Theory is translated into practice in this chapter, by drawing on the cumulative knowledge built through this research to present the author’s reflections on the principles needed to implement the pyramid programme of restorative justice for survivors of sexual abuse in as safe and as ethical a manner as possible. Proposed content for the first stage – providing general information about sexual abuse to survivors – is accompanied by considerations of the practical and legal implications of conducting restorative justice processes with enablers of abuse. The benefits of collaboration between practitioners and academics are also reinforced.
This chapter builds a restorative justice programme for survivors of sexual abuse by weaving the key insights from this study with the existing academic literature, to form an analytic commentary which develops new knowledge. Through this discussion, the justifications and potential outcomes of restorative justice processes with enablers of abuse are explored, along with the role they may play in enhancing the recognition felt by survivors. Methods for assisting survivors to gain control over their narratives are proposed, as well as the use of this concept as a measure of success. These constructions lead to the presentation of the pyramid programme for survivors of sexual abuse, widening their justice options.
The text has answered the question, when it comes to restorative justice for survivors of sexual abuse – does it have to be with the abuser? By proposing restorative justice processes with enablers of abuse, and through the pyramid programme of restorative justice, justice options can be significantly widened. The chapter explores how this research widens survivors’ opportunities by increasing the justice pathways available; widens practitioner opportunities by enhancing the viability of programmes; and widens researchers’ opportunities by presenting a framework for further empirical research.
This interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) study draws on survivors’ voices, gathered using assisted questionnaires and interviews, and this chapter explains this process. Each participant is introduced, with brief details of their case and circumstances. The strength of their emotions towards others involved in their abuse are presented along with their initial considerations of their interest in restorative justice processes, as they described in their assisted questionnaires. There are also details of the semi-structured interviews from which the extensive quotes in this IPA study are drawn. This provides the contextual information necessary for the research findings to be understood, grounded as they are in the participants’ lived experiences.
This chapter shares the main findings of this interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) study, by giving voice to the participants and making sense of their voices. Three theoretical insights are presented, each illustrated with extended quotes from the participants. Through this, the complex, triangulated relationships of sexual abuse are uncovered, and the participants’ need for the act and the impact of abuse to be recognised is highlighted. The chapter concludes by exploring the role of narrative in the participants’ journeys towards justice and healing, and how these are strengthened or challenged through the cycle of narrative development.
This chapter explains the book’s premise – that it is possible to expand the scope of restorative justice for survivors of sexual abuse by asking – does it have to be with the abuser? It presents the researcher’s definition of restorative justice for sexual abuse. The use of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) to conduct feminist research in collaboration with a specialist sexual abuse charity is discussed. This chapter includes a diagrammatic portrayal of the stages of this IPA study as well as showing how these stages are covered within the text.
This chapter contains the most relevant academic knowledge relating to this study of restorative justice and survivors’ justice needs. This provides an accessible introduction to the evidence underpinning this study, while introducing readers less familiar with restorative justice to its main principles and its application in cases of sexual abuse. The author presents her own definition of restorative justice for sexual abuse, and in doing so shows it is theoretically and conceptually possible to conduct restorative justice processes with enablers of abuse. This chapter concludes with a discussion of the research which illuminates survivors’ justice needs, and how restorative justice can fulfil them.
Integral to sexual abuse survivors’ healing is understanding the nature of their abuse.
Drawing on interviews, this book gives a voice to survivors and illuminates how restorative justice processes can meet their justice needs. With a unique focus on the people around the survivor rather than on the abuser, it addresses the harm caused to survivors by those who enable their abuse, who fail to protect them, or fail to believe them.
Marinari offers radical solutions for the development of restorative justice programs and policy initiatives, including practical guidelines for practitioners, and new directions for academic research.
Stalking in its broad sense and different forms within the spectrum of sexual violence has been an omnipresent characteristic of interpersonal relationships ranging from persistent and/or unwanted courtship and attention, harassment, obsessive following to threats, physical violence and murder. Yet it has only recently been criminalised in the UK after a series of high-profile cases and continuous calls and campaigns by families of victims and charities for more effective punishment of perpetrators. And while the criminalisation of stalking has brought about some positive changes including the acknowledgement of the harms suffered by victims of this type of abuse, it is crucial to bear in mind that this behaviour has been out there for a very long time in the form of the ‘everyday intrusions’ (as Betsy Stanko succinctly describes) that (mostly) women have had to endure and accommodate in their lives and as such tackling it requires a deeper investigation of its causes and a multifaceted approach. This chapter will look at current strategies and proposed measures for preventing and managing stalking (e.g. multi-agency interventions) and problematize them in light of empirical work and recent international movements. As Walklate in her chapter about sexual violence stresses it is often the case that preventive strategies aim to help and protect victims by addressing different factors and assessing risks but fail to take into account and question the socio-cultural context that enables and fosters these behaviours in the first place. Implications for future practice will be considered and discussed.
Behavioural crime linkage (BCL) analyses offender crime scene behaviour with the aim of identifying groups of crimes that share similar (and distinctive) behaviours. This allows police to infer that the same person/s were responsible for crimes, allowing them to be “linked” as a crime series. Successful BCL can increase the quantity and quality of evidence available to the police, which increase the likelihood of apprehending and successfully prosecuting the offender. This chapter will review the theoretical framework underpinning BCL (behavioural consistency and behavioural distinctiveness) and summarise key literature on rape and sexual assault - including the latest, cutting-edge, collaborative work jointly-led by academics and law enforcement practitioners. The chapter will also outline (using real life case studies) how BCL can be used to support the investigation of sexual offences, and will critically discuss future research directions and how this work might enhance the detection, prosecution, and prevention of serial sexual offending.