This panel discussion session explores some of the central dimensions of the Crisis in the Anthropocene that constitute global social challenges in the context of development studies. The conference theme highlighted the profound human impact on our blue-green-brown planet, that is already breaching planetary boundaries and pushing us beyond the roughly 1.5°C tipping point. This threatens liveability and sustainability in many localities and regions and may well rapidly be ‘off the scale’ of imaginability and survivability. Inevitably, as mounting empirical evidence and increasingly clear projections by the IPCC and other authoritative bodies show, these impacts are unevenly spread, both socially and spatially, both now and over the coming decades. The urgency of appropriate action is undeniable and we already know many dimensions of the required adaptations and transformations. Yet progress mostly remains too slow. These challenges are vital to the development studies community – heterogenous as it is – with our concerns for tackling poverty, inequality, deprivation and environmental degradation globally and locally.
Hence this symposium asks what the crisis means for development theory, policy and practice and what development studies can and should be contributing to – and, indeed, whether it is capable of – addressing some key dimensions that warrant greater attention.
Exploitative working conditions for migrant workers in industrial fisheries have recently drawn considerable attention among activists and scholars, often with a focus on Asian fisheries. Even so, fish work can offer a better livelihood option than migrant workers might have in their home countries. These contradictions are apparent in fisheries around the world, including those based in Europe and North America. In this paper we explore the incongruities and patterns of working conditions for migrant workers in Irish fisheries, situating how the global seafood industry relies on a racialised labour force that is devalued to produce raw materials for high-value seafood products, before turning to an analysis of a decades-long campaign to improve Ireland’s legal framework for migrant fish workers. Persistent campaign work illustrates how a multi-pronged approach, including legal strategies and actions to make the injustices in Irish fisheries more visible, is critical to provoking change, even as working conditions remain far short of most land-based sectors in that country.
Public trust in the scientific community is under extraordinary pressure. Crucial areas of human activity and public policy, such as education, universities, climate and health care are influenced by populist political strategies rather than evidence-based solutions. Moreover, data-driven methods are becoming increasingly subject to de-legitimisation.
This book examines potential remedies for improving public trust and the legitimacy of science. It reviews different policy approaches adopted by governments to incentivise the empowerment of stakeholders through co-production arrangements, participatory mechanisms, public engagement and interaction between citizens and researchers.
Offering an original analysis of the political roots of the governmental impact and engagement agenda, this book sheds much-needed light on the wider connections to democracy.
Chapter Four concentrates on the participatory turn in the context of New Public Governance and the conceptualization of citizens as partners of the enabling state. According to this new paradigm, citizens take an active role as partners in both policy and public service delivery. They are no longer the passive recipients of welfare benefits. We will look at the programmatic reforms in the European Union aimed at improving the participation and engagement of the public in research and innovation. The discussion will trace the evolution of the relationship between citizens and governments, moving along a trajectory that has transformed their role from consumers in private market accountability systems to co-producers of knowledge. The chapter explores the changes associated with public engagement and viewing citizens as partners in the process of knowledge production and transmission.
Chapter Three discusses the different conceptualization of citizens’ involvement in the context of market-based environments and organizational models associated with the ‘entrepreneurial state’, initially introduced in the early 1980s in the UK. Following a review of the key tenets of the paradigmatic change associated with New Public Management, the chapter discusses the implications of adopting new governance arrangements in schools, such as Citizen School Charters and school autonomy, as an instrument of the entrepreneurial state, which is free from government controls and autonomous in designing its own strategies, recruiting teaching staff, and engaging with society and communities mainly through citizens’ involvement as customers and external actors.
There is growing concern in most liberal democracies about the surge of attacks against the public legitimacy of science and the scientific method. This includes not only efforts to delegitimize individual scientists and their expertise but also the social locations of knowledge production, such as universities, research centres, teaching hospitals and schools. Public trust in the scientific community is under huge pressure. In the post-truth era, evidence-based public policy is increasingly challenged by a new reconfiguration of ‘scientific truth’. Crucial areas of human activities and evidence-based public policies, such as healthcare, food, agriculture and climate policies, are subject to the manipulation of public sentiment, ideologies and affective political strategies that depart from policy making based on evidence, data and reason.
The discussion in Chapter Two focuses on the conceptual framework regarding the concept of public engagement. It then contextualizes the study of public engagement strategies against the backdrop of declining trust in scientific authority and the general distrust for science fuelled by populist leaders and the post-truth society. We look at public engagement insofar as it is an institutionalized government strategy and a policy domain, with vested interests, actors, policy instruments and distinct decision-making processes. The practice of public engagement includes research evaluation strategies by national government agencies.
Chapter Seven will present the author’s reflections on the potential benefits of the new relationship between science and society envisaged in contemporary science policies but also on the risks of governing the process of ‘bringing citizens back in’ in a rather populist and ineffective way, which may do more harm than good to the original aspirations of the public engagement project. Further research and attention are needed on the operational governance of citizen science and what it means to be a ‘citizen’ in the process of democratizing science.
Chapter Six is dedicated to the role that universities as independent actors play in the new knowledge systems oriented towards public engagement as an institutional goal. The triple helix model of innovation, developed by Carayannis and Campbell in 2009, has significantly transformed the strategic position of universities in relation to other stakeholders by incentivizing them to operate as ‘entrepreneurial’ actors that are able to attract joint ventures with private firms, research contracts with external partners, and diversify their income revenue. The process of adaptation of universities to marketization and financialization demands, not least entailed by the entrepreneurial university model and globalization, affects the quality and nature of public engagement with citizens in all its varying forms and implications for the relationship between science and society.
Chapter Five analyses a specific case study in this area of public engagement. It explores the adoption by national governments of a new type of sustainability education in compulsory schooling as an instrument for improving the participation of young people and their families in local knowledge systems that are concerned with climate change, waste management and, generally, environmental sustainability. In the UK, a bill has been discussed since 2019 by Parliament on the adoption of sustainability education in all schools. In Italy, the Italian Parliament passed a law in 2019 that introduced the provision of environmental citizenship education in all schools.