digitalisation and remote work.

The author examines whether these practices create risks of discrimination based on certain protected attributes, including "social origin" in international labour law and laws in Australia and South Africa, "social condition" and "family status" in laws within Canada, and others. The book proposes essential law reform and improvements to workplace policy.

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This chapter examines policy options for employers which may make future workplaces fairer and more equitable. In particular, it considers how the use of CV de-identification or blind recruitment, bias training (with certain qualifications), targeted job advertisements and other strategies may help to enhance socio-economic diversity in workplaces. It also considers how these strategies can be used as alternatives to the existing use of certain recruitment algorithms and artificial intelligence by employers.

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This chapter maps the legal landscape in Australia, South Africa, Canada and New Zealand, to investigate whether and the extent to which the law in each country prohibits discrimination based on class and/or social background. It finds that whilst ‘class’ and ‘social background’ are not explicitly listed in legislation as grounds of discrimination, the law in each of these jurisdictions lists other grounds of discrimination which include, or reflect, class and/or factors that go to social background. This chapter analyses the law and legal framework in a number of jurisdictions, including: Australia concerning adverse action and termination of employment based on ‘social origin’, and, discrimination based on ‘social origin’; South Africa concerning discrimination based on ‘social origin’; Quebec, New Brunswick and the Northwest Territories concerning discrimination based on ‘social condition’; Canada and various Canadian provinces concerning discrimination based on ‘family status’; and New Zealand concerning discrimination based on ‘family status’.

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This chapter exposes how the rise of platform work (for example, gig work) and the post-pandemic shift to remote work/hybrid work creates disadvantages for already vulnerable workers. The chapter considers how these workers may face disadvantages or discrimination based on their class and/or social background. Intersectionality is also examined.

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This chapter exposes how an employer’s use of social media creates risks of discrimination based on class and social background. This includes risks of ‘social origin’ discrimination in Australian and South African law, risks of ‘family status’ discrimination in Canadian and New Zealand law, and risks of discrimination based on other protected attributes. The chapter examines three practices: (1) cybervetting; (2) job advertisement targeting; and (3) terminating an employee’s employment for social media posts.

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This chapter unravels the concept of ‘social origin’ discrimination in conventions of the International Labour Organization (ILO). It analyses the reports of ILO supervisory bodies and preparatory works (travaux préparatoires) to aid the interpretation of convention text. It also analyses rules of statutory interpretation in Australia and South Africa to explain the relevance of ILO jurisprudence to interpreting ‘social origin’ in domestic legislation.

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In an era where there is a crucial need to identify long-term solutions to sustainable development, global change, and challenges across the world, there is a strategic lead that science, technology, and innovation-focused organisations in Africa (including government, universities, and research and development departments of industries) can take to develop homegrown policies and initiatives to allow Africans themselves to provide solutions to their own particular needs and challenges. The communication of science using language constructs and systems that cut across the triple helix of academia, industry, and government is a fundamental component of that transformational and decolonised landscape for public engagement. However, there is an underlying pressure on researchers in Africa to communicate science in specific ways that align with the expectations and frameworks set by research funders and proponents of internationalisation in the Global North. This opens up a conversation that justifies the need for the decolonisation of the research and science communication agenda, especially if it must attend to local challenges and create developmental opportunities across the African region. Pressure to communicate science according to expectations and institutional priorities set by the Global North – which is often linked to research career promotion – restricts the use of science communication for local benefit. There is no arguing that there are huge gaps between scientific research and industry in many regions of the Global South, particularly in Africa. There is thus an urgent need to design policy tools, knowledge transfer programmes, and pathway-to-impact models that ensure a new era of impact-oriented and decolonised research and innovation in African countries and to communicate these innovations effectively for uptake without Eurocentric shackles. At the heart of this imperative is the need for capacity building, equitable strategic partnerships, and systemic re-orientation of science communication for societal transformation.

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It has been over a decade since science centres raised concerns about the need to address the changes in the population demographics of the United States. These changes are also a growing reality in other regions of the Global North such that in the United Kingdom the 2021 Census data show that a number of major Cities are now ‘minority-majority’ populations – meaning there is no longer a White majority (UK-ONS, 2023). So-called ‘minorities’ in societies that are mainly White now represent large proportions of the population, accounting for nearly 20 per cent of the population of the United States, for example, and in many US states the percentage is even greater. In the State of California, for example, the Latin American diaspora represents nearly 40 per cent of the population (US Census Bureau, 2019). Science centres wish to remain relevant in their societies and to be considered the go-to places for informal science learning. With the growing shift in racial demographics in the Global North, these institutions are increasingly questioning their relevance and seeking to be more inclusive, aiming to engage diverse racial groups in a more effective way. Often their solution is to create and customise programmes and exhibits catering specifically to these groups. Even though this may seem like a great idea, in the long run, this has created silos instead of engendering a sense of community, a celebration of societal diversity, and an opportunity for diverse groups to learn from one another. In addition, a critical goal of inclusion in science centres and museums should be that of providing learning environments where all people, regardless of their situation or attributes, are welcomed and able to play, learn, and engage. It is time to adopt an inclusive approach in the design of informal science learning experiences, inside and beyond the walls of these science centres. We need to challenge ourselves and the field and think of ways to offer a science communication agenda for all. This chapter presents some good practice strategies and transformational case studies on how to break these silos and thus foster inclusive science learning and communication experiences across the race, gender, language, and socio-economic divides in societies in the Global North.

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